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The Role of Counselors Serving Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students in Public Schools

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The Role of Counselors Serving Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students in Public Schools

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Since enactment of Public Law 94-142, residential schools for d/Deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh) students have lost enrollment to public schools. Public school counselors now must meet d/Dhh students' counseling needs. There is little literature on if and how counselors are doing this. The present study used a survey to evaluate the job satisfaction and expectations of 22 counselors working with d/Dhh students in programs across the United States. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 6 participants functioning as counselors for d/Dhh students. Results indicated that the counselors were generally pleased with their role, which, however, diverged markedly from the American School Counselor Association (2003) national model. The interviews revealed 5 themes that may be unique to counselors serving d/Dhh students in public schools: Authority Based on Experience, Director
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VOLUME 156, NO. 3, 2011 AMERICAN ANNALS OF THE DEAF
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Lomas, G. I., Nichter, M., & Robles-Pina, R. The role of counselors serving deaf or hard of hearing students in public
schools. American Annals of the Deaf 156 (3), 305–319.
THE ROLE OF COUNSELORS SERVING DEAF OR
HARD OF HEARING STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Prior to enactment of the Education
for All Handicapped Children Act of
1975 (Pub. L. 94–142), d/Deaf or hard
of hearing (d/Dhh) students were edu-
cated primarily at residential schools
(Moores, 2001). These schools gener-
ally employed a spectrum of service
providers including teachers, psychol-
ogists, social workers, counselors, and
other support personnel. Many of
these personnel were d/Dhh them-
selves, and all were expected to be flu-
ent users of sign language, in many
cases American Sign Language (ASL).
This gave students direct access to a
plethora of supports, including coun-
seling and psychological services, pro-
vided by the residential facility.
Since the early 1970s, there has
been an exodus of students from res-
idential schools for d/Dhh students
to neighborhood schools. Researchers
(Gallaudet Research Institute, 2003;
Moores, 2006) have identified several
historical trends in the education of
such students. In particular, the migra-
tion from residential schools began a
few years prior to the passage of Public
Law 94–142 and continues today (Luck-
ner, Muir, Howell, Sebald, & Young,
2005; Moores, 2006). While counseling
as a profession was still fairly young in
INCE ENACTMENT of Public Law 94-142, residential schools for d/Deaf
or hard of hearing (d/Dhh) students have lost enrollment to public
schools. Public school counselors now must meet d/Dhh students’
counseling needs. There is little literature on if and how counselors are
doing this. The present study used a survey to evaluate the job satisfac-
tion and expectations of 22 counselors working with d/Dhh students in
programs across the United States. Follow-up interviews were con-
ducted with 6 participants functioning as counselors for d/Dhh stu-
dents. Results indicated that the counselors were generally pleased
with their role, which, however, diverged markedly from the American
School Counselor Association (2003) national model. The interviews
revealed 5 themes that may be unique to counselors serving d/Dhh
students in public schools: Authority Based on Experience, Director
of Collaborations/Negotiations, Isolation, Surrogate Parent/Insightful
Social Confidante, and Martyr.
GABRIEL I. LOMAS,
MARY NICHTER, AND
REBECCA ROBLES-PINA
LOMAS IS AN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF
COUNSELING IN THE DEPARTMENT OF
EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY,
WESTERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY,
DANBURY. NICHTER IS A PROFESSOR OF
COUNSELOR EDUCATION, AND ROBLES-PINA
A PROFESSOR OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
AND COUNSELING, IN THE DEPARTMENT OF
EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND COUNSELING,
SAM HOUSTON STATE UNIVERSITY,
HUNTSVILLE, TX.
S
18113-AAD156.3_Summer2011 8/16/11 12:15 PM Page 305
1975 (see Gladding, 2003, for a his-
tory), residential schools for d/Dhh
students found ways to meet the
counseling needs of these children
and youth. Frequently, individuals flu-
ent in sign languages, including ASL,
and knowledgeable about the psy-
chosocial needs of d/Dhh children
were identified as “counselors” on res-
idential campuses. While these early
counselors were not trained as such,
they were recognized by colleagues as
possessing the skills necessary to assist
with the psychological development of
students (Vernon & Andrews, 1990).
In the period following enactment
of Public Law 94–142, public school
systems were mandated to change the
way they educated students with dis-
abilities (Marschark, Lang, & Albertini,
2002; Moores, 1987, 2001). The result
was a forced evolution that played out
in public schools. Prior to 1975, public
schools had little or no need for spe-
cialists trained in the combined fields
of counseling and deafness, as most of
these schools were unlikely to serve
d/Dhh students. However, legislation
and parental action resulted in the
growth of public school programs for
students with disabilities, including
d/Dhh students.
The deaf services coordinator for
the Denver, CO, public school system,
R. F. Allen (personal communication,
June 27, 2007), expressed concern
over the apparent large numbers of
students who transferred from the
state residential schools for d/Dhh
students with individualized educa-
tion programs (IEPs) for counseling
who suddenly had no counseling
needs once they entered their local
education program. Allen’s office con-
ducted a study (in preparation at the
time of the present article was writ-
ten) that found that 70% of d/Dhh stu-
dents in Colorado had an emotional
or behavioral concern flagged by a
teacher.
In a study of counseling accessibil-
ity for deaf students (N= 1,485),
Brant and Moore (2005) found that
23% of their participants in residential
schools, all of them students at resi-
dential schools for d/Dhh students in
the South, were receiving individual
counseling. They found that 77% of
their participants in public school pro-
grams for d/Dhh students were receiv-
ing individual counseling. However,
none of the public school counselors
in their study self-reported a profi-
ciency level of communicative ability,
particularly in signing, sufficient to
provide counseling to these stu-
dents, and only one reported using
an interpreter in sessions. Thus,
Brant and Moore raised concerns re-
garding communication access in
counseling in public schools.
Several studies support the imple-
mentation of a developmental guid-
ance model (Galassi & Akos, 2004;
Gysbers, 2004; S. Johnson & C. D.
Johnson, 2003). The current role
statement for school counselors pub-
lished by the American School Coun-
selor Association (ASCA, 2003)
identifies service delivery to include
four areas. First, school counselors
are responsible for the implementa-
tion of a guidance curriculum that is
developmentally appropriate. Sec-
ond, school counselors should be in-
volved with individual planning to
assist students in developing personal
goals and refining plans for the future.
