Depressive phenotypes evoked by experimental diabetes are reversed by insulin

School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, 418 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Physiology & Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.98). 09/2011; 105(3):702-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.09.003
Source: PubMed


Clinical studies suggest a bidirectional relationship between diabetes and depression, where diabetes may increase risk for depressive symptoms and depression may increase risk for diabetes. Preclinical models examining the effects of diabetes on brain and behavior can provide insights to the pathophysiology underlying this relationship. The current study comprehensively examined, in C57BL/6 mice, the development of depressive phenotypes evoked by diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and determined if insulin treatment was able to reverse the diabetes-related changes on brain and affective behavior. Since anxiety is often comorbid with mood disturbances, behavioral tests for both anxiety and depression were administered. Possible physiological correlates of behavioral changes, including hippocampal cell proliferation, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma corticosterone, were also measured. STZ-induced diabetes resulted in increased immobility in the tail suspension test, increased intracranial self-stimulation thresholds, decreased hippocampal cell proliferation, and increased corticosterone levels. Insulin treatment, on the other hand, reduced hyperglycemia, reversed the behavioral effects, and returned hippocampal cell proliferation and corticosterone to levels comparable to the control group. Anxiety-related behaviors were unaffected. This study showed that experimental diabetes in the mouse produced depressive phenotypes that were reversed by insulin therapy. Changes in reward-related behaviors and hippocampal cell proliferation may be useful markers to identify therapeutic interventions for comorbid diabetes and depression.

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Available from: Irwin Lucki, Sep 23, 2014
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    • "Taken together, the BDNFmediated signaling is involved in neuroplastic responses to stress and antidepressants, but these effects are both region-specific [151] and antidepressant-specific [118] and function in the background of other potent genetic and environmental modifiers [for a review, see 119]. Here, it is important to highlight that circumstantial evidence suggests that the pathophysiology of depression comorbid with diabetes could be more severe than those proposed for depression [152] [114] [153]. Therefore, regarding to diabetes-associated depression attenuated BDNF levels were observed in HIP of these patients [154]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a chronic and progressive syndrome commonly associated with several neuropsychiatric comorbities, of which depression is the most studied. The prevalence of depression is about two or three times higher in diabetic patients compared to the general population. It is believed that the diabetes - depression relation may be bidirectional, i.e., the depression can lead to diabetes and conversely diabetes could facilitate the emergence of depression. Depression is one of the most neglected symptoms in diabetic patients and is directly linked with lowering of quality of life. The treatment of depression in these patients is still quite ineffective and in many cases treatment-refractory. Furthermore, some of the first choice drugs used to treat the depression affect the blood glucose control, aggravating the hyperglycemic state. These issues underscore the urgency in studies searching for new pharmacological targets for the treatment of depression associated with diabetes. For this, a better understanding of the pathophysiology that relates this comorbidity becomes critical. In this respect, this review will focus on some hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the mechanisms underlying depression associated with diabetes, highlighting the treatment options currently available and their limitations. Among these hypotheses, we will point out the hyperglycemia as a primary metabolic cause of the depression development, the involvement of the dysregulation of hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of neurotransmitter systems, specially monoaminergic system. Besides, the role of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and cell death, especially in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, brain areas important for the mediation and modulation of emotional behavior will also be discussed. Finally, we will bring up the influence of the epigenetic regulation with respect to neuropsychiatric disorders.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Current diabetes reviews
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    • "To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to address the involvement of hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress biomarkers, pro-inflammmatory cytokines such as IL-6 and BDNF as well as brain monoamines in the antidepressant effect of Hsp in STZ-induced diabetic rats. STZ-induced diabetes is a well-established animal model of type 1 diabetes that results in marked hyperglycaemia, probably through the destruction of pancreatic ␤-cells and lack of insulin secretion (Ho et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the anti-depressant effect of hesperidin (Hsp) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Additionally, the effect of Hsp on hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and brain monoamines in diabetic rats was also assessed. The Wistar rats in the experimental groups were rendered hyperglycaemic with a single dose of STZ (52.5 mg·(kg body mass)(-1), by intraperitoneal injection). The normal group received the vehicle only. Hyperglycaemic rats were treated with Hsp (25.0, 50.0, or 100.0 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), per oral) and fluoxetine (Flu) (5.0 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), per oral) 48 h after the STZ injection, for 21 consecutive days. The normal and STZ control groups received the vehicle (distilled water). Behavioral and biochemical parameters were then assessed. When Hsp was administered to the STZ-treated rats, this reversed the STZ-induced increase in immobility duration in the forced swimming test (FST) and attenuated hyperglycaemia, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA), increased reduced glutathione (GSH) decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6), and increased BDNF levels in the brain. Treatment with Hsp attenuated STZ-induced neurochemical alterations, as indicated by increased levels of monoamines in the brain, namely, norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). All of these effects of Hsp were similar to those observed with the established anti-depressant Flu. This study shows that Hsp exerted anti-depressant effect in diabetic rats, which may have been partly mediated by its amelioration of hyperglycaemia as well as its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, the enhancement of neurogenesis, and changes in the levels of monoamines in the brain.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • "Previous reports have shown that, insulin treatment reduces cognitive and memory impairments in diabetic patients (Plastino et al. 2010) as well as in rodents in preclinical models (Francis et al. 2008). While, decreased insulin activity and sensitivity are associated with depression in diabetic patients (Reagan 2012), Ho et al. (2012) showed that insulin treatment reverses depressive phenotypes evoked in mice as a result of STZ-induced diabetes. Moreover, in a recent study, insulin treatment has reported to decrease learned helplessness behavior in STZ-induced diabetic mice exposed to forced swim model of depression (Go et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical and preclinical data suggest that diabetes is often associated with anxiety. Insulin, a peptide hormone has been reported to have key functions in the brain and in alleviating several psychological impairments, occur as a consequence of diabetes. However, its effects in diabetes-induced anxiety are scanty. The present study examined whether; insulin can reverse the anxiety-like behavior in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice. After 8-weeks of diabetes induced by STZ (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), mice were given insulin (1-2 IU/kg/day, i.p.)/ diazepam (1 mg/kg/day, i.p.)/ vehicle for 14 days and evaluated for behavioral effects in three validated models of anxiety viz. elevated plus maze (EPM), light-dark (L/D) and hole board (HB) tests. STZ-induced diabetic mice elicited significant behavioral effects which include, decreased percentage open arm entries and time in EPM, reduced latency and time spent in light chamber in L/D, decreased number of head dips, squares crossed and rearings in HB tests respectively. Insulin treatment attenuated the behavioral effects evoked by STZ-induced diabetes in mice as indicated by increased open arms activity in EPM, decreased aversion in light chamber during L/D test and increased exploratory behavior in HB test. In conclusion, this study revealed that insulin can reverse anxiety-like behavior in STZ-induced diabetes in mice.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Metabolic Brain Disease
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