Article

Reconstructing Visual Experiences from Brain Activity Evoked by Natural Movies

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
Current biology: CB (Impact Factor: 9.57). 09/2011; 21(19):1641-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2011.08.031
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Quantitative modeling of human brain activity can provide crucial insights about cortical representations [1, 2] and can form the basis for brain decoding devices [3-5]. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have modeled brain activity elicited by static visual patterns and have reconstructed these patterns from brain activity [6-8]. However, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals measured via fMRI are very slow [9], so it has been difficult to model brain activity elicited by dynamic stimuli such as natural movies. Here we present a new motion-energy [10, 11] encoding model that largely overcomes this limitation. The model describes fast visual information and slow hemodynamics by separate components. We recorded BOLD signals in occipitotemporal visual cortex of human subjects who watched natural movies and fit the model separately to individual voxels. Visualization of the fit models reveals how early visual areas represent the information in movies. To demonstrate the power of our approach, we also constructed a Bayesian decoder [8] by combining estimated encoding models with a sampled natural movie prior. The decoder provides remarkable reconstructions of the viewed movies. These results demonstrate that dynamic brain activity measured under naturalistic conditions can be decoded using current fMRI technology.

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    • "Neural decoding approaches have demonstrated the efficacy of using statistical prediction models trained with brain activity associated with a task to decode subjective contents of task parameters (Kamitani and Tong, 2005), move robotic limbs (Wessberg et al., 2000;Hochberg et al., 2006Hochberg et al., , 2012Schwartz et al., 2006), reconstruct visually presented stimuli (Miyawaki et al., 2008), and elicit the contents of dreams (Horikawa et al., 2013). Neural encoding approaches, on the other hand, have shown that brain activity can be matched to databases of images (Kay et al., 2008) and videos (Nishimoto et al., 2011). While data-driven approaches have proven useful for revealing to some extent the structure of information representation in the brain, performing experiments is costly and time consuming, and often has an associated moral cost, such as when experiments result in the death or reduced lifespan of animals. "
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    • "Understanding brain function during continuous, complex ongoing sensory stimulation like that experienced in the natural world is a challenge for neuroscientific research. In order to address this challenge, there has been increasing activity in the development of tools to identify the brain mechanisms activated by complex audiovisual stimuli, such as movies (Bartels and Zeki, 2004; Hasson et al., 2004; Kauppi et al., 2010; Nishimoto et al., 2011; Zacks et al., 2001). These movies, particularly those involving feature films, typically depict complex scenes that change over time and incorporate extensive use of video editing. "
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    • "Previous work on decoding of brain signals has shown that it is important to incorporate prior knowledge in order to improve reconstruction quality [5], [6], [8]. Furthermore, purely discriminative models that do not make use of prior knowledge have been shown to yield less accurate reconstructions [4]. "
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