Third, school counselors should have
a plan for responsive services such as
preventive or interventive activities to
meet the needs of students in the
present and in the future. Responsive
services might include doing individ-
ual or group counseling, consulting
with parents and school staff, making
referrals to school- or community-
based resources, establishing peer as-
sistance programs, and serving as a
source of information for students,
parents, and staff. The development
of confidential relationships to assist
students in resolving problems or
coping with concerns is within the
scope of service delivery. Finally, sys-
tem support is a necessary role, as
counselors should perform activities
designed to establish, maintain, and
enhance a comprehensive school
counseling program.
Thirty-four states have developed
their own models to identify the
roles of school counselors (ASCA,
2007). For example, the Texas model
has eight domains: program man-
agement, guidance, counseling, con-
sultation, coordination, student
assessment, professional behavior,
and professional standards (Texas Ed-
ucation Code, 2007). Arkansas has 15
specific areas that describe the role
and function of the counselor, with
the clear provision that 75% of the
counselor’s time be spent in direct
service to students and 25% be spent
in related services to students
(Arkansas Department of Education,
2006). Because there has not been a
study on the role of counselors who
are employed by local educational
programs for d/Dhh students, it is un-
known if any of these traditional mod-
els for counseling are effective in
meeting the academic and psycholog-
ical needs of d/Dhh students.
At the national level, special educa-
tion laws already require that counsel-
ing (along with other related services)
be available to students who are deaf,
hard of hearing, or otherwise disabled
(Lomas & Van Reusen, 1999). In the
Individuals With Disabilities Educa-
tion Act of 1990 (IDEA) and the IDEA
Amendments of 1997, it is stated that
“the term related services means
psychological services . . . counseling
services including rehabilitation coun-
seling” (Individuals With Disabilities
Education Act Amendments, 1997).
With 33 states having laws requiring
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the provision of some level of school
counseling services, state-mandated
school guidance and counseling ser-
vices are also increasing (ASCA, 2007).
Most of these states have language in
their laws that compels counselors to
work with all of the students on the
campus, especially those with specific
counseling needs. Yet the counseling
needs of d/Dhh students, while im-
mense, appear to go unaddressed in
many public schools. Programs that
employ counselors may have them
performing duties that are atypical of
counselors working in general educa-
tion, or in another capacity that makes
for inconsistency in the field.
Now, more than 35 years after the
passage of Public Law 94–142, it is im-
portant to examine how school coun-
seling services are being provided to
these students in public schools.
Specifically, the present study focuses
on the role and function of counselors
in public schools who serve d/Dhh
students.
Method
Participants: Quantitative
Portion of the Study
The objective of the present study was
to investigate (a) if there was a differ-
ence between how counselors em-
ployed by public education programs
for d/Dhh students perceived their ac-
tual role and how they perceived their
ideal role; and (b) if there are themes
that help to clarify the role and func-
tion of these counselors. The partici-
pants in the quantitative portion of
the study were counselors working in
public schools whose primary job was
to counsel students identified as deaf
or hard of hearing. The participants
were selected from deaf education
programs in the 15 largest metropoli-
tan areas in the United States: New
York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Washing-
ton-Baltimore, San Francisco, Phila -
delphia, Dallas–Fort Worth, Boston,
Detroit, Miami–Fort Lauderdale, Hous-
ton, Atlanta, Phoenix, Minneapolis,
and Seattle (U.S. Census Bureau,
2000). Local educational programs for
d/Dhh students that offer counseling
were located by means of the 2005 ref-
erence issue of the American Annals
of the Deaf (Moores, 2005).
We used a criterion sampling
method. Criterion samplings have a
set standard or multiple fixed stan-
dards that must be met for partici-
pants (Patton, 2001). To meet the
criteria for participating in the quanti-
tative portion of the study, counselors
had to be serving d/Dhh students in
public schools and have a working re-
lationship with a program for d/Dhh
students. Thus, participants who
worked as counselors in residential
schools as well as participants who
worked as general school counselors
were excluded.
In March 2006, after approval was
received from the institutional review
board, letters were mailed to 75 pro-
grams to inform the counselors of the
study and directing them to a website
where the questionnaire could be
found. Two letters were returned as
having incorrect addresses. The ques-
tionnaire, placed on www.SurveyCon-
sole.com, was opened to participants
on March 30, 2006. The questionnaire
was designed so that participants had
to read the informed consent and se-
lect “agree” if they chose to continue
with the survey. The website was
scheduled to close on April 30, 2006,
but remained open due to a lack of
responses. In an attempt to solicit
additional participants, information
regarding the study was posted on
three listservs during the first week of
May 2006.
Due to the poor initial response,
the first author (Lomas) contacted the
program coordinators of the 75 pro-
grams by phone. Many of the program
coordinators reported that the indica-
tion of the presence of counseling ser-
vices at their school in the annual ref-
erence edition of the American
Annals of the Deaf was in error. Most
program coordinators reported that
in fact they did not employ a profes-
sional school counselor who worked
with d/Dhh students. Instead, they in-
dicated that these students had access
to school counseling with general ed-
ucation counselors using interpreters.
Although great efforts were made to
identify school counselors working
with d/Dhh students in public schools,
only 22 participants fully completed
the questionnaire. The characteristics
of the participants are listed in Table 1.
The population was overwhelmingly
female (86%), with a large majority of
the total population (73%) being White
women. Demographic findings listed
in Table 2 indicate that most of the re-
spondents were hearing. Furthermore,
all of the respondents had graduate
degrees.
Early researchers (Byrd, 2004; Ver-
non & Andrews, 1990) found that
many counselors working with d/Dhh
students prior to the 1960s were not
formally trained as counselors. These
studies found that these students were
often counseled by individuals who
were able to connect with students.
These first counselors were often
teachers who had good rapport with
students or friendly house parents
who supervised dorm students. While
none of the participants in the present
study identified themselves as having a
doctorate, all indicated that they had a
master’s degree or a specialist’s de-
gree. Most of the respondents (68%)
had received their graduate training in
school counseling. These data are pro-
vided in Table 3.
Participants: Qualitative
Portion of the Study
Participants in the qualitative portion
of the present study were located by
18113-AAD156.3_Summer2011 8/16/11 12:15 PM Page 307
calling deaf education program coun-
selors and coordinators in various
states. Participants in both Texas and
Ohio agreed to join in the study. The
sampling was purposeful, as coun-
selors working with d/Dhh students in
public schools were needed to de-
velop research in this area. Bogdan
and Biklen (2003) describe purpose-
ful sampling as selecting “particular
subjects to include because they are
believed to facilitate the expansion of
developing theory” (p. 65). Of utmost
importance was the likelihood that
each counselor fit the profile of a typ-
ical case. M. D. Gall, J. P. Gall, and Borg
(2003) characterized a typical case as a
single case or set of multiple cases
that would be sufficiently character-
istic to describe the phenomenon.
