ArticleLiterature Review

Working Memory: Theories, Models, and Controversies

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Abstract

I present an account of the origins and development of the multicomponent approach to working memory, making a distinction between the overall theoretical framework, which has remained relatively stable, and the attempts to build more specific models within this framework. I follow this with a brief discussion of alternative models and their relationship to the framework. I conclude with speculations on further developments and a comment on the value of attempting to apply models and theories beyond the laboratory studies on which they are typically based.

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... Working memory is the ability to store information while doing other cognitively draining tasks (Gathercole et al., 2006), and many studies have shown that poor working memory is a primary cognitive signature of dyscalculia (Allen et al., 2020;Andersson, 2008;Swanson & Sachse-Lee, 2001). Children with dyscalculia have displayed difficulty in all components of Baddeley's working memory model (Baddeley, 2012;Bull et al., 2008;. The phonological loop supports learning the verbal number sequence and fact retrieval, and it is an important predictor of performance in single-digit addition and subtraction problems (Hecht, 2002;Seyler et al., 2003). ...
... The MT reading text (Cornoldi & Colpo, 1998, 2012) is a psychometrically valid Italian instrument that measures oral reading speed and accuracy. It consists of a series of texts for each grade level. ...
... The reliability of the test ranges from 0.752 to 0.869 for accuracy and from 0.943 to 0.967 for fluency. The text comprehension section (Cornoldi & Colpo, 1998, 2012 was administered exactly followed the standard procedure used by all the Italian standardized reading comprehension tasks. Participants had to silently read one passage and answer 10 questions related to the text. ...
Article
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) has long been thought to be determined by multiple components. Dyscalculia has high comorbidity with other learning and developmental disabilities, including reading and writing disorders, attention deficits, and problems in visual/spatial skills, short memory, and working memory. This study aims to assess prevalence rates for isolated as well as comorbid DD in a sample of Italian-speaking children. In addition, we studied the neuropsychological profile of children with isolated or combined dyscalculia. We tested 380 children (176 males and 204 females) between the ages of 8.17 and 9.33 years using an extensive battery to determine the neuropsychological profile. The assessment included an arithmetic battery and nonverbal intelligence, short-term memory, reading, and writing tests. The results indicated that children with DD more frequently have a reading disorder and writing disorder. They also have a lower nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) and obtain significantly lower scores in short-term memory tests and on a visuospatial skills questionnaire. They also had significantly higher scores (indicative of greater attentional difficulties) in the Conners subscale for attentional problems. Children with DD present different cognitive and neuropsychological profiles.
... According to Dehaene's [10] triple-code model for numerical cognition, numbers and quantities (as the key elements of mathematical learning) are mentally processed as verbal (i.e., language representation; e.g., number words), visual (i.e., symbolic representation; e.g., Arabic digits), and approximate codes (i.e., non-symbolic representation; e.g., number line orientation). Hence, differentiated working memory components, based on the hierarchical model of Baddeley (phonological, visual-spatial and central executive working memory; e.g., [11]), as well as various language skills which are necessary for verbal processing (e.g., lexical and morphological knowledge, phonological processing skills) have been identified as important for children's early mathematical learning processes (e.g., [3,12]). ...
... Additionally, direct measurements of all three working memory components (cf. [11]), which are all important for mathematical learning processes within the aforenamed age span (e.g., [17][18][19]), were not available within the panel study. Consequently, a finely grained longitudinal perspective on the relation between all three domains using more differentiated and specific language, mathematical, and working memory measures is necessary to engender a better understanding of children's mathematical learning preceding primary school age. ...
... [26]), the contribution of the working memory system for language and mathematical skills will be briefly discussed. Based on Baddeley's [11] hierarchical model, working memory is described as an information processing system for learning, roughly divided into three components: the central executive as a higher-level component for controlling and coordinating information processing as well as two helping components for short-term storing and maintenance processes of verbal or auditive (phonological loop) and visual or spatial (visuo-spatial sketchpad) information. ...
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Between the age span of 3 to 6 years the foundation for children’s mathematical learning (i.e., numerical abilities and cognition) are laid. However, the developing relations between mathematical skills, language, and working memory starting at preschool age and evolving into primary school age are not well understood. Adopting an empirically validated analysis model, the present study examines in detail longitudinal interdependencies between mathematical skills, a wide range of language skills, and working memory components underlying the mathematical learning process of 41 German preschool children (41.5% female) spanning ages 4 to 6. Phonological processing skills and expressive grammar skills emerged as the most significant language skills for the process of children’s mathematical learning across the investigated age span. Within the latter, children’s phonological processing skills and expressive grammar skills were supported by children’s word expression abilities. The phonological loop emerged as the most important working memory component for children’s early mathematical learning between ages 4 to 6. Furthermore, a wide array of language skills were associated with complex information and storage processes within this mathematical learning process. In conclusion, the present findings provide a more detailed and deeper insight into the learning process of children’s number concept, emphasizing the influence of phonological and particularly grammatical skills.
... Working memory (WM) refers to the ability to maintain and manipulate information over short periods of time in the context of concurrent processing and can be subdivided into the initial encoding of information, maintenance and retrieval of WM items [1]. Short-term memory is only consisted of maintaining information and some studies defined it as a part of WM [2]. ...
... According to the possibility of having more than one peak in the alpha range, IAF has been introduced as weighted frequency average in this range (Equation 1) [4]. (1) In Equation 1, f1 and f2 are 7.5 Hz and 12.5 Hz respectively and P(f) is the power spectral density of rest1. So the value of IAF in rest1 has been used to find individual upper alpha band for Neurofeedback training. ...
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Working memory (WM) is a part of human memory, which is the ability to maintain and manipulate information. WM performance is impaired in some neurological and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and ADHD. Neurofeedback training is a self-regulation method which can be used to improve WM performance by changing related EEG parameters. In this paper, we used Neurofeedback training to improve WM performance in eight healthy individuals. The protocol consisted of individual upper alpha up-training in parietal brain lobe of participants, which is a part of the fronto-parietal network and related to the central executive functions of WM. Power of individual upper alpha band in channels P3 and P4 was used for Neurofeedback training in five sessions. 2-back working memory test was used to measure WM performance before and after the course. Results indicated the success of subjects in Neurofeedback training and the enhancement of individual upper alpha power in both channels (P3 and P4). Results of the 2-back test indicated that improvements in response accuracy and response time of test were significant. Also, the correlation between the change in power of individual upper alpha band in channel P3 and change in response time of 2-back test was significant approximately (r=-0.571 and P=0.076). In conclusion, it seems that individual upper alpha Neurofeedback up-training in parietal lobe is an appropriate method to improve WM performance.
... Site-source models of selective attention (e.g., Macaluso, 2010) characterize control structures in supramodal cortical areas as the source of biasing signals that regulate modality-specific processes at the site where attention effects become evident: for example, in somatosensory areas. A similar hierarchical structure has been conceptualized in Baddeley's model of STM, in which the supramodal central executive controls information processing in subordinate modality-specific storage buffers (Baddeley, 2003(Baddeley, , 2012. Modality-specific effects such as the spatial encoding bias observed in the retention period of spatial memory tasks indicate control mechanisms that operate within the storage component of STM. ...
... Articulatory rehearsal was suggested as a mechanism that refreshes information contained in the auditory storage buffer, the phonological loop (Baddeley, 2003(Baddeley, , 2012Baddeley & Larsen, 2007). Articulatory rehearsal seems different from attention-based rehearsal. ...
... (Jonides et al., 2005). For operations involving understanding language, processing data quickly, and solving problems, preserving goals is very important (Baddeley, 2012;Etchepareborda & Abad-Mas, 2005;Flores & Ostrosky-Shejet, 2012). ...
... The multicomponent model of working memory of Baddeley & Hitch (1974), reexamined by Baddeley (2012), has been beneficial for analysis. This model proposes that the WM consists of four components: a central executive, the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer. ...
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This study analyzes the association between working memory capacity and follow-up instructions as essential for developing required skills in educational environments. From a quantitative approach, we used a correlational, non-experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective design, in which 33 new university students from the city of Veracruz, Mexico, participated. They averaged 18.5 years of age and solved complex span tasks to measure their working memory capacity. We measured follow-up instructions with four tests that required students to build models with Lego® parts from reading a procedure. The results show a positive association between the ability to follow instructions and the working memory capacity, similar to the verbal and visuospatial domains. Both instruments incorporated into a virtual learning platform can provide an excellent and ecological environment to measure both abilities and their association level for the early detection of academically at-risk university students.
... Working memory (WM) is defined as the set of processes or structures that enable that information to be maintained and managed simultaneously (Baddeley, 2012). Commonly, this is considered a fundamental capacity affecting how other higher cognitive functions are performed. ...
... For its analysis, the updated multicomponent model (Baddeley, 2012) states that the WM comprises the following: a central executive, the phonological loop (verbal stimuli storage), the visuospatial agenda (visual and spatial information repository), and the episodic buffer. Their ability to maintain and manipulate a given amount of information for a given periodboth limited-is vital for daily functioning and academic and professional success (Miyake & Shah, 1999); therefore, the use of tasks designed to index the functioning of the WM has become widespread. ...
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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a training program on the level of working memory in a sample of university students. A quasi-experimental study with an active control group was implemented on 29 elementary teaching and computer systems students, applying complex span tasks before and after the intervention. For training, multimedia routines were for the experimental group and an academic essay elaboration workshop for the control group. The pre-test confirmed intergroup statistical equality for all the measurements used. In favor of the experimental group, the post-test detected a significant difference and large effect size in visuospatial memory and non-significant with medium size for verbal memory. Additionally, the test of the matrices of Raven was applied to determine the effects of training on fluid intelligence, finding no significant difference. Therefore, the training based on multimedia routines did not generate gains in intelligence or working memory in its verbal domain, although it did in its visuospatial domain. However, the results are inconclusive due to the limitation represented by the sample size. If corrected in future interventions, it may enrich the findings on the means to improve working memory.
... In the past 20 years, working memory (WM) research has become a hot topic and frontier in cognitive neuroscience. As an essential component of executive function, working memory is essential for the function of the brain and refers to a memory system with limited capacity for temporarily storing and managing information during the performance of cognitive tasks [2,3]. Among many working memory models, Baddeley's multicomponent model is relatively mature and well-established and has attracted widespread attention from researchers [4]. ...
