Article

NTP-CERHR Expert Panel Report on the Developmental Toxicity of Soy Infant Formula

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.
Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology (Impact Factor: 0.77). 10/2011; 92(5):421-68. DOI: 10.1002/bdrb.20314
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones (phytoestrogens) that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are nonsteroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for National Toxicology Program (NTP) evaluation because of (1) the availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as few studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2) the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3) public concern for effects on infant or child development. On October 2, 2008 (73 FR 57360), the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) announced its intention to conduct an updated review of soy infant formula to complete a previous evaluation that was initiated in 2005. Both the current and previous evaluations relied on expert panels to assist the NTP in developing its conclusions on the potential developmental effects associated with the use of soy infant formula, presented in the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula. The initial expert panel met on March 15 to 17, 2006, to reach conclusions on the potential developmental and reproductive toxicities of soy infant formula and its predominant isoflavone constituent genistein. The expert panel reports were released for public comment on May 5, 2006 (71 FR 28368). On November 8, 2006 (71 FR 65537), CERHR staff released draft NTP Briefs on Genistein and Soy Formula that provided the NTP's interpretation of the potential for genistein and soy infant formula to cause adverse reproductive and/or developmental effects in exposed humans. However, CERHR did not complete these evaluations, finalize the briefs, or issue NTP Monographs on these substances based on this initial evaluation. Between 2006 and 2009, a substantial number of new publications related to human exposure or reproductive and/or developmental toxicity were published for these substances. Thus, CERHR determined that updated evaluations of genistein and soy infant formula were needed. However, the current evaluation focuses only on soy infant formula and the potential developmental toxicity of its major isoflavone components, e.g. genistein, daidzein (and estrogenic metabolite, equol), and glycitein. This updated evaluation does not include an assessment on the potential reproductive toxicity of genistein following exposures during adulthood as was carried out in the 2006 evaluation. CERHR narrowed the scope of the evaluation because the assessment of reproductive effects of genistein following exposure to adults was not considered relevant to the consideration of soy infant formula use in infants during the 2006 evaluation. To obtain updated information about soy infant formula for the CERHR evaluation, the PubMed (Medline) database was searched from February 2006 to August 2009 with genistein/genistin, daidzein/daidzin, glycitein/glycitin, equol, soy, and other relevant keywords. References were also identified from the bibliographies of published literature. The updated expert panel report represents the efforts of a 14-member panel of government and nongovernment scientists, and was prepared with assistance from NTP staff. The finalized report, released on January 15, 2010 (75 FR 2545), reflects consideration of public comments received on a draft report that was released on October 19, 2009, for public comment and discussions that occurred at a public meeting of the expert panel held December 16 to 18, 2009 (74 FR 53509). The finalized report presents conclusions on (1) the strength of scientific evidence that soy infant formula or its isoflavone constituents are developmental toxicants based on data from in vitro, animal, or human studies; (2) the extent of exposures in infants fed soy infant formula; (3) the assessment of the scientific evidence that adverse developmental health effects may be associated with such exposures; and (4) knowledge gaps that will help establish research and testing priorities to reduce uncertainties and increase confidence in future evaluations. The Expert Panel expressed minimal concern for adverse developmental effects in infants fed soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). The Expert Panel Report on Soy Infant Formula was considered extensively by NTP staff in preparing the 2010 NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which represents the NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP concurred with the expert panel that there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This conclusion was based on information about soy infant formula provided in the expert panel report, public comments received during the course of the expert panel evaluation, additional scientific information made available since the expert panel meeting, and peer reviewer critiques of the draft NTP Brief by the NTP Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC) on May 10, 2010 (Meeting materials are available at). The BSC voted in favor of the minimal concern conclusion with 7 yes votes, 3 no votes, and 0 abstentions. One member thought that the conclusion should be negligible concern and two members thought that the level of concern should be higher than minimal concern. The NTP's response to the May 10, 2010 review ("peer-review report") is available on the NTP website at. The monograph includes the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula as well as the entire final Expert Panel Report on Soy Infant Formula. Public comments received as part of the NTP's evaluation of soy infant formula and other background materials are available at. Reports can be obtained from the web site or from: Kristina A. Thayer, PhD, NIEHS/NTP K2-04, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. E-mail: [email protected]