Geography was of secondary impor-
tance, as preference was given to face-
to-face interviews. Interviews were
scheduled to occur in December 2006
and January 2007. An interview proto-
col was developed; details regarding
the protocol are described in the In-
strumentation section of the present
article. Demographic information
about the participants in the qualita-
tive portion of the study is provided in
Table 4.
Table 4 shows that the profile of
the qualitative group in regard to race,
gender, hearing status, and age was
similar to that of the quantitative
group. For example, 91% of the quan-
titative participants were between the
ages of 30 and 59 years, while 100% of
the qualitative respondents were in
this age range. The quantitative panel
was 86% female, while the quantita-
tive panel was 83% female. The quan-
titative panel was 86% hearing, while
the qualitative panel was 83% hearing.
Similarly, the quantitative panel was
86% White, while the qualitative panel
was 83% White. All of the members of
the qualitative interview panel indi-
cated that they held graduate degrees
in school counseling, while the quan-
titative panel had 68% with degrees in
school counseling, 18% in school psy-
chology, 9% in social work, and 5% in
other areas.
Instrumentation
Instrument: Quantitative
Portion of the Study
A protocol was developed to gather
data about the perceived actual and
ideal roles of the counselor. Because
the first author had experience as a
public school counselor for d/Dhh
students, he contributed to the devel-
opment of the protocol. A compre-
hensive list of tasks engaged in during
prior employment was created. This
list was merged with tasks identified
in the current literature (ASCA, 2003;
Antia & Kreimeyer, 1996; Brandt &
Moore, 2005; Vernon & Andrews,
1990). Initially, 52 tasks were identified
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THE ROLE OF COUNSELORS SERVING DEAF STUDENTS
Age (years) White male White female Black male Black female
20–29 1001
30–39 1600
40–49 1502
50–59 0500
Totals 3 16 03
N= 22.
Table 1
Age, Race, and Gender Characteristics of Participants in Quantitative Portion
of the Study
Training areas Hearing Deaf Totals
School counseling 13 2 15
School psychology 404
Social work 202
Other 011
Totals 19 3 22
N= 22.
Table 3
Areas of Training for Participants in Quantitative Portion of the Study
Participant Gender Age (years) Audiologic status Race Location
1 Female 40–49 Hearing White Texas
2 Female 30–39 Hearing Black Texas
3 Male 40–49 Deaf White Texas
4 Female 50–59 Hearing White Ohio
5 Female 50–59 Hearing White Texas
6 Female 30–39 Hearing White Texas
N= 6.
Table 4
Demographic Characteristics of Participants in the Qualitative Interview
Degree Hearing Deaf Totals
Master’s 17 3 20
Specialist 202
Doctoral 000
N= 22.
Table 2
Academic Degrees and Hearing Status
of Participants in Quantitative Portion
of the Study
18113-AAD156.3_Summer2011 8/16/11 12:15 PM Page 308
as potential duties that counselors
perform in their jobs with d/Dhh stu-
dents. Three questions were asked for
each of the 52 tasks: (a) Compared to
all other tasks performed on the job,
how much time do you spend per-
forming this task? (b) Compared to all
other tasks performed on the job,
how much time do you think you
should be spending on this task? (c)
Compared to all other tasks per-
formed on the job, how important is
this task? Answers were Likert scaled,
with 0 being the lower anchor, 3 being
a null answer, and 5 being the highest
value. Specifically, an answer of 0 meant
that the counselor never performed
the task; 1 meant that the counselor
performed it for much less time; 2
meant that the counselor performed it
for less time; 3 meant that the coun-
selor performed the task for about the
same amount of time as other tasks; 4
meant that the counselor afforded
more time to the task than to other
tasks; and 5 meant that the counselor
devoted much more time to the task
than to other tasks. The protocol was
piloted by sending it to a panel of nine
individuals who had performed the job
of counselor for d/Dhh students in the
past or were counselor educators at
Gallaudet University. Generally, the
panel believed the protocol to be a
solid instrument that would help pro-
duce accurate, representative answers
to the research questions. Several
panel members indicated that the pilot
instrument was too long, and that this
might discourage participants from
completing the instrument. The final
version of the instrument was reduced
to 48 tasks with the 3 questions as de-
scribed above. The list of tasks is pro-
vided in the Appendix.
Validity: Quantitative
Portion of the Study
Three steps were taken to establish
validity. First, each task on the ques-
tionnaire was rooted in professional
research and industry standards.
Tasks were consistent with those com-
monly performed by school coun-
selors (Mustaine & Pappalardo, 1996;
Perusse, Goodnough, & Donegan,
2004). Next, the instrument was pilot-
tested by sending it to nine profes-
sionals who were familiar with the
role and function of school coun-
selors who specialize in working with
d/Dhh students. The instrument was
then sent to a recognized expert in
the field for final feedback. A profes-
sor from the counseling department
at Gallaudet University was contacted.
The professor indicated that the in-
strument was improved and appeared
adequate to address the research
questions.
Reliability: Quantitative
Portion of the Study
Cronbach’s alpha was run to measure
the internal consistency of the ques-
tionnaire associated with the present
study. In general, tests with a reliabil-
ity coefficient of .80 or higher are ap-
propriate for research (M. D. Gall et
al., 2003). The overall reliability of the
instrument used in the present study
was rated at .96. The items on the
questionnaire highly correlated with
each other.
Instrument: Qualitative
Portion of the Study
An interview protocol was developed
to identify themes that might clarify
the role and function of counselors
working in public school programs for
d/Dhh students and address the sec-
ond research question. The resulting
protocol was a semistructured inter-
view form with open-ended questions.
The questions focused on five themes:
(a) guidance curriculum, (b) assess-
ment, (c) counseling needs of stu-
dents, (d) roles and responsibilities
that are challenging or rewarding, and
(e) professional development avail-
able to the counselor. The specific
questions were:
1. Do you use a guidance and
counseling curriculum?
2. Do you conduct any assess-
ments?
3. What are some of the common
counseling needs of your
students?
4. What roles and responsibilities
do you find most challenging/
rewarding?
5. Are there adequate professional
development opportunities avail-
able specific to your work?