... On the one hand, the central executive system regulates the activity of attention, and on the other hand, it controls behavioral responses. Due to its specificity, it is considered both the core component of working memory and the most advanced and complex component of working memory [2,14,15]. Through structural equation modelling and neuroimaging of the central executive system, early researchers [16,17] found that the central executive system includes three subfunctions, namely, updating, switching, and inhibitory functions, which are closely related to individuals' fluid intelligence and academic performance [18]. Specifically, the updating function refers to the process of monitoring and encoding newly encountered information and constantly modifying information irrelevant to the current operation based on the original stored information, thereby assimilating the new information in place of the old information [19]. ...
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(1) Background: The combined n-back + Go/NoGo paradigm was used to investigate whether audiovisual interactions interfere with or facilitate WM. (2) Methods: College students were randomly assigned to perform the working memory task based on either a single (visual or auditory) or dual (audiovisual) stimulus. Reaction times, accuracy, and WM performance were compared across the two groups to investigate effects of audiovisual interactions. (3) Results: With low cognitive load (2-back), auditory stimuli had no effect on visual working memory, whereas visual stimuli had a small effect on auditory working memory. With high cognitive load (3-back), auditory stimuli interfered (large effect size) with visual WM, and visual stimuli interfered (medium effect size) with auditory WM. (4) Conclusions: Audiovisual effects on WM follow the resource competition theory, and the cognitive load of a visual stimulus is dominated by competition; vision always interferes with audition, and audition conditionally interferes with vision. With increased visual cognitive load, competitive effects of audiovisual interactions were more obvious than those with auditory stimuli. Compared with visual stimuli, audiovisual stimuli showed significant interference only when visual cognitive load was high. With low visual cognitive load, the two stimulus components neither facilitated nor interfered with the other in accordance with a speed–accuracy trade-off.
... We believe that both Repeat and Recall tasks benefit from WM since it is a fundamental cognitive function related to speech understanding (Baddeley, 2012) and online sentence processing (Evans et al., 2015). The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Ronnberg et al., 2019) acknowledges that when a mismatch between phonological and semantic information occurs during the explicit process, WM P/CU performances under two SRTs in two age groups in TTB. ...
... helps to construct a supportive context. Because WM is a limited resource, it is shared between information processing and storage (Baddeley, 2012). During the Repeat task of context acquisition, more WM is allocated to processing. ...
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Purpose To elucidate how aging would affect the extent of semantic context use and the reliance on semantic context measured with the Repeat–Recall Test (RRT). Methods A younger adult group (YA) aged between 18 and 25 and an older adult group (OA) aged between 50 and 65 were recruited. Participants from both the groups performed RRT: sentence repeat and delayed recall tasks, and subjective listening effort and noise tolerable time, under two noise types and seven signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Performance–Intensity curves were fitted. The performance in SRT50 and SRT75 was predicted. Results For the repeat task, the OA group used more semantic context and relied more on semantic context than the YA group. For the recall task, OA used less semantic context but relied more on context than the YA group. Age did not affect the subjective listening effort but significantly affected noise tolerable time. Participants in both age groups could use more context in SRT75 than SRT50 on four tasks of RRT. Under the same SRT, however, the YA group could use more context in repeat and recall tasks than the OA group. Conclusion Age affected the use and reliance of semantic context. Even though the OA group used more context in speech recognition, they failed in speech information maintenance (recall) even with the help of semantic context. The OA group relied more on context while performing repeat and recall tasks. The amount of context used was also influenced by SRT.
... The cognitive load concept is used in the learning field, while the mental workload is used in ergonomics / human factors (Orru and Longo 2019). Vanneste et al. (2020) mention that despite differing definitions, the two concepts share a common ground: the amount of working memory resources used for a given task (Baddeley 2012;Leppink 2017). These working memory resources are limited (Camina and Güell 2017;Chai et al. 2018;Adams et al. 2018). ...
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This narrative review synthesizes and introduces 386 previous works about virtual reality-induced symptoms and effects by focusing on cybersickness, visual fatigue, muscle fatigue, acute stress, and mental overload. Usually, these VRISE are treated independently in the literature, although virtual reality is increasingly considered an option to replace PCs at the workplace, which encourages us to consider them all at once. We emphasize the context of office-like tasks in VR, gathering 57 articles meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Cybersickness symptoms, influenced by fifty factors, could prevent workers from using VR. It is studied but requires more research to reach a theoretical consensus. VR can lead to more visual fatigue than other screen uses, influenced by fifteen factors, mainly due to vergence-accommodation conflicts. This side effect requires more testing and clarification on how it differs from cybersickness. VR can provoke muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort, influenced by fifteen factors, depending on tasks and interactions. VR could lead to acute stress due to technostress, task difficulty, time pressure, and public speaking. VR also potentially leads to mental overload, mainly due to task load, time pressure, and intrinsically due interaction and interface of the virtual environment. We propose a research agenda to tackle VR ergonomics and risks issues at the workplace.
... Moreover, spatial orientation demands different cognitive functions. Some studies have determined that certain spatial memory components are related to working memory [16,17] or that specifically visual working memory (VWM) could be a mediator in spatial memory performance [18]. It was reported that imprecise navigators show a differential implication of visual working memory when compared to precise navigators, which are able to involve more VWM resources under higher cognitive loads [19,20]. ...
Article
Brain networks involved in working and spatial memory are closely intertwined, outlining a potential relation between these processes, which are also affected in non-pathological aging. Working memory is a pre-requisite for other complex cognitive processes. The main aim of this study is to explore how working memory capacity (WMC) can influence the asymmetrical decline in spatial orientation strategies in an older segment of population compared to young participants. Forty-eight older adults and twelve young students took part in the study. Working memory and spatial memory were assessed using the Change Localization Task and The Boxes Room Task, respectively. In The Boxes Room Task, two different configurations assessed the use of egocentric and allocentric reference frames. Results showed that older adults with better WMC outperformed those with lower WMC in several tasks. Independently of WMC capacity, older participants performed better in the allocentric condition of The Boxes Room. In addition, young participants outscored low WMC older participants, but did not differ from high WMC older adults. Overly, these findings support the important relationship between working memory capacity and spatial orientations abilities. Thus, basic cognitive mechanisms engaged in information processing could inform about other brain processes more complex in nature, like spatial orientation skills.
... Working memory is a domain-general, capacity-limited resource responsible for the short-term storage and processing of verbal and visual-spatial information or other inputs (Archibald, 2016). Baddeley's working memory model (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974;Baddeley, 2000Baddeley, , 2012 has been extensively applied in the DLD literature. ...
Thesis
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Data on the typical and impaired acquisition of Arabic is limited and only a few standardized Arabic language assessments are available. As a result, the identification of developmental language disorder (DLD) in Arabic is notoriously challenging. Developing new diagnostic language tools is thus imperative to facilitate early and accurate identification of DLD in Arabic-speaking children with a view to developing relevant interventions. This thesis addressed this issue by investigating potential clinical markers of DLD in Arabic through three theoretically grounded studies focusing on the linguistic and processing deficits that characterize Arabic speaking children with DLD and could be used as indicators of the presence of the disorder. Study 1 showed that the production of verb tense and subject-verb agreement is generally impaired in 5-year-old Arabic-speaking children with DLD relative to same-age peers. Study 1 showed that poor use of present tense and subject-verb feminine agreement could be potential grammatical markers of DLD in Arabic. Study 2 revealed that nonword repetition is an area of difficulty for 4 to 6-year-old Arabic-speaking children with DLD. Importantly, Study 2 found that poor nonword repetition accurately identified 93% of children with DLD and 93% of age-matched TD children, suggesting that poor nonword repetition could also be a possible clinical marker of DLD in Arabic. Study 3 reported poor sentence repetition abilities in 4 to 6-year-old Arabic-speaking children; the sentence repetition task correctly identified more than 90% of children with DLD and more than 90% of age-matched TD children. Study 3 thus suggests that poor sentence repetition may also hold promise as a potential clinical marker for the presence or absence of DLD in Arabic. The findings of this thesis could help enhance the diagnostic practices of DLD in Arabic-speaking children by focusing clinicians’ attention on relevant tasks which could aid diagnosis. The findings extend our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DLD. Specifically, the language difficulties of Arabic-speaking children with DLD seem to reflect a combination of deficits in linguistic knowledge and processing capacity. This thesis is the first study to my knowledge to address the issue of clinical markers of DLD in Arabic and as such it paves the way and highlights the need for further research to better characterize the linguistic and non-linguistic, as well as the functional limitations in Arabic-speaking children with DLD.
... agreement to consider working memory (WM), cognitive flexibility, and inhibition as primary executive processes (Miyake et al., 2000). WM refers to the ability to retain and process information simultaneously (Baddeley, 2012). Inhibition is a function that allows us to stop or decrease the activation of thoughts, behaviors, or emotions that tend to prevail in an overbearing manner (Nigg, 2000). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to analyze the moderating effect of distress tolerance (DT) on the relationship between executive functions and academic performance (AP). Participants were 270 children aged 9–12 years. Executive functions (EFs)—working memory (WM), inhibition, and cognitive flexibility—and DT were evaluated using computerized tasks. Direct measures of reading comprehension and mathematical calculation, as well as school grades, were used to assess AP. Results showed that verbal WM and cognitive flexibility were positively associated with reading indicators, but to a greater extent among children with medium and low DT. A positive association was found between visuospatial WM, and a mathematical indicator, to a greater extent among children with medium and low DT. The EFs did not show explanatory capacity for AP in children with high DT. These results suggest that DT could function as a “compensatory” resource. We investigated whether children with lower memory, mental flexibility, and behavioral inhibition can perform well academically in school. Our results show that this is possible if they have a greater capacity to tolerate frustration, which shows the compensatory potential of emotional regulation skills in low cognitive abilities.
... Findings of the present study are consistent with the results of earlier studies and confirm a reduction in VSWM due to NIHL. The VSWM as an essential function for visually dependent organisms plays an important role in storage and processing visual and spatial information such as shapes and colors (object's identity) as well as their spatial layout/location [31,32]. The importance of VSWM decline is understood when performing tasks cognitively requires this domain. ...
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Background and Aim: Occupational noise exposure is considered the second most common risk factor in the industry, which results in auditory and non-auditory health effects. The possibility of cognitive decline as one of the non-auditory health effects may be associated with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This study aimed to investigate the cognitive decline among textile workers with NIHL. Methods: A total of 30 male textile workers (mean age: 41.2±4.1 years and mean years of noise exposure: 18.9±5.4 years) with symmetrical NIHL (mean 49.3±4.5 dB at 4 kHz) and 30 healthy male textile office staff (aged-matched) with normal hearing and no history of noise exposure were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were included any deficit in ear function, neurological problems, and head trauma. Hearing thresholds were obtained by air and bone conduction audiometry. Workers’ cognitive performance was investigated by two psychological tests: Corsi block and Stroop tests. Results: The Corsi block indicators including block span (p=0.022) and visuospatial working memory (p=0.002) showed a significant difference between the two groups. Also, the Stroop test indicators including total test time (p
... It is of great usefulness and significance for language comprehension, data processing, or the preservation of goals when setting problems (Baddeley, 2012;Etchepareborda & Abad-Mas, 2005;Flores & Ostrosky-Shejet, 2012). It is important to note that working memory manages specific encoding volumes and mechanisms that perform executive functions. ...
