Thickness of Orbicularis Oris Muscle in Unilateral Cleft Lip: Before and After Labial Adhesion

ArticleinThe Journal of craniofacial surgery 22(5):1822-6 · September 2011with15 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31822e824f · Source: PubMed
Our protocol for closure of unilateral complete or severe incomplete cleft lip begins with active dentofacial orthopedics (Latham device) followed by nasolabial adhesion and alveolar gingivoperioplasty. We have observed that preliminary adhesion provides more orbicularis oris muscle for the second-stage labial repair. A quantitative prospective assessment of all patients undergoing nasolabial adhesion by the senior author between November of 2009 and July of 2010 was undertaken to assess whether there is an increase in lateral orbicularis oris muscle mass by the time of formal repair. Standard anthropometric points were placed before nasolabial adhesion and again at the second-stage closure. Ultrasonographic measurements of orbicularis muscle thickness were made on both lateral labial elements along a line drawn between sbal and cphi. The mean interval increase in thickness of lateral orbicularis oris was determined. Sixteen patients underwent nasolabial adhesion during the study period. Four patients with asymmetric bilateral cleft lip patients and 2 patients who did not have a second ultrasonographic study were excluded. The remaining 10 patients in the study had a nasolabial adhesion at a mean age of 3.9 months (range, 3.1-4.3 months). Mean orbicularis oris thickness before adhesion was 0.7 mm on the cleft side and 1.2 mm on the noncleft side. The increase in orbicularis thickness after the mean interoperative interval of 2.9 months (range, 2.6-3.5 months) was calculated. On the cleft side, there was 0.8 mm (138%) mean increase in orbicularis oris muscle thickness compared with 0.4 mm (32%) mean increase on the noncleft side. Labial adhesion in preparation for repair of unilateral complete or severe incomplete cleft lip results in a measurable increased thickness of lateral orbicularis oris. This additional muscular bulk is useful in construction of the philtral ridge.
    • "Alveolar expansion is usually preferred in such cases (62). In staged repair of severe incomplete or complete unilateral cleft lips, following the use of Latham device, one group found that pre-surgical lip adhesion provided increased thickness of the lateral orbicular oris muscle that aided in reconstructing the philtral ridge (67). Preoperative lip taping is also an option (68). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orofacial clefts comprise a range of congenital deformities and are the most common head and neck congenital malformation. Clefting has significant psychological and socio- economic effects on patient quality of life and require a multidisciplinary team approach for management. The complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in the incidence and cause of clefting. In this review, the embryology, classification, epidemiology, and etiology of cleft lip are discussed. The primary goals of surgical repair are to restore normal function, speech development, and facial esthetics. Different techniques are employed based on surgeon expertise and the unique patient presentations. Pre-surgical orthopedics are frequently employed prior to definitive repair to improve outcomes. Long term follow up and quality of life studies are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Management of cleft lip and palate requires a unique understanding of the various dimensions of care to optimize outcomes of surgery. The breadth of treatment spans multiple disciplines and the length of treatment spans infancy to adulthood. Although the focus of reconstruction is on form and function, changes occur with growth and development. This review focuses on the surgical management of the primary cleft lip and nasal deformity. In addition to surgical treatment, the anatomy, clinical spectrum, preoperative care, and postoperative care are discussed. Principles of surgery are emphasized and controversies are highlighted.
    Article · Nov 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: There is prominent lip asymmetry in patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Measurement of the lip on cleft and non-cleft sides provides appraisal of the lip deformity and information for planning of surgical correction. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the degree of lip deformity and to compare it with normative data. Materials and methods: From 1983 to 1997, data from a total of 168 patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate were collected. There were no other associated craniofacial anomalies in this patient group. The measurement was performed under general anaesthesia by a senior surgeon using a calliper prior to the first lip repair. Corresponding normative data were collected from 2002 to 2003 on 50 patients who had normal facial appearance prior to hernia repair. The measurements included lip height, lip width, philtrum length and vermilion thickness. Comparisons were made between the cleft side and the non-cleft side, as well as between cleft patients and norms. Results: Comparisons between the cleft and the non-cleft sides revealed significantly longer lip on the non-cleft side, including lip height from alar base to Cupid's bow, lip width from Cupid's bow to commissure and the vermilion thickness. The lip measurements on the norms were longer than those on the cleft side of the lip, but were similar to the non-cleft side. Conclusion: A wide variety of tissue growth asymmetry is observed between the non-cleft and the cleft sides, indicating a deficiency of tissue development associated with the cleft deformity. These data can provide a fundamental basis for presurgical orthopaedic treatment, surgical planning, execution of surgery, postoperative assessment and may help to predict treatment outcome.
    Article · Dec 2012
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