Validity: Qualitative Portion
of the Study
Results from the quantitative portion
of the present study were reviewed,
and questions for the qualitative pro-
tocol emerged. These questions
were shared with two experts on
qualitative research, who were able
to identify five basic questions. Gaps
in the role of counselors were evi-
dent, as participants were con-
strained by Likert-scaled responses
and were not able to freely explain
their role. Additionally, 22 responses
to the quantitative instrument made
the addition of qualitative interviews
necessary.
Validity was enhanced in the pres-
ent study by using multiple methods
of data collection. All interviews were
transcribed, then sent back to the in-
terviewee for proofing. Qualitative
results, as applicable, were compared
with quantitative findings to strengthen
overall conclusions. This practice, tri-
angulation, contributes to process va-
lidity (M. D. Gall et al., 2003). Chatterji
(2004) also has noted that converging
findings from two sources of data es-
tablish construct validity and expan-
sion, a term used when more than one
method is employed to create a more
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complete picture of the construct be-
ing studied. Thus, adding the qualita-
tive aspect to the study offered the
opportunity to address the relative
weaknesses of the quantitative find-
ings. When all results are viewed to-
gether, a chain of evidence is revealed
and helps make it possible to draw
meaningful relationships among re-
search questions, raw data, and find-
ings (M. D. Gall et al., 2003). This chain
of evidence served to strengthen the
overall validity of the study.
Reliability: Qualitative
Portion of the Study
The questionnaire used in the qualita-
tive portion of the study offered open-
ended questions to facilitate rich and
thorough responses. The participants
all responded to the same set of ques-
tions. Thus, the comparability of re-
sponses was inherent. By using a
standardized protocol, we were able
to minimize bias (Bogdan & Biklen,
2003). Finally, conducting multiple in-
terviews made it possible to maximize
the potential for acquiring objective
and balanced findings.
Data Analysis
Quantitative Analysis
Statistical methods for analysis are de-
termined once assumptions are
tested. In survey data, there are typi-
cally four assumptions. Checking the
assumption of normality is a critical
function of data analysis (Field, 2007).
Normality was tested using the Statis-
tical Package for Social Sciences, ver-
sion 16. For each of the 48 tasks,
questions 1 and 2, the actual roles and
the ideal roles, were examined. Re-
sults revealed that only 6 of the 96
questions (6%) met the criteria for
normality of distribution. With 94% of
the questions unable to meet the test
of normality, parametric analysis was
not an option.
Other assumptions tested included
homogeneity of variance, independ-
ence, and interval data. Levene’s test
of variance was used to test the as-
sumption of variance. Results indi-
cated that the findings were not
homogeneous. Thus, the test of vari-
ance was not met. Independence was
not a factor, as the participants an-
swered test items online. Further-
more, the participants were spread
across the United States. Thus, there
was no risk of one participant influ-
encing others. Finally, the answers
were set up in meaningful intervals.
Taken together, assumptions were
not all met, and data had to be ana-
lyzed by means of nonparametric
procedures.
In this case, where we wanted to
compare answers to questions about
actual and ideal roles, a Wilcoxon test
was deemed most appropriate. The
Wilcoxon test examines the difference
in rankings and does not assume a
normally shaped distribution. When
viewing the instrument, one will find
that for each of the two basic ques-
tions, a 3 is a null position (i.e., “about
the same amount of time”). With this
in mind, we determined whether the
data supported a finding that a statis-
tically significant number of respon-
dents reported values less than 3 or
greater than 3. Conversely, if there
was no statistically significant differ-
ence, then we concluded that re-
sponses were “null,” or about 3. The
indicated p value indicates the
strength of the significance. To be sig-
nificant, the p value should be less
than about .05, and the smaller the p
value, the more confidently one can
say that the response is less or greater
than 3. We ran this analysis for each of
the three questions relative to each of
the 48 tasks identified. Additionally,
we applied the Bonferroni correction
(Field, 2007) to reduce the possibility
that items reached significance due to
chance.
Qualitative Analysis
To address research question 2, it was
necessary to make transcriptions of all
interviews. Five of the interviews were
audiotaped, and one interview, with
the d/Deaf participant, was video-
taped. All interviews were then tran-
scribed and put into electronic text so
that they might be read and analyzed
further. Questions on the interview
protocol were open ended and in-
volved more than a single-word re-
sponse. Therefore, the qualitative data
were analyzed by means of the con-
stant comparative method to capture
the multiple but equally applicable and
legitimate aspects of individual experi-
ences and perspectives (R. B. Johnson
& Onwuegbuzie, 2006). Constant com-
parative methodology is based on
grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin,
1998), according to which a researcher
“looks at a particular situation and tries
to understand what is going on” (Licht-
man, 2006, p. 66). With this method,
data are collected through observa-
tions and interviews, then compared
for each interview (Lichtman, 2006).
For the purposes of the present study,
data collected from the first participant
were transcribed, then analyzed for
pertinent issues or ideas. These perti-
nent issues were then compared with
data revealed in the subsequent inter-
views. As additional interviews were
conducted, data were compared by
means of simple codes on an ongoing
basis. New data were compared with
what had been previously collected
and analyzed. These codes were then
grouped into broader categories or
themes. From the themes, we identi-
fied patterns in the course of develop-
ing a working model to identify the
role of participants.
Results
Quantitative Findings
Because the data were found to be non -
parametric, we examined the quantita-
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tive findings using descriptive statistics
(percentages), the Wilcoxon test, and
the Bonferroni post hoc test. Twelve
tasks reached statistical significance at
the .05 level. For all tasks, the respon-
dents indicated that they performed
these tasks (Q1) less than they felt they
should (Q2). These specific tasks are
listed in Table 5 and discussed in fur-
ther detail later in the present article.
Findings were generally harmo-
nious, indicating that the respondents
felt they were doing what they felt they
should be doing. There were tasks that
revealed that respondents were focus-
ing too little or too much attention on
the task in relation to other tasks. Gen-
erally, those tasks are identified in
Table 5. However, questions arose in
some areas that were addressed with
added depth in the qualitative portion
of the present study.
Table 5 lists tasks the counselors
believed they should engage in more
often. For example, their responses to
Task 8 indicated their belief that they
should engage in needs assessment to
identify counseling needs more fre-
quently. While it is unclear why the
cohort was not conducting needs as-
sessments, they self-reported this as
an activity they should do more often.
Regarding direct counseling services,
no statistical significance was shown
for Tasks 1–7, which addressed indi-
vidual counseling. Thus, counselors
indicated that they provided individ-
ual counseling to students at a level
they felt was appropriate. However,
statistical significance on Tasks 9, 10,
and 12 indicates that the counselors
would have liked to provide more
group counseling. Tasks 13–16, focus-
ing on the use of guidance curricu-
lum, were all statistically significant.