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Cognitive skills are present in each action of individuals when performing various tasks. Working memory plays an essential role in the early understanding of student performance. Therefore, we designed and developed a working memory training environment inspired by complex span tasks initially used for measurement. The environment comprises six tasks hosted in the MemoWorkout course of a Moodle platform. To verify the difficulty of the tasks in high school students, we evaluated the level 1 of each task by 13 third-year students from a private institution in southeastern Mexico. The results make it possible to verify that the difficulty level is adequate for young people in the target population. However, the challenges presented by the tasks do not correspond to the challenges in recreational activities such as video games. Therefore, as in any training routine, close monitoring and support will be fundamental to achieving the desired improvements.
... In the beginning, the working memory model was a three-component model which includes the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and central executive (Baddeley, 2012). Though the three components work together to perceive, store and organize the information, no component could sequence the information in an order in accordance with the time, that could be easily accessible during the process of retrieval. ...
Article
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Memory and language are the two higher-order cognitive abilities intertwined for communication and other cognitive skills. Memory is the storage capacity of all the information we perceive. Where the sensory memory perceives the stimuli, the working memory actively stores the information and passes it to the long-term memory. However, there is a question that how is the continuous perception of stimuli transformed into meaningful information and organized for proper execution and retrieval from the memory? This paper focuses on the episodic memory that perceives information that is spatial and temporal based on our everyday experiences. Though the spatiotemporal information we receive is continuous; the episodic memory arranges the information as to episodes in the working memory before the information is stored for a longer period. The episodic buffer is one of the components of the working memory model which holds the episodic memory that is organized concerning time. To this point, the paper tries to understand the working of the episodic buffer in maintaining the episodic memory and also about the process of episodic events into meaningful units. Further, the paper also concentrates on the hippocampus which is considered to be the location of the episodic buffer.
... While WM training has shown little evidence of transfer to improved intelligence (Shipstead et al., 2012;Melby-Lervaøag and Hulme, 2013;Melby-Lervaøag et al., 2016;Simons et al., 2016;Guye and Von Bastian, 2017), or at best, what amounts to 3 or 4 IQ points (Au et al., 2015), there is some evidence for near transfer, especially for complex span training, in which participants simultaneously engage in some ongoing processing task (e.g., sentence verification, arithmetic) and encode an element for later memory (Chein and Morrison, 2010), especially among older adults (Richmond et al., 2011;Carretti et al., 2013). Relationships between WM and language comprehension are robust (Daneman and Carpenter, 1983;Daneman and Merikle, 1996;Carretti et al., 2009), and there are strong theoretical reasons to believe that WM is a critical bottleneck for cognition that is exercised with language processing (Baddeley, 2003(Baddeley, , 2012. In fact, in an experiment with older adults contrasting the effects of complex span training with an active verbal processing control, we demonstrated near transfer to unpracticed span tasks and far transfer to episodic memory for sentences, comprehension of sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities, and verbal fluency (Payne and Stine-Morrow, 2017). ...
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Considerable evidence suggests that language processing depends on memory processes, which are vulnerable to declines with aging. Yet little is known about the effects of language processing in the form of sustained literacy engagement on memory and other aspects of cognition. In the current study, adults (60–79 years of age) were randomly assigned to an 8-week program of leisure reading ( n = 38) or to an active puzzle control ( n = 38). Relative to the control, the experimental group showed differential improvement in verbal working memory and episodic memory. The experimental group also showed evidence of enhanced conceptual integration in sentence processing. These effects did not vary as a function of personality characteristics (e.g., openness) hypothesized to be compatible with literacy engagement. These findings support the idea that the exercise of cognitive capacities in the context of everyday life may offset age-related impairment in areas of cognition engaged by the activity, regardless of dispositional fit.
... Working memory is a multidimensional construct (Baddeley, 2012;Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) involving verbal and visuospatial temporary storage as well as manipulation via the so-called central executive. These three aspects of working memory were assessed in the current study, and we expected a reliable contribution of the central executive to arithmetic, as previously shown (Caviola, Colling, Mammarella, & Sz} ucs, 2020;Clayton et al., 2020;De Vita, Costa, Tomasetto, & Passolunghi, 2022;Meyer, Salimpoor, Wu, Geary, & Menon, 2010;Soltanlou, Pixner, & Nuerk, 2015;Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Kroesbergen, & Van Luit, 2015). ...
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Number writing involves transcoding from number words (e.g., "thirty-two") to written digit strings (32) and is an important unique predictor of arithmetic. The existing longitudinal evidence about the relation between transcoding and arithmetic is mostly language specific. In languages with number word inversion (e.g., German), the order of tens and units is transposed in spoken number words compared with Arabic numbers. This makes transcoding more challenging than in languages without number word inversion (e.g., English). In the current study, we aimed to understand whether the contribution of number writing to the development of arithmetic is similar in languages with and without number word inversion. German-speaking children (n = 166) and English-speaking children (n = 201) were followed over the first 3 years of primary school. In a series of multiple linear regressions, we tested whether number writing of multi-digit numbers was a significant unique predictor of arithmetic after controlling for well-known non-numerical predictors (nonverbal reasoning and working memory) and numerical predictors (symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison). Number writing in Grade 1 predicted arithmetic in Grades 1, 2, and 3 over and above the other predictors. Crucially, number writing performance was of comparable importance for arithmetic development in German- and English-speaking children. Our findings extend previous evidence by showing that transcoding predicts the development of arithmetic skills during the first 3 years of primary school in languages with and without number word inversion.
... This system also has direct links with long-term memory. (Baddeley, 2011) Putting this theory into action, it has been shown that both executive control capabilities as well as verbal abilities affected verbal fluency performance -showing an interaction between multiple systems within one particular domain (Shao et al., 2014). As there is a clear separation of visual and verbal systems in relation to memory, executive function, and attention -along with the evidence stated for verbal deficits in patients with psychosis -we chose to focus solely on the verbal domain. ...
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Multivariate pattern recognition analyses (MVPA) have the potential to identify brain pattern alterations across the entire brain due to their capacity to extract the innate interregional dependencies of distributed brain pathologies from high-dimensional training data and generalize the learned discriminative rules to unseen patient cohorts (Kambeitz et al., 2015). While MVPA applied on structural data has been confirmed to be a very valuable biomarker for patients with psychosis (Koutsouleris et al., 2009), the MVPA classification based on functional connectivity FC alterations might be promising better sensitivity than structural measures (Kambeitz et al., 2015). Recent studies employing these methods have been able to show accuracies as high as 93 %, but these studies have focused on using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data in order to diagnose patients in later stages with established schizophrenia (Wolfers et al., 2015). We used rsfMRI images from 19 healthy controls (HC) and 19 recent onset psychosis (ROP) patients obtained from PRONIA 1 to differentiate healthy from psychosis individuals. Correlation matrices between brain regions were used as features for multivariate analysis. The machine learning pipeline wrapped into repeated nested cross-validation was used to train a multi-modal diagnostic system and evaluate its generalization capacity in new subjects. Ultimately, the predictions of the different training partitions were combined into classifier ensembles, which provided a final group membership prediction through averaging. The top features were extracted in order to determine the regions of FC that were most discriminative for the classification. We found an overall classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 86.8 %, 78.9 %, and 94.7 % on rsfMRI data in patients with ROP and HC. In line with previous studies with ROP patients employing uni-and multivariate analyses of resting-state FC, we found an overall alteration in FC in widespread regions of the brain both inter-and intrahemispheric, but also with both long and short range FC between regions contributing to the classifier (Alonso-Solís et al., 2012; Fornito et al., 2011, 2013; Liang et al., 2006). Marked alterations occurred between various parts of the frontal lobe and the rest of the brain. When correlating the decision scores extracted from the classifier with neuropsychological scores, only the forward digit span, measuring short-term memory functions, showed significant results. Resting-state FC data can be used to discriminate ROP patients from HC.
... Stress et anxiété ont un impact sur la cognition, notamment pour la mémoire de travail. Il s'agit d'un système de stockage de mémoire temporaire de capacité limitée qui est constamment mis à jour [28]. Elle sert de plate-forme mentale pour les activités en cours, processus crucial pour un comportement ciblé et une interaction flexible avec l'environnement. ...
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Résumé Derrière les troubles du comportement du patient dément, le sens qu’il cherche à en donner est important à comprendre, pour contenir les situations anxiogènes pour lui, pour son entourage aussi bien familial que soignant. La progressivité de la maladie favorise l’émergence de stress, de tensions psychologiques entre le désir du malade et ce qu’il peut encore réaliser, entre ce qu’il perçoit et vit du réel et ce qui lui semble de plus en plus obscur. Ces tensions finissent par être marquées d’anxiété, le patient échouant dans ses entreprises pourtant autrefois réalisées avec aisance. Quatre stades de la maladie peuvent être distingués au fur et à mesure de l’évolution démentielle. Lorsque les troubles cognitifs sont peu marqués, mais que malgré les troubles phasiques, il reste au malade des possibilités de mettre en mots son vécu, il lutte de façon anxieuse pour se raccrocher au sens qu’il perçoit de son environnement en particulier humain. Un stade de plus, l’univers où son autorité s’inscrit, se rétrécit, le conduisant à une autorité et une emprise accrue sur ce qui fait encore sens pour lui : ce qu’il comprend, ce qu’il peut encore faire et ce qui étaye son identité. La maladie évoluant encore, le patient se réfugie dans un espace-temps restreint, tourné vers un passé pourtant révolu, empreint de vieilles habitudes, son habitat devient musée. Son environnement pour lui n’est plus qu’un petit monde. Il n’y a plus de place pour le changement et pour l’imprévu, impossibles à élaborer sur le plan psychique et donc trop anxiogènes. Une cassure existentielle apparaît lorsque ce petit monde lui-même n’est plus accessible à la fois en raison des troubles cognitifs et des maladies somatiques souvent associées. La porte est alors ouverte à la démotivation, à un lâcher-prise sur le monde relationnel et environnemental, à une régression qui, pour délétère qu’elle soit, atténue une anxiété devenue incontournable devant les menaces identitaires qui pèsent sur le patient.
