A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, 30602, USA.
BMC Genomics (Impact Factor: 3.99). 09/2011; 12(1):470. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-470
Source: PubMed


Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity.
A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF) of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences) to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity.
A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes.All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (; Temporarily password-protected: account: pgml; password: 123qwe123.

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Available from: Lifeng Lin
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    • "Studies in Brassica species greatly benefit from genomic resources that have been assembled. BAC contig maps for the Brassica rapa [12] and Brassica oleracea genomes were produced [13]. In both studies, high-information-content fingerprinting data of BACs were exploited to establish overlaps between BACs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Homoeologous sequences pose a particular challenge if bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs shall be established for specific regions of an allopolyploid genome. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) differentiating between homoeologous genomes (intergenomic SNPs) may represent a suitable screening tool for such purposes, since they do not only identify homoeologous sequences but also differentiate between them. Results Sequence alignments between Brassica rapa (AA) and Brassica oleracea (CC) sequences mapping to corresponding regions on chromosomes A1 and C1, respectively were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms between the A and C genomes. A large fraction of these polymorphisms was also present in Brassica napus (AACC), an allopolyploid species that originated from hybridisation of A and C genome species. Intergenomic SNPs mapping throughout homoeologous chromosome segments spanning approximately one Mbp each were included in Illumina’s GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay and used to screen multidimensional pools of a Brassica napus bacterial artificial chromosome library with tenfold genome coverage. Based on the results of 50 SNP assays, a BAC contig for the Brassica napus A subgenome was established that spanned the entire region of interest. The C subgenome region was represented in three BAC contigs. Conclusions This proof-of-concept study shows that sequence resources of diploid progenitor genomes can be used to deduce intergenomic SNPs suitable for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening of multidimensional BAC pools of a polyploid organism. Owing to their high abundance and ease of identification, intergenomic SNPs represent a versatile tool to establish BAC contigs for homoeologous regions of a polyploid genome. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-560) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Genomics
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    • "The B. oleracea species include a wide range of important vegetable crops, with diverse morphological variation and an eclectic mix of phytochemicals and secondary metabolites, many with health promoting properties. Of these morphotypes, TO1000, a kale-like plant, was selected as an excellent experimental model since it is rapid cycling, self-compatible, uncommon within B. oleracea, and has associated genomic and genetic resources, including a BAC-based physical map [24], a doubled haploid mapping population [25] and a mutagenized population [26]. Thus, the reference genome sequence of TO1000 will provide an excellent tool for dissecting the molecular basis of the remarkable variation found within the species. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Brassica oleracea is a valuable vegetable species that has contributed to human health and nutrition for hundreds of years and comprises multiple distinct cultivar groups with diverse morphological and phytochemical attributes. In addition to this phenotypic wealth, B. oleracea offers unique insights into polyploid evolution, as it results from multiple ancestral polyploidy events and a final Brassiceae-specific triplication event. Further, B. oleracea represents one of the diploid genomes that formed the economically important allopolyploid oilseed, Brassica napus. A deeper understanding of B. oleracea genome architecture provides a foundation for crop improvement strategies throughout the Brassica genus. Results: We generate an assembly representing 75% of the predicted B. oleracea genome using a hybrid Illumina/Roche 454 approach. Two dense genetic maps are generated to anchor almost 92% of the assembled scaffolds to nine pseudo-chromosomes. Over 50,000 genes are annotated and 40% of the genome predicted to be repetitive, thus contributing to the increased genome size of B. oleracea compared to its close relative B. rapa. A snapshot of both the leaf transcriptome and methylome allows comparisons to be made across the triplicated sub-genomes, which resulted from the most recent Brassiceae-specific polyploidy event. Conclusions: Differential expression of the triplicated syntelogs and cytosine methylation levels across the sub-genomes suggest residual marks of the genome dominance that led to the current genome architecture. Although cytosine methylation does not correlate with individual gene dominance, the independent methylation patterns of triplicated copies suggest epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the functional diversification of duplicate genes.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Genome Biology
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    • "gemmifera DC) [2]. This intriguingly broad variation provides an excellent model for studying biological functionality and morphological evolution using the modern tools of molecular evolutionary biology and comparative genomics [3,4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Brassica oleracea is a morphologically diverse species in the family Brassicaceae and contains a group of nutrition-rich vegetable crops, including common heading cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, kale, Brussels sprouts. This diversity along with its phylogenetic membership in a group of three diploid and three tetraploid species, and the recent availability of genome sequences within Brassica provide an unprecedented opportunity to study intra- and inter-species divergence and evolution in this species and its close relatives.DescriptionWe have developed a comprehensive database, Bolbase, which provides access to the B. oleracea genome data and comparative genomics information. The whole genome of B. oleracea is available, including nine fully assembled chromosomes and 1,848 scaffolds, with 45,758 predicted genes, 13,382 transposable elements, and 3,581 non-coding RNAs. Comparative genomics information is available, including syntenic regions among B. oleracea, Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana, synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) substitution rates between orthologous gene pairs, gene families or clusters, and differences in quantity, category, and distribution of transposable elements on chromosomes. Bolbase provides useful search and data mining tools, including a keyword search, a local BLAST server, and a customized GBrowse tool, which can be used to extract annotations of genome components, identify similar sequences and visualize syntenic regions among species. Users can download all genomic data and explore comparative genomics in a highly visual setting. Bolbase is the first resource platform for the B. oleracea genome and for genomic comparisons with its relatives, and thus it will help the research community to better study the function and evolution of Brassica genomes as well as enhance molecular breeding research. This database will be updated regularly with new features, improvements to genome annotation, and new genomic sequences as they become available. Bolbase is freely available at
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · BMC Genomics
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