Counselors indicated that they would
have liked to use a guidance curricu-
lum, and showed preference for one
they could purchase commercially.
Tasks 28–31 examined how counselors
work with parents. Tasks 28 and 29
were statistically significant: Coun-
selors believed they should be more
involved in organizing and leading
parent education meetings. Tasks
33–37 addressed counselor interac-
tion among other staff in the coun-
selors’ schools. Task 37 was significant,
indicating that counselors believed
they should be more involved in staff
development opportunities. Finally,
Tasks 39–43 were designed to glean
information about counselors provid-
ing academically related counseling.
Among this group, Task 41 was signifi-
cant, which means that the coun-
selors believed they should meet
more frequently with students to im-
prove their awareness of their own
learning styles. The examination of
these findings informed the develop-
ment of interview questions for the
qualitative portion of the study.
Qualitative Findings
In the present section, we identify
and examine the five major themes
that emerged from the interviews.
Although not all the themes are spe-
cific to the role of the participants,
the themes help one to understand
the experience of counselors in
public school programs for d/Dhh
students.
Theme 1: Authority Based
on Experience
The first theme to be clearly identified
was authority based on experience.
This theme was evident among all
of the participants. Participants used
experience as their justification for
disregarding standards, policies, and
perhaps even laws. For example, when
Participant 4 explained that she took
pieces of the district guidance curricu-
lum for hearing students and changed
or disregarded them, she implied that
she modified and selected materials
based on her own judgment and ex-
perience. She stated, “It’s just experi-
ence over the years, what kind of
activities I’ve taken . . . I use several
different books that I’ve been ex-
posed to over the years.” She added,
“I think students feel very comfort-
able talking with me, because they’ve
known me for such a long time.”
When Participant 1 was asked if she
conducted any assessments, she indi-
cated that she did not do any. Ques-
tioned specifically about counseling
assessments, she said, “A lot of it is just
my experience [emphasis added]
with them because I have the kids . . .
long term.” When asked why she did
not write an IEP for counseling as a re-
lated service, she stated, “I write guid-
ance and counseling on the service
Task number Task activity
8 Conducts needs assessment to identify counseling needs
9 Provides group counseling to deaf students with similar counseling needs
10 Provides group counseling to deaf students with varying counseling needs
12 Provides group counseling to deaf students with multiple disabilities
13 Uses a guidance curriculum
14 Uses a guidance curriculum that is commercially available
15 Provides guidance to all students in the deaf program
16 Provides guidance to select students in the deaf program
28 Organizes parent education meetings
29 Leads parent education meetings
37 Provides staff development
41 Meets with students to improve their awareness of their own learning style
Table 5
Tasks That Were Significant at the .05 Level
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page; that’s the way it’s worked since
1993.” Participant 1 clearly inferred
that program history and her experi-
ence took precedence over standards
in the field. Furthermore, when Par-
ticipant 5 was asked if she evaluated
students before starting counseling,
she stated, “We have never done eval-
uations before starting counseling.”
She demonstrated an elevated level
of arrogance rooted in her years of
experience as a counselor for d/Dhh
students.
Theme 2: Director of
Collaborations/Negotiations
The second theme that was apparent
upon analysis of the respondents’
transcripts was that most respondents
saw themselves as directors of collab-
orations or negotiations. For in-
stance, Participant 4 was asked how
she chose the materials she used for
guidance lessons. She indicated that
she relied on the input of teachers
and students. However, she indicated
that she ultimately chose the materi-
als and activities herself. Thus, while
she initially implied that she allowed
others to direct her, she retained
power as director by stating that she
ultimately chose materials and activi-
ties. The same paradox was evident
when she was asked about her inter-
actions with teachers who might feel
they competed with her for instruc-
tional time. She indicated that if a
teacher did not want her in the class-
room, she instructed the teacher to
contact her when she was needed.
Thus, she ultimately placed responsi-
bility on the teachers to contact her.
Even in shifting responsibility to
teachers, she retained control of col-
laborations in these situations.
When Participant 1 was asked about
her interactions with parents, she
stated, “I choose to deal with them a
lot.” Clearly, she saw herself as in con-
trol of her interactions with parents.
When Participant 5 talked about pro-
viding guidance, she stated, “I . . . work
with students as needs arise.” This per-
ception of her role had kept her in
control of her relationships with stu-
dents. Additionally, when asked about
non-counseling duties, she stated
that she “despised” paperwork, which
seems to grow in special education.
She further said that she tried to “keep
paperwork to a minimum.” This may
be the reason why she demonstrated
resistance to creating IEPs for her
students. Nevertheless, she felt em-
powered to control the amount of
paperwork she had to do. Thus, she
remained in control of negotiations.
Theme 3: Isolation
Professional isolation was a theme
present in all interviews. It is clearly
illustrated in a comment made by
Participant 1 when she responded to
Question 5, about professional devel-
opment: “I really miss being able to
talk to anyone else who does any coun-
seling with deaf and hard of hearing
students in school.” She was referring
to a lack of collegiality when she stated,
“That could contribute to a hole in my
professional development.” Participant
3 also showed isolation through auton-
omy and a lack of resources when he
was asked about using a guidance cur-
riculum and declared, “Why should I?
It wouldn’t meet the needs of my stu-
dents.” He elaborated by explaining
that he had a closet full of old materials
he picked through to help him get new
ideas. A subtheme of autonomy under-
scores the theme of isolation.
Participant 1 identified the unique-
ness of counseling d/Dhh students
when she responded to Question 3,
regarding common counseling needs
of her students. She stated, “So [the
students] come to us with things that
the hearing kids won’t come to their
teachers with, like the peer conflict
stuff, all that stuff.” She clearly sepa-
rated her experience from the experi-
ence of general education counselors.
She added, “We help with communi-
cation, something a counselor with
hearing kids wouldn’t have to do.”
Participant 4 explained that her job
was unique when compared to that of
general education counselors. When
asked about non-counseling duties,
she stated, “I don’t have cafeteria duty
. . . recess duty . . . I don’t have any of
that.” The perception of counselors
serving d/Dhh students in public
schools is that they are a unique
group, dissimilar to peers in general
education. But along with these feel-
ings of autonomy and uniqueness
comes a sense of being isolated.
Theme 4: Surrogate Parent/
Insightful Social Confidante
The fourth theme was a very powerful
one among all six respondents. They
all appeared to have an elevated level
of concern for their students. All six
described some level of dysfunction
in the home lives of their students.