... In vision, as noted earlier, spectral sensitivities arose as a response to selection pressures present during ancestral environments; the same should be true for our memory systems. The limited capacity of working memory, a system critical to executive functioning and the basis for retention over the short term (e.g., Baddeley, 2012), is a case in point. Psychologists first documented capacity limits decades ago-i.e., the magic number 7 plus or minus 2 (Cowan, 2005;Miller, 1956)but have traditionally offered no reason for why these limitations exist. ...
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Educators generally accept that basic learning and memory processes are a product of evolution, guided by natural selection. Less well accepted is the idea that ancestral selection pressures continue to shape modern memory functioning. In this article, I review evidence suggesting that attention to nature’s criterion—the enhancement of fitness—is needed to explain fully how and why people remember. Thinking functionally about memory, and adopting an evolutionary perspective in the laboratory, has led to recent discoveries with clear implications for learning in the classroom. For example, our memory systems appear to be tuned to animacy (the distinction between living and nonliving things) which, in turn, can play a role in enhancing foreign language acquisition. Effective learning management systems need to align with students’ prior knowledge, skill, and interest levels, but also with the inherent content biases or “tunings” that are representative of all people.
... WM, and especially visuospatial WM, is one of the most important domain general predictors of math abilities (Allen et al., 2019). WM refers to the cognitive system whose main purposes are storing and manipulating information for short periods (Baddeley, 2003(Baddeley, , 2012). Baddeley's multicomponent model of WM (Baddeley, 1981(Baddeley, , 2003 includes the central executive, which controls, monitors, and regulates the processes of two slave systems; (1) a system for processing of visual information: the visuospatial WM and (2) a system for processing of verbal information. ...
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Numerical skills are a major cognitive foundation of mathematical learning, especially in young children. The role of domain-general factors in explaining individual differences in numerical skills is largely unknown. The current study aims to shed light on the different roles of multiple domain-general abilities, including spatial abilities, visuospatial working memory, executive functions, attention, and fine motor ability in the development of numerical skills. Using an extensive sample of children (n = 339) of varying ages (between 3 and 8 years-old), we examined the influence of domain-general factors on numerical skills (symbolic and non-symbolic). We used factor analysis to cluster tasks into latent variables to analyze the data. Based on the results, we used Structural Equation Modeling with numerical abilities as the outcome variable. Spatial skills directly and strongly affected numerical skills, and executive functions also affected numerical skills. Executive functions made a unique contribution to symbolic numerical skills, dissociating symbolic and non-symbolic numerical skills. These results indicate that multiple factors can affect numerical performance. This conclusion bears significant implications for the early diagnosis of learning disorders and intervention methods for these disorders.
... Successively, Moser (1978) developed a process model of interpreting that placed generated abstract memory (GAM) at the center of discussion. She proposed that GAM is the equivalent of short-term memory, which was later reconceptualized as WM by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) and Baddeley (1986Baddeley ( , 2000Baddeley ( , 2012. Kirchhoff (1976) described cases in which the completion of tasks requires more processing capacity than is available to the interpreter. ...
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Distance Interpreting (DI) is a form of technology-mediated interpreting which has gained traction due to the high demand for multilingual conferences, live-streaming programs, and public service sectors. The current study synthesized the DI literature to build a framework that represents the construct and measurement of cognitive load in DI. Two major areas of research were identified, i.e., causal factors and methods of measuring cognitive load. A number of causal factors that can induce change in cognitive load in DI were identified and reviewed. These included factors derived from tasks (e.g., mode of presentation), environment (e.g., booth type), and interpreters (e.g., technology awareness). In addition, four methods for measuring cognitive load in DI were identified and surveyed: subjective methods, performance methods, analytical methods, and psycho-physiological methods. Together, the causal factors and measurement methods provide a multifarious approach to delineating and quantifying cognitive load in DI. This multidimensional framework can be applied as a tool for pedagogical design in interpreting programs at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. It can also provide implications for other fields of educational psychology and language learning and assessment.
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This paper presents two experiments examining the influences of media-specific appraisal and attribution on multimedia learning. The first experiment compares four different versions of learning material (text, text with images, animation with text, and animation with audio). Results reveal that the attributed type of appraisal, (i.e., the subjective impression of whether a medium is easy or difficult to learn with) impacts invested mental effort and learning outcomes. Though there was no evidence for the modality effect in the first experiment, we were able to identify it in a second study. We were also able to replicate appraisal and attribution findings from study 1 in study 2: if media appraisal leads to the result that learning with a specific medium is difficult, more mental effort will be invested in information processing. Consequently, learning outcomes are better, and learners are more likely to attribute knowledge acquisition to their own abilities. Outcomes also indicate that the modality effect can be explained by avoidance of split-attention rather than modality-specific information processing in working memory.
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Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct. The UPPS-P model of impulsivity differentiates five distinct dimensions: negative urgency, positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. The present study, reports the first translation and validation of the recently revised short form of the UPPS-P scale (S-UPPS-P) on a Persian-speaking sample, examining the relationship between impulsivity and working memory. who also completed the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales (BIS/BAS), and the Wechsler Digit Span Task (WDST). A series of confirmatory factor analyses, and Cronbach's alpha results supported the factor structure of the scale. The findings supported the S-UPPS-P model's hypothesized correlations with PANAS, aggressiveness, and the construct validity of the model. The results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that backward and forward digit span scores of the WDST predicted the S-UPPS-P impulsivity scores over the portion explained by BIS/BAS, PANAS, and aggression scores. To conclude, the revised S-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale was well supported even in a very different population than usually sampled, adding to growing evidence that it assesses distinct but interrelated aspects of the impulsivity construct. Our findings also suggest that attentional capacities and working memory play important roles in the prediction of impulsivity.
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Objective: To overcome memory decrements in healthy aging, compensation strategies and mnemonics have been found to be promising. The effects of musical mnemonics in aging have been scarcely studied. Methods: The present study examined the effects of musical presentation of digits (pitch sequences, rhythms, and their combinations) on working memory performance in young and older adults, as compared to spoken presentation. Results: A facilitating effect of rhythm was found in both groups, whereas pitch and melodic cues affected performance negatively in older adults only. Musical training did not moderate the effect of musical mnemonics. Discussion: To investigate whether persons with working memory impairment also benefit from musical mnemonics, follow-up research in older persons with, for instance, mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's dementia is recommended.
Chapter
In the face of carbon-based space under the impact of silicon-based civilization, environment design needs to keep pace with the times to better adapt to wicked problems. In this paper, the theory of the on-site environment is proposed to address these demands. The cognitive rules and mechanisms of the on-site subject and the environment are studied by updating the understanding of the relationship between the on-site subject and the object. Through experiments in neuroscience and cognitive psychology, this paper focuses on visual working memory and defines the perceptual objects of the on-site environment based on the principle of topological perception to establish the correspondence between visual cognition and environmental elements in the on-site environment. Combining the theories of architecture and urban planning, using game theory and logical computational reasoning, the nonlinear design problems in the on-site environment are linearly transformed into a spatial coordinate system. The game tree is drawn based on the network of cognitive and environmental factors, and the appropriate game theory model for matrix strategy analysis is selected based on the demand relationships, which derives the design methodology for the on-site environment. This study complements the ontology, epistemology, and methodology of design for future environment construction and forms a new design paradigm that provides a theoretical basis for subsequent design practice and management.
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While previous studies have shown the importance of visuo-spatial working memory in the processing of co-speech iconic gestures, clear evidence for a potential involvement of the verbal working memory (vWM) is currently lacking. To address this issue, participants in the present study were presented with a dual task paradigm. The main outcome variable was the performance on a Stroop-like gesture task which provides a behavioural index of gesture-speech integration. Participants performed this task under conditions of either high or low concurrent vWM load. Unlike in previous studies, the number of words to remember in the high load condition was determined by their individual verbal span rather than being fixed. Results showed reaction time costs in the form of longer reaction times for semantically incongruent gesture-speech combinations as compared to congruent combinations. However, this semantic congruency effect disappeared when the vWM load increased. This result suggests a causal involvement of verbal working memory capacity in gesture-speech integration.
Thesis
Ce travail de thèse avait pour objectif d'explorer les spécificités cognitives des enfants à haut potentiel intellectuel (EHPI). Ces enfants présentent habituellement un Quotient Intellectuel (QI) élevé, estimé à partir de tests standardisés comme le Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC). Ce type d'évaluation est souvent coûteux en temps. Premièrement, nous sommes alors intéressés à l'élaboration et à la sélection de formes abrégées du WISC ayant les meilleures qualités psychométriques ainsi que les meilleures probabilités d'identifier les EHPI. Ces formes abrégées offrent la possibilité aux praticiens et aux chercheurs de réaliser des évaluations approfondies afin d'identifier les caractéristiques socioémotionnelles et cognitives de ces enfants à besoins particuliers, afin de leur proposer des programmes éducatifs spéciaux. Parmi les différentes aptitudes cognitives, les capacités attentionnelles et de mémoire de travail (MDT) ont particulièrement retenu notre attention à cause de leurs liens privilégiés avec les capacités intellectuelles, les capacités d'apprentissage ou encore les performances scolaires. Deuxièmement, nous avons montré que le rythme développemental des réseaux attentionnels des EHPI ne se différenciait pas de celui de leurs pairs. Toutefois, les EHPI présentaient une meilleure capacité de contrôle exécutif que leurs pairs.Troisièmement, nous avons présenté l'utilité d'une épreuve adaptative de la MDT dans les études développementales. À partir de cette épreuve originale de MDT, nous avons confirmé que les EHPI présentent de meilleures performances en MDT que leurs pairs. Nos résultats ont également montré que leur rapidité à traiter la phase interférente de cette tâche semble être importante dans le fonctionnement de leur MDT. Ce travail de thèse a permis de confirmer et d'approfondir nos connaissances sur les caractéristiques cognitives des EHPI. Dans une perspective développementale et éducative, l'identification des forces et des limites de leurs caractéristiques cognitives semble fondamentale dans la prise en compte de leurs besoins éducatifs particuliers
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Understanding the relationship between executive functioning and its connection to working memory and adaptive functioning can inform planning and employment efforts. This study explored the relationship between memory and adaptive functioning with a sample of Autistic youths/young adults. Participant mean age was 21.3 (SD = 3.0). Of the 22 participants, 17 were male, and 19 white, non‐Hispanic/Latina/o/x. All but one lived with their parent(s). Participants were administered a full battery assessing cognitive ability (WAIS‐IV), memory and executive functioning (WMS‐IV and DKEFS), autism symptomatology (ADOS‐II), and adaptive functioning (SIB‐R). A multivariate lasso regression model was used. Memory, especially as measured on the WMS‐IV, was found to be significantly related to adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology. There appears to be continuing evidence that memory is highly related to adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology. Interventions involving auditory and immediate memory could be helpful in promoting more mutually effective social interactions necessary for positive employment outcomes. 1. This study furthers the literature demonstrating that memory is highly related to adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology. 2. Preliminary recommendations when assessing Autistic people in vocational or other settings would be to include more detailed testing on memory functioning. 3. Interventions in auditory and immediate memory could be helpful in generating more effective social interactions. More confirmatory research in this area is needed. This study furthers the literature demonstrating that memory is highly related to adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology. Preliminary recommendations when assessing Autistic people in vocational or other settings would be to include more detailed testing on memory functioning. Interventions in auditory and immediate memory could be helpful in generating more effective social interactions. More confirmatory research in this area is needed.