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    • "Studies evaluating these possible favorable effects have led to conflicting results (Andres et al., 2011; Kwack et al., 2009; Sacks, 2005). Nevertheless, an increased demand for soy and soy-based supplements by consumers has led to a significant rise in the use of soy-derived protein in an array of food products (Kwack et al., 2009; McCarver et al., 2011). This may be of "
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    ABSTRACT: Daidzein (DZ), an isoflavone with the potential to interfere with estrogen signaling, is found in soy products, which have gained popularity due to purported beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and skeletal systems and potential antineoplastic properties. However, the ingestion of phytoestrogens has been associated with impaired reproductive function in many species. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects on the ovaries of rat offspring exposed to DZ or ethinyl estradiol (EE) during prenatal development. Gravid rats were administered either vehicle or 5 or 60 mg DZ/kg body weight/d or 0.002 mg 17-α EE /kg body weight/d on gestational days 6-21. Ovarian-related endpoints were investigated during adulthood in female offspring. The mean cell height of the ovarian surface epithelium was significantly reduced in all treated groups. Alterations in folliculogenesis included increased follicular atresia, a reduction in secondary and tertiary follicle numbers, and cyst formation. An elevated prevalence of a slightly prolonged estrus phase was also observed. The morphological changes to the ovarian surface epithelium are consistent with an antiproliferative effect, while ovarian folliculogenesis was adversely affected. The effects of the high dose DZ were similar to those observed with 17-α EE.
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    • "The current position of the American Academy of Pediatrics is, “There is no conclusive evidence from animal, adult human, or infant populations that dietary soy isoflavones may adversely affect human development, reproduction, or endocrine function (26).” And the national toxicology program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) found that, “The overall evidence was considered insufficient to reach a conclusion on whether the use of soy infant formula produces or does not produce developmental toxicity with infant exposure in girls or boys at recommended intake levels” (27). In other words, there is not conclusive evidence that soy-based infant formulas are safe. "
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    • "The primary mode of early-life Gen exposure in humans occurs through the intake of infant soy-based formulas, which constitute approximately 13% of the infant formula market in the United States (2009 International Formula Council comment ; McCarver et al., 2011). Gen is the primary isoflavone constituent within soy-based formulas, and plasma levels of Gen in U.S. infants that consume soy-based formulas have been shown to be higher than in Japanese men consuming a traditional soy-based diet and much higher than in omnivorous U.S. adults (684 ng/ml vs 105 and 4.7 ng/ml, respectively) (McCarver et al., 2011; Setchell et al., 1997). Developmental Gen dosing studies in rodents have clearly classified Gen as a reproductive toxicant and endocrine disruptor (Jefferson et al., 2009; Newbold et al., 2001), but despite the critical role of sex hormones in energy homeostasis, there is little research describing the long-term consequences of early-life Gen exposure on body composition or energy metabolism. "
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    ABSTRACT: Genistein (Gen), the primary isoflavone in soy, has been shown to adversely affect various endocrine-mediated endpoints in rodents and humans. Soy formula intake by human infants has been associated with early age at menarche and decreased female-typical behavior in girls. Adipose deposition and expansion are also hormonally regulated and Gen has been shown to alter these processes. However, little is known about the impact of early-life soy intake on metabolic homeostasis in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of early-life Gen exposure on adulthood body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) and the molecular signals mediating adipose expansion. From postnatal day (PND) 1 to 22, rat pups were daily orally dosed with 50 mg/kg Gen to mimic blood Gen levels in human infants fed soy formula. Female, but not male Gen-exposed rats had increased fat/lean mass ratio, fat mass, adipocyte size and number, and decreased muscle fiber perimeter. PND22 Gen-exposed females, but not males had increased expression of adipogenic factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (Cebpα), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (Cebpβ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ). Furthermore, Wingless related MMTV integration site 10b (Wnt10b), a critical regulator of adipogenic cell fate determination, was hypermethylated and had decreased expression in adipose of PND22 Gen-exposed females. These data suggest that developmental Gen exposure in rats has gender-specific effects on adiposity that closely parallel the effects of a post-weaning high-fat diet, and underscore the importance of considering timing of exposure and gender when establishing safety recommendations for early-life dietary Gen intake.
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