Primarily, the dysfunction was focused
on miscommunication between the
students and their parents. The coun-
selors were concerned beyond what
might be expected of a school coun-
selor. Their level of concern appeared
parental, as if they assumed some
level of responsibility for the parental
role. Also, the respondents generally
felt that their presence in the life of
the student was critical, as a social
confidante might feel. In this situa-
tion, it is likely the students were
identifying with the counselor as a
parental figure, a phenomena known
as transference. When this happens,
the counselor may respond by assum-
ing a parental role in the child’s life, a
phenomena known as countertrans-
ference.
Participant 4 illustrated this theme
in making several comments that
showed that she perceived herself as
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having counseling capabilities that
were based on personal qualities in-
stead of professional knowledge or
skill. For example, she stated, “I can
get them to tell me what is actually
wrong instead of just saying some-
thing to appease the teacher. . . . I am
really good at actually perceiving what
is wrong with the situation.” In an-
other instance, she stated, “When a
teacher refers a student and [tells
me,] ‘This is going on because some-
thing is going on at home,’ when I
meet with the student, I can tell that’s
not the problem at all.” This quote
provides a clear illustration that she
perceived herself to have exceptional
ability to use insight that exceeded
the teacher’s and to serve the student
as a social confidante. Participant 4
also explained that her program
served a large number of students
from households with low socioeco-
nomic status. She stated that such a
situation results in difficulties with
parent involvement: “We just don’t
have parent involvement, period.”
She was critical of the large number of
parents who do not know sign lan-
guage: “It is kind of interesting, still,
after all these years, to see the parents
who still cannot sign, and they still
feel they are communicating with
their child.” It may be that this par-
ticipant believed that as a social con-
fidante, she was able to fill a void
that existed in students’ lives be-
cause of a lack of a relationship with
their parents.
Participant 1 clearly implied that
she filled a parental void when she
was asked about common counseling
needs of her students. She stated,
“Underlying needs are based on the
fact that deaf kids don’t have commu-
nication at home . . . because they
need guidance that they’re just not
getting at home.” She described the
dynamics of d/Dhh students in public
schools as “like a big family, and often
times more of a functioning family
than the families they live in.” She
went on to reinforce her role as a sur-
rogate parent when she stated, “I
think the biggest reason for the coun-
seling needs [is] because of the com-
munication in the home, which affects
their relationships and their value de-
velopment.” She explained that she
endorsed the idea of the school as a
surrogate family when she said, “I
really try to emphasize that there is a
network that they can be connected
to, and even if they [aren’t] connected
to their families, there’s a network
they’ll connect with and [that will]
give them a sense of what they can be
like in the future.” She provided
more examples, such as advising a
student to request an interpreter
when seeing the doctor, that showed
care beyond what might be expected
of a counselor.
Participant 5 was also critical of par-
ents, and put herself in a surrogate
role. She commented, “Many [stu-
dents] have parents who don’t know
sign language. They have a lot of prob-
lems getting along with family.” Ad-
dressing student behavior, she stated,
“I think my kids have no idea how to
behave. On some level, it’s hard to
blame them because they don’t have
anyone at home who can talk with
them about their behavior.” In this
case, she projected blame on the
home environment for behavior prob-
lems. Further illustrating her role as a
social confidante, she added, “Many . .
. students who see me for individual
counseling have constant conflicts
with their parents.” She perceived
herself as someone who was there for
students when parents were not able
to communicate. Participant 6 was
equally critical of parents, stating that
students “don’t have anyone at home
who can talk with them about their
behavior.” She projected the blame for
misbehavior on problems at home.
She added, “I believe many of these
problems would be less intense or
may not exist if the parents could
communicate with their children.”
When asked about the most chal-
lenging aspects of her job, she stated,
“Until [parents] learn effective com-
munication in ASL, [students] will
always have problems.” Clearly, all re-
spondents believed that parents were
a significant source of problems with
their students. Due to countertrans-
ference, all respondents felt some
level of responsibility to fill the void of
poor parental communication.
Theme 5: Martyr
The martyr theme was the fifth one
that clearly emerged. All of the re-
spondents expressed some degree of
martyrdom. The martyr theme was
based on comments about responsi-
bilities that were not shared, the as-
signment of blame for problems to
others, perceptions that others did
not understand the culture of deaf-
ness, and beliefs that the profession is
devalued. These subthemes are dis-
cussed as they support the theme of
martyrdom.
Participant 6 was evidently catego-
rizing herself as a martyr when she
spoke about her most challenging
roles and responsibilities. She de-
scribed the paperwork in her job as
challenging, something she disliked.
She went on to say that “teachers have
it easy.” Apparently, she perceived her
role and function to be more difficult
than the role and function of teachers,
especially with regard to paperwork.
She made a similar comment when
asked about doing group guidance.
She indicated that she did her guid-
ance in an empty office on one cam-
pus. However, she described herself
as the “low man on the totem pole,”
who frequently experienced being
kicked out of the office she had re-
served well in advance. She clearly felt
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that her function on campus was de-
valued. Participant 5 also described
martyrdom in her role when asked
about her caseload. She indicated that
she had to see more than 100 stu-
dents in group counseling on a regu-
lar basis. She stated, “I try my best to
see them as often as possible, but
there are so many kids with so many
needs.” It seems that Participant 5 felt
that she was doing more work than
she could manage.
Participant 1 was explicit when she
spoke about feeling devalued at her
job. She remarked, “Statewide and
districtwide, counseling as a whole is
not as valued as it used to be.” Initially,
she spoke about the devaluing of the
profession as a whole. Later, when
speaking about use of a guidance cur-
riculum, she purported that her role
and function were more challenging
than the role and function of the gen-
eral education counselor. She stated,
“The way elementary counselors are
doing it now is mostly they will go into
a classroom and read a book to the
kids . . . [perhaps about] respect, and
they have a little [emphasis added]
discussion, and I can’t do that.” She
clearly implied that elementary gen-
eral education counselors had an eas-
ier time of running group guidance.
While she may have served fewer stu-
dents than a general education coun-
selor, she perceived the depth and
breadth of her work to be much
greater. She described other unique
responsibilities such as “meeting with
the parents [and students together]
and helping with communication,
something a counselor with hearing
kids would not have to do.” Finally,
her previously mentioned comments
about being isolated and having no
opportunity to network with other
professionals who counseled d/Dhh
students also support the theme of
martyrdom. Her perception that oth-
ers did not understand her students,
nor understood the complexity of her
work, supports the two themes of iso-
lation and martyrdom.