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Arbeitsgedächtnis und Sprache beeinflussen mathematisches Lernen, jedoch wurde die Rolle spezifischer linguistischer Kompetenzen, einzelner Arbeitsgedächtniskomponenten und bestimmter mathematischer Fertigkeiten bisher kaum differenziert. Diskutiert werden aktuelle Befunde zum Zusammenhang von Arbeitsgedächtnis, Sprache und Mathematik im Vor- und Grundschulalter anhand von 10 Studien aus der Dortmunder Arbeitsgruppe.
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Patient memory for treatment is poor. Memory support strategies can be integrated within evidence-based psychological treatments to improve patient memory for treatment, and thereby enhance patient outcomes. The present study evaluated possible mechanisms of these memory support strategies. Specifically, we tested whether therapist use of memory support strategies indirectly predicts improved patient outcomes via serial improvements in (a) patient adherence throughout treatment and (b) patient utilization and competency of treatment skills. Adults with major depressive disorder (N=178, mean age=37.93, 63% female, 17% Hispanic or Latino) were randomized to Cognitive Therapy plus a Memory Support Intervention or Cognitive Therapy-as-usual. Because therapists from both treatment groups used memory support strategies, data from conditions were combined. Blind assessments of depression severity and overall impairment were conducted before treatment, immediately post-treatment (POST), at six-month follow-up (6FU), and at 12-month follow-up (12FU). Patient adherence to treatment was rated by therapists and averaged across treatment sessions. Patients completed measures of treatment mechanisms – namely, utilization and competency in cognitive therapy skills – at POST, 6FU, and 12FU. Results of serial mediation models indicated that more therapist use of memory support predicted lower depression severity at POST, 6FU, and 12FU indirectly and sequentially through (a) increased patient adherence during treatment and (b) more utilization and competency of Cognitive Therapy skills at POST, 6FU, and 12FU. The same patterns were found for serial mediation models predicting lower overall impairment at POST, 6FU, and 12FU. Together, boosting memory for treatment may represent a promising means to enhance pantreatment mechanisms (i.e., adherence and treatment skills) as well as patient outcomes.
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Working memory (WM) is essential for cognition, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. From a hierarchical processing perspective, this paper proposed and tested a hypothesis that a domain-general network at the top of the WM hierarchy can interact with distinct domain-preferential intermediate circuits to support WM. Employing a novel N-back task, we first identified the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), middle temporal area (MT), and postcentral gyrus (PoCG) as intermediate regions for biological motion and shape motion processing, respectively. Using further psychophysiological interaction analyses, we delineated a frontal-parietal network (FPN) as the domain-general network. These results were further verified and extended by a delayed match to sample (DMS) task. Although the WM load-dependent and stimulus-free activations during the DMS delay phase confirm the role of FPN as a domain-general network to maintain information, the stimulus-dependent activations within this network during the DMS encoding phase suggest its involvement in the final stage of the hierarchical processing chains. In contrast, the load-dependent activations of intermediate regions in the N-back task highlight their further roles beyond perception in WM tasks. These results provide empirical evidence for a hierarchical processing model of WM and may have significant implications for WM training.
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Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive and linguistic profiles of students with specific learning disability versus students with learning problems. The participants constituted 100 students with learning disabilities and 100 students with learning problems who were matched based on age, gender, grade and IQ. The major evaluation tools that were used in this study included WISC-IV, BRIEF and TOLD-3. The data were analyzed through the multivariate analysis of variances (MANOVA).The results showed that students with specific learning disabilities had lower performance in cognitive profiles compared to learning problem students (P<0/001). Significant differences were found between the two groups. In addition, regarding the linguistic skills, the results indicated that students with specific learning disabilities had lower performance in phonological analysis compared to learning problem students (P<0/001). On the other hand, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of picture vocabulary, sentence imitation, morphological completion, word discrimination, word articulation, vocabulary, similarities and comprehension. Based on the results of this study, consideration of executive functions and linguistic skills in education and rehabilitation of students with specific learning disabilities and learning problems can lead to effective results. Keywords Keywords: Cognitive profile Linguistic profile Specific learning disability learning problem
Article
The aim of this study is to examine the executive function skills of 5-year-old children receiving pre-school education in terms of gender, duration of pre-school education, parental education and age status, maternal employment status, children's digital game playing status and digital game playing frequency variables. The study was carried out through the descriptive survey model, which is among the quantitative research methods, and the convenience sampling method, which is among the non-random sampling methods. The population of the study consists of 5-year-old children receiving pre-school education and the sample group consists of 332 children in the 5-year-old group who attend independent kindergartens affiliated to the Ministry of National Education in Ağrı and who are allowed by their parents to participate in the research. 'The Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI)-Teacher Form' and the Child Information Form prepared by the researchers were used within the context of the study. As a result of the study, no significant difference was found in CHEXI-Teacher Form scores in terms of the variables of duration of preschool education, parent education and age status, and maternal employment status. However, it was observed that CHEXI-Teacher Form scores were significantly higher for boys compared to girls, for children who play digital games compared to those who do not, and for children who play digital games more than once a day compared to children who play less frequently.
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Objective To estimate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and executive function (EF) among Chinese Tibetan adolescents.Method Using three stages by stratified cluster sampling, 1,427 Chinese Tibetan adolescents were recruited from Tibet, China. SSB consumption status was obtained by questionnaires and the three core EFs (inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) were tested by a modified Eriksen flanker task, N-back shift, and a more-odd shifting task. One-way ANOVA or Chi-square test was used to compare SSB consumption in different categories. Taking the SSB consumption 0 time/week group as the reference, general linear regression (for continuous variable) or Logical regression (classified variable) in three Models was conducted to analyze the relationship between SSB consumption and EF for Chinese Tibetan children and adolescents.ResultAfter adjustment of all the covariant in Model 2, all the EF indexes were higher in Chinese Tibetan adolescents with SSB consumption ≥2 times/week than that with SSB consumption of 0 times/week by 21.33 ms (95%CI: 6.72, 35.93), 8.21 ms (95%CI: 7.06, 9.35), 90.46 ms (95%CI: 28.69, 152.23), 147.61 ms (95%CI: 81.42, 213.80), 116.18 ms (95%CI: 74.48, 157.87), 112.41 ms (95%CI: 71.30, 153.52) for incongruent RT, RT difference in incongruent and congruent, 1-back RT, 2-back RT, Heterogeneous RT, RT difference in Heterogeneous and Homogeneous respectively.Conclusions The results suggested that SSB consumption was associated with poorer EF in Chinese Tibetan adolescents. SSB consumption should be controlled for healthy brain development of Chinese Tibetan adolescents.
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In current information society, the smartphone has become an indispensable part of our daily lives. However, along with its advantages, its problems have also become prominent. Against this background, this study examines the influence of smartphones on cognitive function and the potential moderating role of fear of missing out (FoMO). One hundred undergraduate students were randomly recruited and divided into smartphone presence and absence groups to compare the working memory capacity, which is a key element of cognitive function, and the FoMO was also assessed. The results indicated that: (1) Compared with the absence group, participants in the presence group showed lower accuracy and longer response time in the operation span task, suggesting that the presence of smartphones has a negative influence on cognitive function; (2) The FoMO moderated the influence of smartphone presence on the accuracy and response time in the operation span task, specifically, the effect was stronger for individuals with higher level of FoMO. This study deepens our understandings on the influence of smartphone use by considering the regular usage in daily life and cognitive function, as well as the role of FoMO, providing guidance for reasonable smartphone use and improving work efficiency (especially cognitive function).
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We developed the present study given the impact teachers, in their attitude toward mathematics and their arithmetic ability, can have on children's mathematics learning. For this purpose, we explored the association between working memory, math anxiety, and arithmetic ability levels in 39 pre-service teachers of a private institution in southeastern Mexico. We applied complex span tasks to measure the working memory in verbal and visuospatial domains, the perception of math anxiety with the Mathematical Anxiety Profile scale, and the arithmetic ability with a set of verbal problems extracted from the public guides for the national examination of admission to middle education of the National Evaluation Center for Higher Education in Mexico. As proven in other studies, there is a positive association between working memory capacity and arithmetic ability and a negative one with the level of math anxiety. Its scale of attitudes unfolds future possibilities of improving the first one through adaptive training and verifying the impact on the last two.
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This study assessed the impact of sex and typical aging on visuospatial working memory (VSWM), mental rotations, and navigational strategies using behavioral information. Fifty healthy participants regrouped in older (OA) and young adults (YA) performed the Walking Corsi test (WalCT) and the Redrawn Mental Rotation Test (MRT) to explore mental rotation abilities. We recorded kinematic data such as locomotion trajectories, and spatial orientations during navigation. We created a new method of data analysis for the WalCT performances and compared it with the classical approach. This original method allowed us to identify cognitive strategies based on errors analysis. Our data suggested that VSWM and mental rotation capacities in locomotion were modulated by age (YA scored higher than OA), and sex (Young Adult Males (YA-M) having higher performance than Young Adult Females (YA-F). We observed a preferential use of cognitive strategies related to sex; YA-F relied more on egocentric strategies whereas YA-M relied more on allocentric strategies. The preferential use of cognitive strategies in the YA group was not observed in the OA group producing more random errors per sequence. The results suggest the effects that age and sex have on VSWM, cognitive strategies, and mental rotation during navigation and highlight the importance of navigational strategies training.
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Previous studies have revealed the effect of set size (the number of activated items) on object switching in working memory, but the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. In this study, participants were asked to first remember two (small size) or three (large size) two‐digit numbers and the corresponding geometrical figures as different references for numerical comparison and then compare a series of numbers (10–99) to the reference numbers cued by different geometrical figures. The cue repeated or switched across trials. Behavioral results revealed that the switch cost was greater in the large‐size condition than in the small‐size condition. Event‐related potential results showed that in the N2 component, an interaction was observed between set size and transition, with a significant transition effect (switch minus repeat) in the large‐size condition and a non‐significant transition effect in the small‐size condition. The same interaction was observed in the P3 component, with a larger amplitude difference (switch minus repeat) in the large‐size condition than in the small‐size condition. These results suggested that when set size is increased, the effort to inhibit the irrelevant items increases, resulting in large cost of object switching in working memory. In the first ERP study of the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of set size on the cost of object switching in working memory, we showed that the effect of memory set size on switch cost is mirrored in brain potentials in the N2 and P3 components, with a larger amplitude difference (switch minus repeat) in large‐size than small‐size condition, reflecting increased selective inhibition of irrelevant items.
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The impact of working memory capacity on a range of higher-level cognitive activities is unquestionable. This capacity is highly associated with student performance in high school students and new university entrants, so it is important to maintain and develop throughout their stay. Therefore, in this book, works translated from Spanish are presented, oriented to the measurement and intervention in students of such levels, which have already been published in indexed journals in Mexico. The authors have built digital instruments and materials for measurement and reinforcement, supported by information technology, whose multimedia content is attractive to the target audience. Such resources, when converted into online software, have allowed their application in face-to-face and distance modalities, which provides excellent opportunities to support a larger student population.
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The negative influence on the cognitive ability of schizophrenia is one of the issues widely discussed in recent years. Working memory deficits are thought to be a core cognitive symptom of schizophrenia and lead to poorer social functions and worse academic performance. Previous studies have confirmed that working memory deficits tend to appear in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia. Therefore, considering that children with schizophrenia have better brain plasticity, it is critical to explore the development of their working memory. Although the research in this field developed gradually in recent years, few researchers have summarized these findings. The current study aims to review the recent studies from both behavior and neuroimaging aspects to summarize the working memory deficits of children with schizophrenia and to discuss the pathogenic factors such as genetic susceptibility. In addition, this study put forward some practicable interventions to improve cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia from psychological and neural perspectives.
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Little is known about the long-term effects of maternal diabetes during pregnancy (DP), either gestational diabetes or preexisting diabetes (type 1 or type 2), on offspring's brain morphometry and neurocognitive functioning (NCF). This study examined the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal DP on the brain structure and NCF in children between 9 and 10 years of age. This study used cross-sectional neuroimaging and NCF data from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development® study. Exposure to maternal DP was assigned from the developmental history questionnaire. Differences in the brain cortical thickness (CTh) and five cognitive abilities (executive function, working and episodic memory, processing speed, and language abilities) were examined in diabetes-exposed and diabetes-unexposed children. Linear mixed effect models and generalized linear models were used to adjust for the effect of confounding variables. A total of 9,967 children (718 diabetes-exposed and 9249 unexposed) were included in the analysis. Diabetes-exposed children had lower whole-brain CTh [mean: exposed vs unexposed = 2.725 mm vs 2.732 mm; difference (95%CI): -0.007 mm (-0.013, -0.001)] compared to unexposed children after adjusting for confounding variables. Diabetes-exposed children had lower CTh in most part of the occipital lobe of both hemispheres, right postcentral gyrus, and left superior parietal cortex. Diabetes-exposed children also had lower scores in processing speed task [mean difference (95%CI): -1.7 (-2.8, -0.6)] and total cognition [mean difference (95%CI): -0.6 (-1.2, -0.02)]. Diabetes-exposed children have reduced CTh and NCF during preadolescence, which might have implications for psychomotor development during later life. Prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
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Resumo: Este estudo aborda a formação de professores de inglês ofertada pelo câmpus de São Lourenço do Oeste (SLO) do Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC) para ser responsivo à necessidade de formação de professores de inglês para atuarem no Projeto Bilíngue da rede de escolas municipais. Destarte, os objetivos deste artigo são i) expor o raciocínio filosófico-pedagógico assumido para a formação de professores que embasou a implementação da formação de professores de inglês no IFSC-SLO; ii) desvelar as concepções de bilinguismo e língua(gem) materializadas nas Leis que embasam o Projeto Bilíngue; e iii) refletir como a formação continuada em questão respondeu às necessidades de formação de professores para o Projeto Bilíngue da cidade supracitada durante sua oferta no modelo de ensino remoto emergencial. Neste artigo, embasados na Pedagogia Histórico-Crítica, procuramos, de alguma forma, superar algumas dicotomias na formação docente com vistas à promoção do desenvolvimento onilateral dos trabalhadores da educação. Palavras-chave: Formação de Professores De Inglês; Formação Continuada; Pedagogia Histórico-Crítica; Ensino Remoto Emergencial; Educação Bilíngue.
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Working Memory (TM) is a cognitive domain related to the temporary manipulation of information. Although its impact on stress and anxiety situations is assumed to be evident, few studies have investigated its functioning in individuals exposed to traumatic situations. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Working Memory and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). A systematic review was carried out based on the PRISMA method using the Medline, Web of Science and Scielo databases. The final sample included 12 studies that, in their prevalence, indicate WM damage in subjects with PTSD. In addition, it was observed that the most studied population is composed of military personnel exposed to combat related traumas, and the most investigated WM subcomponente was the phonological loop, based on the digit task. These results contribute to an integrated neurocognitive approach for the formulation of cases and treatment planning for people with post-traumatic symptoms, which may contribute to the development of future research and to fill in gaps of the understanding between emotion-cognition in psychopathological cases.
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Empirical research on the cognitive processing of audiovisual translation ( AVT ) products has been thriving over the past decade. While the use of cutting-edge experimental tools such as eye trackers has drawn increasing scholarly attention and accelerated the progress in understanding the complex mental processes involved in the reception of multimodal AVT products, relatively less attention has been devoted to the importance of establishing a theoretical framework or cognitive model that can explain and predict the behaviours observed in empirical experiments. By reviewing numerous theories or cognitive models relevant to AVT research in explaining how different perceptual and cognitive systems operate for understanding multimodal products, this paper calls for engagement with these theoretical frameworks and models to work towards a robust model that can generate testable hypotheses for the integration and interaction of multiple sources of information involved in the processing of AVT or other multimodal products.
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Retaining social interactions in working memory (WM) for further social activities is vital for a successful social life. Researchers have noted a social chunking phenomenon in WM: WM involuntarily uses the social interaction cues embedded in the individual actions and chunks them as one unit. Our study is the first to examine whether the social chunking in WM is an automatic process, by asking whether social chunking of agent actions in WM is resource-demanding, a key hallmark of automaticity. We achieved this by probing whether retaining agent interactions in WM as a chunk required more attention than retaining actions without interaction. We employed a WM change-detection task with actions containing social interaction cues as memory stimuli, and required participants only memorizing individual actions. As domain-general attention and object-based attention are suggested playing a key role in retaining chunks in WM, a secondary task was inserted in the WM maintenance phase to consume these two types of attention. We reestablished the fact that the social chunking in WM required no voluntary control (Experiments 1 and 2). Critically, we demonstrated substantial evidence that social chunking in WM did not require extra domain-general attention (Experiment 1) or object-based attention (Experiment 2). These findings imply that the social chunking of agent actions in WM is not resource-demanding, supporting an automatic view of social chunking in WM.
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Much effort has been made to understand the role of attention in perception; much less effort has been placed on the role attention plays in the control of action. Our goal in this chapter is to account for the role of attention in action, both when performance is automatic and when it is under deliberate conscious control. We propose a theoretical framework structured around the notion of a set of active schemas, organized according to the particular action sequences of which they are a part, awaiting the appropriate set of conditions so that they can become selected to control action. The analysis is therefore centered around actions, primarily external actions, but the same principles apply to internal actions—actions that involve only the cognitive processing mechanisms. One major emphasis in the study of attentional processes is the distinction between controlled and automatic processing of perceptual inputs (e.g., Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977). Our work here can be seen as complementary to the distinction between controlled and automatic processes: we examine action rather than perception; we emphasize the situations in which deliberate, conscious control of activity is desired rather than those that are automatic.
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Recent research has provided mixed findings as to whether older adults find dual tasking problematic. Here, we examined whether methodological variations across studies can account for the discrepancies in the literature. Meta-analyses conducted on the results of 34 studies conducted between 1981 and 2003 found a strong overall effect size (d = .68), which indicated a clear age-related dual tasking impairment. However, this effect size was not representative of all the individual studies reported. Subsequent analyses, using an analysis of variance analogue (Hedges & Olkin, 1985), investigated potential moderators responsible for the variability in the effect sizes across studies. These secondary analyses included a comparison of dependent measure used, whether baseline differences in performance had been controlled for, and task domain. Task domain was found to be the critical moderator variable. Notably, tasks with a substantial controlled processing, or motor component showed greater dual task impairment than tasks that were relatively simple or relied on automatic processing.
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We report the performance on recognition memory tests of Jon, who, despite amnesia from early childhood, has developed normal levels of performance on tests of intelligence, language, and general knowledge. Despite impaired recall, he performed within the normal range on each of six recognition tests, but he appears to lack the recollective phenomenological experience normally associated with episodic memory. His recall of previously unfamiliar newsreel event was impaired, but gained substantially from repetition over a 2-day period. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the recollective process of episodic memory is not necessary either for recognition or for the acquisition of semantic knowledge.
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Primary memory (or short-term memory), according to models such as Sperlingis, maintains a substantial amount of its information by storing it in an auditory sensory memory. Since the auditory sensory memory is used to store memory information these models predict that concurrent auditory stimulation should destroy memory information and, hence, reduce recall performance. To test this hypothesis, a foreign language was presented over earphones while subjects performed a serial recall task with visual presentations and written recall. The subjects were told to ignore the noise. In Experiment I the presence of the irrelevant foreign language noise reduced recall performance on phonologically different lists but it did not reduce performance on phonologically similar lists. Passive articulatory restraint had little effect. In Experiment II this noise effect was eliminated after 30 sec of silent arithmetic, indicating that the noise effect is a primary memory phenomenon.