Limitations of the Study
Identification of limitations is an inte-
gral part of research. The small sam-
ple size in the quantitative portion of
the present study (N = 22) made para-
metric analysis a challenge. Therefore,
the study was extended to include a
qualitative portion (N = 6) to support
the findings. Still, generalization of
themes and experiences is problem-
atic, as qualitative themes are limited
to the experiences of the participants.
However, Borg and M. D. Gall (1989)
have said that small sample sizes are
appropriate when researchers are
working with a small population. Al-
though the annual reference edition
of the American Annals of the Deaf
(Moores, 2005) identifies a large num-
ber of public schools offering counsel-
ing, the reality is there are few public
schools across the nation that employ
a counselor specifically for their d/Dhh
students. The small sample size makes
data analysis problematic and gener-
alization difficult. Furthermore, the
qualitative respondents were limited
to only two states. The present study
might therefore be considered a pilot
study, providing the impetus for future
analysis of school counselors working
with d/Dhh students.
Discussion
The present study examined the dif-
ference between the perceived actual
and perceived ideal roles of coun-
selors in public school programs for
d/Dhh students in major metropolitan
areas across the United States. Al-
though only 12 of the 48 tasks from
the survey were statistically signifi-
cant, much can be learned from exam-
ining the other 36 tasks. For example,
Tasks 1, 2, and 3 addressed individual
counseling. They were not statistically
significant because there was not a
significant difference between ques-
tions 1 and 2 for each task. Yet it is
clear that the respondents favored
providing individual counseling, a
task that is incongruent with the ASCA
(2003) model. Task 4 asked respon-
dents about providing counseling to
students outside of the program for
these students. Most respondents
(70%) indicated they did not do this,
and most (65%) indicated they should
not allot time to this task. Similarly, re-
sponses to Task 11 indicated that 69%
of respondents did not provide group
counseling outside of the deaf educa-
tion program, while 60% felt that no
time should be allotted to this task.
Furthermore, 74% of respondents to
Task 17 indicated that they did not
provide guidance for students in gen-
eral education; 70% believed they
should allot no time to this task. It is
noteworthy that respondents per-
ceived their role as exclusive to d/Dhh
students (even though this finding is
not statistically significant in the pres-
ent study).
Like other students in special edu-
cation, d/Dhh students must be evalu-
ated to determine their eligibility. Task
20 asked the respondents if they were
involved in this type of assessment.
Most of the respondents (68%) indi-
cated they did not allot any time to
this task; an equal percentage felt that
they should not allot any time to this
task. This sends a clear message that
counselors working with d/Dhh stu-
dents perceive a limited role for them-
selves as evaluators. Findings for tasks
that related to assessment of different
areas (behavior, cognition, achieve-
ment) were similar in that the respon-
dents allotted little or no time to
assessment and felt they should allot
little or no time to this task. Similarly,
the respondents indicated that they
did little or no administrative work
(behavior monitoring, student disci-
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pline) and felt that they should allot
little or no time to these tasks. Thus,
the respondents made clear state-
ments that their role excluded admin-
istrative tasks. Although responses on
36 of the questions were not statisti-
cally significant, there was substantial
practical significance regarding the
role and function of this population.
Many of these tasks are congruent
with the ASCA (2003) model and may
warrant further analysis in the future.
Recommendations
for Practice
Local education agencies that have
d/Dhh students in their schools should
consider if and how they are meeting
the counseling needs of these stu-
dents. Henderson and Gysbers (1998)
say that needs assessments, both for
students and for the counselors that
serve them, are an essential function
in school counseling. Because deaf-
ness is a low-incidence disability, the
needs of this population are often
overlooked. Thus, needs assessments
should be sent to all parties, including
parents, teachers, counselors, and
d/Dhh students themselves, when age
appropriate. Members of the adminis-
tration, the community, and advisory
boards should also be consulted
when ways of meeting the counseling
needs of these students are being
considered. The ASCA (2003) model
stipulates that all students should re-
ceive direct services from a school
counselor. Yet many programs that
were contacted to participate in the
present study did not have a coun-
selor assigned to work with their
d/Dhh students.
Although it may be beyond the
scope of the present study, a uniform
job description of this specialized role
should be developed. Findings from
this study may be a good starting point
toward this goal. There are many as-
pects of the ideal role of the respon-
dents that were congruent with their
current role. For example, 82% of the
survey respondents did not schedule
classes for d/Dhh students, and 68% of
the respondents believed they should
not allocate any time to this task. Con-
sistent with these positions, the ASCA
(2003) model cites scheduling of stu-
dents as an inappropriate task for
school counselors. However, there
were some role statements that were
not congruent, yet are common tasks
for school counselors. For example,
86% of respondents indicated that they
did not coordinate state-mandated
testing, and an equal percentage stated
that they should not allocate time to
this task. Nevertheless, in some states
the coordination of state-mandated
testing is one of the primary duties of
the general school counselor. Clearly,
the role and function of general school
counselors and counselors working
with d/Dhh students are different in
many ways. The role and function of
the counselor serving d/Dhh students
appear to be more heavily weighted
toward direct counseling and guid-
ance, whereas the position of the gen-
eral education counselor is likely to be
more heavily weighted toward admin-
istrative tasks. Of utmost importance
in this area is that schools should ex-
amine the role to create a job descrip-
tion that meets the counseling needs
of their students.
Counselors working with d/Dhh
students in public schools must find a
way to connect with each other.
Counselor educators should also con-
sider the unique needs of students
with disabilities. Prior studies (Glenn,
1998; Milsom & Akos, 2003) have indi-
cated that counselors are not receiv-
ing course work on the needs of
exceptional students. Professional as-
sociations should be compelled to
create position statements on how
best to meet the counseling needs of
d/Dhh students. Counselor educators
should consider using these position
statements to inform their training
programs.
Recommendations
for Research
The ASCA (2003) model states that all
students should receive direct ser-
vices from a school counselor. How-
ever, how that is defined is left largely
to local school districts. The partici-
pants in the present study were all
specialists in working with d/Dhh stu-
dents. Their presence on a campus
may have absolved the general educa-
tion counselor of the responsibility to
provide services to these students.
Still, the role and function of the
counselor working with d/Dhh stu-
dents should be examined with more
scrutiny to further delineate similari-
ties and differences when compared
with the role and function of coun-
selors serving students in general
education. Once this is done, profes-
sional identity in the field can be
more pronounced and will better
foster advocacy for all students, in-
cluding those from underrepresented
groups.