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Irrelevant background speech disrupts serial recall of visually presented lists of verbal material. In 4 experiments, the hypothesis that this disruption is due to the phonological similarity of the irrelevant sound and the list to be recalled was tested. In Experiment 1, item length was controlled and a large irrelevant speech effect was found, but the effect of phonological similarity was small and confined to recency. In Experiment 2, words in the irrelevant stream were used, and the experiment showed an irrelevant speech effect in which phonological similarity played a small part. Experiments 3 and 4 found that similarity (rhyming) within the irrelevant sound stream decreased the level of disruption, and the effect was more marked when the visually presented lists contained items that did not rhyme with one another. Rather than supporting a phonological similarity hypothesis, the results support a changing state hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews literature showing how the levels of processing framework (F. I. Craik and R. S. Lockhart; see record 1973-20189-001) has influenced memory research since 1972. Principles underlying the framework include the claim that the memory trace should be understood as a by-product or record of normal cognitive processes (e.g., comprehension, categorization). Subsequent research has confirmed the value of much of the framework. It is now generally accepted that memory performance is directly and strongly linked to the nature of processing underlying the original experience, and theories of memory now include an analysis of these processing operations. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The focus of discussion is 2 supervisory processes: the top-down modulation of lower level schemas and checking and monitoring processes. Both the Mark II Supervisory System model (T. Shallice and P. W. Burgess, 1996) and the Domino model (J. Fox and S. K. Das, 2000) have a variety of subprocesses. The author considers 4 such processes and argues that they are localized in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Two are treated in more detail; these are the top-down Supervisory System modulation of schemas in contention scheduling (left dorsolateral PFC), and the monitoring and checking of behavior with respect to a variety of internally generated criteria (right dorsolateral PFC). Two are considered much more briefly; these are the specification of a required memory trace (right ventrolateral PFC) and the setting up and/or realization of intentions (area 10). All are subprocesses postulated in the Mark II Supervisory System model. Three processes also correspond well to those required by the Domino Model. All 4 processes satisfy 3 general principles. First, they come into play in non-routine situations. Second, they are computationally very different from each other. Third, they appear to be localized in different parts of the PFC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Addresses the possibility that tones disrupt serial recall of visually presented material in the same way as speech. A stream of changing tones is as disruptive of visual serial recall as 4 syllables (Exps 1 and 2). Similar effects were also shown with a repeated syllable that changed only in pitch (Exp 3). Just as for speech, the effect of tones is not at encoding but during storage of the serial lists (Exp 4 and 5). The results suggest that speech and tones are equipotent in their capacity to disrupt short-term memory. A "blackboard" model of working memory to account for the effects is outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A pattern made by randomly filling cells in a square matrix was presented for 1 see and followed, after various intervals, by an identical or similar pattern. Ss responded “same” or “different.” Performance was fast and accurate if the interval was short and there was no movement or masking of the pattern during the interval. Performance was slower, less accurate, and highly dependent on pattern complexity if the interval exceeded 100 msec or if there was movement or masking. The results are interpreted as evidence for two distinct classes of visual memory: high-capacity sensory storage which is tied to spatial position and is maskable and brief; and schematic short-term visual memory which is not tied to spatial position, which is protected against masking, and which becomes less effective over the first few seconds but not over the first 600 msec.
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Experimental research into children’s working memory span has shown that retention duration contributes substantially to span performance, while processing efficiency need not be related to concurrent memory load (Towse, Hitch, & Hutton, 1998). These findings have been used to argue for a model of working memory span that emphasizes time-based forgetting rather than the popular resource-sharing or tradeoff framework. The present paper considers whether adults perform working memory span tasks in a qualitatively different way. Data from reading span and operation span tasks show that adults’ performance can be distinguished from that of children, but also that a task-switching model of working memory span can explain some important aspects of performance.
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A series of experiments explored whether chunking in short-term memory for verbal materials depends on attentionally limited executive processes. Secondary tasks were used to disrupt components of working memory and chunking was indexed by the sentence superiority effect, whereby immediate recall is better for sentences than word lists. To facilitate comparisons and maximise demands on working memory, materials were constrained by re-sampling a small set of words. Experiment 1 confirmed a reliable sentence superiority effect with constrained materials. Experiment 2 showed that secondary tasks of concurrent articulation and visual choice reaction impaired recall, but did not remove or reduce the sentence superiority effect. This was also the case with visual and verbal n-back concurrent tasks (Experiment 3), and with concurrent backward counting (Experiment 4). Backward counting did however interact with mode of presenting the memory materials, suggesting that our failure to find interactions between concurrent task and materials was not attributable to our methodology. We conclude that executive processes are not crucial for the sentence chunking advantage and we discuss implications for the episodic buffer and other theoretical accounts of working memory and chunking.
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In three experiments, we examined the role of delays within overt verbal responding in causing effects of word length on immediate recall. Although a phonological memory decay mechanism has been implicated by past research on word length effects, the exact basis of the effect remains unclear. The added difficulty of recalling longer words could arise both while subjects attempt to rehearse words silently and while they attempt to repeat words aloud. To examine the latter mechanism, the lengths of words in the first and second halves of lists to be recalled were varied independently, and both forward and backward recall orders were used. Recall of each word was found to be influenced by the total pronunciation time for all items to be recalled prior to that word, although there was an additional advantage for the last item output. The results clarify and generally support the theory of the articulatory loop, and the method permits an improved analysis of immediate memory into decay-based and other factors.
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Irrelevant background speech disrupts serial recall of visually presented lists of verbal material. In 4 experiments, the hypothesis that this disruption is due to the phonological similarity of the irrelevant sound and the list to be recalled was tested. In Experiment 1, item length was controlled and a large irrelevant speech effect was found, but the effect of phonological similarity was small and confined to recency. In Experiment 2, words in the irrelevant stream were used, and the experiment showed an irrelevant speech effect in which phonological similarity played a small part. Experiments 3 and 4 found that similarity (rhyming) within the irrelevant sound stream decreased the level of disruption, and the effect was more marked when the visually presented lists contained items that did not rhyme with one another. Rather than supporting a phonological similarity hypothesis, the results support a changing state hypothesis.
Chapter
This chapter reviews recent research from reaction-time experiments on the control of task-set, especially experiments in which frequent changes of task are required. The focus is on the reaction-time cost of a task switch, and the reduction in cost usually observed when the subject has time to prepare for a stimulus and foreknowledge of the task to be performed. The latter phenomenon has been interpreted as an index of a control process, task-set reconfiguration (TSR), being carried out in preparation for the change of task. The discussion addresses the nature of TSR, arguing that a simple associative conception of performance in task-switching experiments is inadequate, although associative binding between stimuli, responses, cues, contexts, and goals undoubtedly contributes to performance. There is also evidence that the fundamental task-set control network humans share with infra-human species is supplemented in humans by processes of linguistic self-instruction.
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A series of studies addresses the possibility that tones disrupt serial recall of visually presented material in the same way as speech. A stream of changing tones is as disruptive of visual serial recall as 4 syllables (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar effects were also shown with a repeated syllable that changed only in pitch (Experiment 3). Just as for speech, the effect of tones is not at encoding but during storage of the serial lists (Experiments 4 and 5). The results suggest that speech and tones are equipotent in their capacity to disrupt short-term memory. A "blackboard" model of working memory to account for the effect is outlined.
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This paper presents a meta-analysis of the data from 6,179 participants in 77 studies that investigated the association between working-memory capacity and language comprehension ability. A primary goal of the meta-analysis was to compare the predictive power of the measures of working memory developed by Daneman and Carpenter (1980) with the predictive power of other measures of working memory. The results of the meta-analysis support Daneman and Carpenter's (1980) claim that measures that tap the combined processing and storage capacity of working memory (e.g., reading span, listening span) are better predictors of comprehension than are measures that tap only the storage capacity (e.g., word span, digit span). The meta-analysis also showed that math process plus storage measures of working memory are good predictors of comprehension. Thus, the superior predictive power of the process plus storage measures is not limited to measures that involve the manipulation of words and sentences.
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Working memory refers to keeping track of ongoing mental processes and temporary memory. One hypothesis is that this form of memory consists of multiple domain-specific components. Over four decades, experiments testing this hypothesis have yielded insight into cognitive changes from childhood to old age, selective cognitive impairments following brain damage, and on-line cognition in healthy adults. Advances in the understanding of working memory also have arisen from the discovery of associations between individual differences in working-memory capacity and a broad range of cognitive measures. These latter advances have often been interpreted as supporting the alternative hypothesis that working memory consists of a single, limited-capacity domain-general system for control of attention. Here I outline recent developments in the multiple-component perspective that address challenges derived from the attention-based hypothesis and from multivariate studies of individual differences. I argue that the multiple-component perspective and the single-attentional-system perspective are complementary, with each best suited to asking different research questions, and that many areas of contemporary debate regarding the nature of working memory reflect differences that are more apparent than real.
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This chapter describes the nature of working memory capacity (WMC), and addresses the nature of WMC limitations, their effects on higher order cognitive tasks, their relationship to attention control and general fluid intelligence, and their neurological substrates. Much of work explores these issues in the context of individual differences in WMC and the cause of those individual differences. Measures of WMC are highly reliable and highly valid indicators of some construct of clear relevance to feral cognition. Macroanalytic studies have demonstrated that the construct reflected by WMC tasks has a strong relationship with gF above and beyond what these tasks share with simple span tasks. The conflict might also arise from stimulus representations of competing strength. This two-factor model fits with current thinking about the role of two brain structures: the prefrontal cortex as important to the maintenance of information in an active and easily accessible state and the anterior cingulate as important to the detection and resolution of conflict.
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Despite 20 years of concerted attention, paleoanthropology has established little of substance concerning the evolution of the modern mind, if by substance we mean conclusions that would be of interest and use to scholars of human cognition. Part of this failure can be linked to a poverty of appropriate interpretive concepts. There is more to the modern mind than symbolism and language, the two "abilities" most often cited in the paleoanthropological literature. Modern humans have a sophisticated ability to make and execute elaborate plans of action, something known in the cognitive science literature as executive functions. Cognitive science has further established that these executive functions are enabled by working memory, an interpretive concept introduced by Alan Baddeley in 1974 and subsequently tested by more than 30 years of intensive research. Recently, Coolidge and Wynn have advanced a controversial hypothesis that it was an enhancement of working-memory capacity that powered the final evolution of the modern mind. Wenner-Gren International Symposium 139 met in March 2008 in Cascais, Portugal, to discuss this hypothesis and the evolution of working memory and executive reasoning in general.
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This chapter discusses the storage mechanisms in recall. Information on the recall of words has been organized according to several theoretical views. In the case of free recall, the first reason for assuming such a flow and two separate storage mechanisms may be found in a very prominent and reliable characteristic of free recall–the serial position function. In the free recall of lists, Ss are more likely to recall the early and late items than the middle items. There are, moreover, a variety of systematic experimental effects that can be worked on this curve. In most cases, the curve is raised or lowered in all positions except the last few. The effects of similarity on LTS and STS are not established. Most of the work cited on this effect does not differentiate LTS and STS effects. The few studies that do permit the differentiation give conflicting results. Many of the results on short-term memory are interpreted differently in light of the STS-LTS distinction.