Guidance is another area that war-
rants further research. In both the
qualitative and quantitative portions
of the present study, the respondents
indicated that they did not provide as
much guidance as they would have
liked. Furthermore, respondents ex-
pressed a desire for an appropriate
guidance curriculum, something de-
signed for d/Dhh students. The ASCA
(2003) model endorses school coun-
selors providing guidance and sug-
gests that elementary counselors
provide guidance 35%–45% of their
time. Researchers might examine the
specific use of time in delivering guid-
ance, curricula that are appropriate
for use with d/Dhh students, and
issues with the modification of cur-
rent curricula.
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Finally, the qualitative findings
were highly supportive of transfer-
ence and countertransference when
counselors are working with d/Dhh
students. Although transference and
countertransference can be used as
therapeutic tools, they can also be
dangerous if the counselor is unaware
of these two phenomena. Transfer-
ence may lead the student to overi-
dentify the counselor as a parental
figure. While these counselors may
desire to fulfill a parental role, they
should also be supportive of a healthy
parent-child relationship. They are
also ethically obligated to keep
healthy boundaries that are within
professional limits. When counselors
take on the parental role (counter-
transference), they risk becoming too
closely involved with the student. This
potentially can result in nonbeneficial
relationships and diminish the thera-
peutic benefits of the counseling rela-
tionship. When considering issues of
transference and countertransfer-
ence, one must wonder about the su-
pervision that new counselors receive
when working with deaf students.
Models of counselor supervision
might need to be explored in relation
to counselors working with this popu-
lation. Public schools are increasingly
the primary choice of parents for the
education of d/Dhh children, and sup-
port services, such as counseling, are
an essential component of a free ap-
propriate public education.
Summary
Prior studies have pointed out that
students in d/Dhh programs are at
higher risk of child abuse (American
Academy of Pediatrics, 2001; Knutson,
C. R. Johnson, & Sullivan, 2004; Wes-
tat, Inc., 1994), and have significant
social/emotional and behavioral chal-
lenges (Antia & Kreimeyer, 1996) and
psychological difficulties (Luterman,
2001; Moses, 1983; Vernon & Andrews,
1990) that require a professional
school counselor to address these
needs. The present study reports the
findings of a 48-item questionnaire to
help identify the role of counselors
who work with d/Dhh students in
public schools. Due to a low number
of responses (22), 6 follow-up inter-
views were done in an effort to
strengthen the findings. Results re-
vealed that counselors functioned
more like clinicians, providing individ-
ual and group counseling. Manage-
ment activities such as scheduling
students, monitoring their behavior,
and organizing testing were not en-
dorsed by the counselors. Interviews
revealed that counselors perceived
themselves to be in control of their
role. They also perceived themselves
to be close to students, as if they had
assumed the role of a surrogate parent.
In this case, students may experience
transference, and counselors are likely
to experience countertransference. Fi-
nally, these counselors reported feel-
ing isolated, working independently
and without colleagues who under-
stood their role.
Ultimately, the role of the coun-
selors was much different from the
model endorsed by ASCA (2003),
which advocates that school coun-
selors work less as clinicians and more
as educational leaders who manage a
counseling program. Findings from the
present study may be a starting point
for the refinement of a role statement
for counselors working with d/Dhh
students in public schools. Addition-
ally, counselor educators and supervi-
sors should be aware of the experience
of these counselors, as training and su-
pervision implications are apparent.
References
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Appendix
List of Tasks on Questionnaire with Questions
For the following tasks three questions were asked; respondents responded using a Likert scale.
1. Compared to all other tasks performed on the job, how much time do you spend performing this task?
2. Compared to all other tasks performed on the job, how much time do you think you should be spending
on this task?
3. Compared to all other tasks performed on the job, how important is this task?
Tasks
Task 1: Provides individual counseling to all students in deaf program
Task 2: Provides individual counseling to deaf program students with an IEP for counseling
Task 3: Provides individual counseling to students in crisis
Task 4: Provides individual counseling to students outside of the deaf program
Task 5: Provides individual counseling on a regular basis (weekly or biweekly)
Task 6: Provides individual counseling on an as-needed basis
Task 7: Provides individual counseling to deaf students with multiple disabilities
Task 8: Conducts needs assessment to identify counseling needs
Task 9: Provides group counseling to deaf students with similar counseling needs
Task 10: Provides group counseling to deaf students with a variety of counseling needs
Task 11: Provides group counseling to students outside of the deaf program
Task 12: Provides group counseling to deaf students with multiple disabilities
Task 13: Uses a guidance curriculum
Task 14: Uses a guidance curriculum that is commercially available
Task 15: Provides guidance to all students in the deaf program
Task 16: Provides guidance to select students in the deaf program
Task 17: Provides guidance to students outside of the deaf program
Task 18: Provides group guidance to deaf students with multiple disabilities
Task 19: Conducts formal counseling assessments prior to initiation of formal relationship
Task 20: Conducts assessment to determine eligibility for special education
Task 21: Conducts informal counseling assessment (observational/anecdotal data)
Task 22: Conducts informal behavior assessment
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Task 23: Conducts behavior assessment using commercially available instruments (such as the Behavior
Assessment Scale for Children)
Task 24: Conducts achievement testing using commercially available instruments (such as the Woodcock-
Johnson III Achievement Battery)
Task 25: Conducts intelligence testing using commercially available instruments (such as the Wechsler
Intelligence Scale for Children IV)
Task 26: Coordinates state-mandated academic testing
Task 27: Conducts assessments for deaf students with multiple disabilities
Task 28: Organizes parent education/information meetings
Task 29: Leads parent education/information meetings
Task 30: Interprets academic information for parents
Task 31: Refers parents to service providers outside of the school system
Task 32: Updates parents on student progress in counseling
Task 33: Meets with teachers for academic consultation
Task 34: Meets with teachers for behavioral consultation
Task 35: Meets with administration for academic consultation
Task 36: Meets with administration for behavioral consultation
Task 37: Provides staff development
Task 38: Advocates for students when needed
Task 39: Meets with all students in deaf program to schedule classes
Task 40: Meets with students outside of the deaf program to schedule classes
Task 41: Meets with students to improve their awareness of their own learning style
Task 42: Provides orientation for students during academic transitions
Task 43: Coordinates college and career activities
Task 44: Administers discipline to students
Task 45: Monitors student behavior in the cafeteria
Task 46: Monitors student behavior at the bus
Task 47: Teaches academic courses
Task 48: Serves on school-based committees
Note. IEP, individualized education program.
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