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A series of five experiments explore the influence of articulatory suppression on immediate memory for auditorily presented items with a view to testing the revised concept of an articulatory loop. Experiments 1, 2 and 3 demonstrate that the phonological similarity effect is not abolished by articulatory suppression, whether this occurs only at input or at both input and recall. Experiments 4 and 5 show that the tendency for long words to be less well remembered than short is abolished by articulatory suppression, even when presentation is auditory, provided suppression occurs during both input and recall. These results are consistent with the concept of a loop comprising a phonological store, which is responsible for the phonological similarity effect, coupled with an articulatory rehearsal process that gives rise to the word length effect.Vivien Lewis is now at the Department of Psychology, University of Birmingham.
Article
To investigate phonological factors in short-term memory (STM), immediate memory for sequences of 5, 6, 7, or 8 phonologically similar or dissimilar consonants was studied in 20 French undergraduates using visual presentation accompanied by silence or continuous speech in an unfamiliar language, Arabic. There were significant effects of list length, phonological similarity, and unattended speech, and significant interactions between similarity and unattended speech and between similarity and list length. The interactions are shown to stem primarily from the absence of a decrement due to phonological similarity at list length 8. It is suggested that this absence is attributable to a strategy of abandoning phonological coding when performance drops below some minimum level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Criticizes M. Posner and S. Keele's (see record 1968-00189-001) method of using differences in RT for physical and name matches to estimate the time constant of visual short-term memory as confounding the decay of the visual trace with the development of a name code. When this confounding is avoided by using stimuli that are hard to name (a 5 * 5 matrix of randomly filled squares), the time constant shown by both RT and errors is consistently longer than that reported by Posner and Keele. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents research showing that while an S is recalling a line diagram he can more readily signal information about that diagram by speaking than by spatially monitored output (e.g., pointing to correct items in a column of symbols). When recalling a sentence, he can more readily signal information about that sentence by spatially monitored output than by speaking. These results suggest that spatial and verbal information is recalled and processed in a modality-specific manner. Recall of verbal information is most readily disrupted by concurrent vocal activity; recall of spatial information is most readily disrupted by concurrent spatially monitored activity. This differential conflict occurs even though the concurrent activity is a recoding of the information that is being recalled. (French summary) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the suggestion that the absence of semantic-similarity effects in most short-term memory studies is due to the difficulty of semantically encoding unrelated words. The effect of semantic similarity on minimal paired-associate learning of semantically compatible (e.g., priest-religious) or incompatible (e.g., priest-delicious) noun-adjective pairs was examined in 56 undergraduates. An adverse effect of similarity was found for compatible but not for incompatible pairs. Serial recall and attempts to distinguish primary and secondary memory components by comparing immediate recall with recall after a 20-sec distractor task were studied in 24 undergraduates. The semantic-similarity decrement again occurred with compatible lists, but only after delay. This result suggests that semantic coding was limited to secondary memory. (15 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two experiments were designed to assess Korsakoff patients' ability to encode verbal information on the basis of its physical, nominal and semantic properties. The first investigation employed Wickens' release from proactive interference (PI) technique; a procedure that allows an assessment of a subject's ability to encode verbal information on the basis of its semantic properties. It was discovered that on tasks involving only a rudimentary verbal analysis, such as the ability to discriminate letters from numbers, the Korsakoff patients demonstrated a normal release from PI. However, on tasks that required a more sophisticated level of semantic encoding, such as those based on taxonomic class inclusion, the patients failed to show release from PI. The second investigation employed Posner's reaction time technique which assesses a subject's ability to encode the physical and nominal properties of simple verbal materials (letters). The results of this study showed that Korsakoff patients are impaired on even these rudimentary encoding tasks, which led to the proposal that Korsakoff patients' semantic encoding deficit might stem from an initial impairment in the speed at which physical and nominal properties of verbal information are analyzed.
Article
This paper reviews the literature on the irrelevant sound effect and concludes that, contrary to some claims, the data consistently show that irrelevant sound and articulatory suppression are not functionally equivalent. We evaluate the contribution of Larsen and Baddeley (2003 in this issue) and briefly discuss additional data in support of their position. We perform an error analysis on data from their third experiment and simulate detailed aspects of those data using our primacy model of immediate serial recall. Our model is briefly related to a number of findings in the literature on irrelevant sound.
Article
Under appropriate conditions, immediate serial verbal recall is impaired by irrelevant speech, articulatory suppression, and syncopated tapping. Interpretation of these variables in terms of the phonological loop component of working memory assumes separate phonological storage and articulatory rehearsal processes. In contrast, the Object-Oriented Episodic Record (O-OER) of Jones and the feature theory of Neath interpret these and other phenomena in terms of a unitary multimodal system. Three experiments investigate these disrupting tasks, with each experiment emphasizing one parameter. In each case, recall of phonologically similar and dissimilar letter sequences is compared as a marker of the presence or absence of phonological coding. In Experiment 1, subjects heard or articulated a single item, or tapped a single key at equal intervals. Only articulatory suppression impaired performance; it also abolished the effects of phonological similarity. Experiment 2 was identical, except that items were heard, or generated in a syncopated rhythm. Both suppression and tapping impaired performance to an equivalent extent and obliterated the effect of phonological similarity. Syncopated irrelevant speech caused a modest but significant impairment in performance. Experiment 3 was identical to Experiment 1, except that six tokens were used. Irrelevant speech and tapping had a clear impact on recall, but neither removed the phonological similarity effect. Again articulatory suppression had a major impact on performance and removed the effect of phonological similarity. We conclude that the pattern of results readily fits the phonological loop hypothesis, provided one accepts Saitos proposal that generating syncopated sequences uses common processes with speech production. It is not clear how the results can be explained by either the O-OER or the feature hypothesis.
Article
The relationship between working memory skills and performance on national curriculum assessments in English, mathematics and science was explored in groups of children aged 7 and 14 years. At 7 years, children's levels of attainment in both English and mathematics were significantly associated with working memory scores, and in particular with performance on complex span tasks. At 14 years, strong links persisted between the complex working memory test scores and attainments levels in both mathematics and science, although ability in the English assessments showed no strong association with working memory skill. The results suggest that the intellectual operations required in the curriculum areas of mathematics and science are constrained by the general capacity of working memory across the childhood years. However, whereas success in the acquisition in literacy (tapped by the English assessments at the youngest age) was also linked with working memory capacity, achievements in the higher-level skills of comprehension and analysis of English literature assessed at 14 years were independent of working memory capacity. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Four experiments examined the nature of forgetting and the processing–storage relationship during performance on a prevalent working memory task, the reading span test. Using two different presentation paradigms, Experiments 1 and 2 replicated and finding that the Short-Final lists, which presented a long sentence first and a short sentence last, led to better recall performance than the reverse-order Long-Final lists. This effect was still obtained when the retention duration for the target words was held constant and the amount of sentence processing required during that interval was varied (Experiment 3). However, the effect disappeared when the retention duration was varied while holding constant the amount of sentence processing required (Experiment 4). These results suggest that the amount of processing activities, not the sheer passage of time, may be the critical factor underlying the sentence order effect, thereby challenging purely time-based explanations of forgetting during reading span performance. In addition, the analysis of reading times (Experiment 1) revealed that the number of memory items had a subtle yet reliable negative effect on reading times, suggesting that the processing and storage requirements of the reading span test are not completely independent.
This series of experiments concerns short-term retention of the position of a circle on a line (visual-location) and of the length of a motor movement without visual feedback (kinesthetic-distance). Both tasks show forgetting of information over time intervals up to 30 seconds. Visual-location shows a systematic increase in forgetting as interpolated task difficulty is increased. Forgetting of kinesthetic-distance is unrelated to interpolated task difficulty. Analysis of the data suggests that in both tasks primary retention is through imagery rather than verbal codes. Retention of information about visual-location seems to require the availability of central processing capacity but kinesthetic-distance does not. The implications of these findings for the analysis of perceptual-motor skills and for a general theory of short-term memory are examined.
Article
This dual-task study examined the role of inner speech in task switching. Experiment 1 demonstrated that disrupting inner speech via articulatory suppression dramatically increases switch costs. The three subsequent experiments attempted to specify the role of inner speech in task switching by introducing additional manipulations (i.e., types of cues in Experiment 2, task difficulty in Experiment 3, and the number of tasks switched between in Experiment 4) and then examining whether these factors modulated the magnitude of the articulatory suppression effect on switch costs. Only the cue type manipulation—hypothesized to affect the degree to which participants rely on verbal self-instruction—modulated the articulatory suppression effect, suggesting that inner speech serves as an internal self-cuing device by retrieving and activating a phonological representation of the upcoming task.
Article
Evidence for a dichotomy between long-term memory (LTM) and short-term memory (STM) comes from: (a) amnesic patients with a normal digit span but defective LTM, and (b) tasks comprising two components, one labile (STM) and the other stable (LTM). This study examines the compatibility of (a) and (b) by comparing the performance of amnesic and control Ss on immediate and delayed free recall, the Peterson short-term forgetting task, development of PI in STM, minimal paired-associate learning, digit span, and the Hebb repeated digit-sequence technique. Results suggest that amnesic Ss have normal STM but defective LTM. There is some evidence of a stable component in certain STM tasks, on which amnesic Ss are also unimpaired. Implications for the dichotomy between STM and LTM are discussed.
Article
The interaction between short- and long-term memory is studied within a model in which phonemic and (temporal) contextual information have separate influences on immediate verbal serial recall via connections with short- and long-term plasticity [Burgess, N., & Hitch, G.J. (1999). Memory for serial order: a network model of the phonological loop and its timing. Psychological Review, 106, 551–581]. Long-term learning of sequences of familiar items is correctly predicted to interact with temporal grouping but not phonological similarity or articulatory suppression. However the model fails to predict learning of different sequences simultaneously, or of partially repeated lists. In a revised model, sufficiently different sequences recruit different context signals while sufficiently similar sequences recruit the same signal, via a cumulative matching process during encoding. Simulations show this revised model captures the experimental data on Hebb repetition, including the importance of matching at the start of a list, makes novel predictions concerning the effects of partial repetition, and provides a potential mechanism for position specific intrusions and the build up of proactive interference.
Article
A number of experiments explored the hypothesis that immediate memory span is not constant, but varies with the length of the words to be recalled. Results showed: (1) Memory span is inversely related to word length across a wide range of materials; (2) When number of syllables and number of phonemes are held constant, words of short temporal duration are better recalled than words of long duration; (3) Span could be predicted on the basis of the number of words which the subject can read in approximately 2 sec; (4) When articulation is suppressed by requiring the subject to articulate an irrelevant sound, the word length effect disappears with visual presentation, but remains when presentation is auditory. The results are interpreted in terms of a phonemically-based store of limited temporal capacity, which may function as an output buffer for speech production, and as a supplement to a more central working memory system.