This study sought to develop a method to adjust for case mix complexity in catheterization for congenital heart disease to allow equitable comparisons of adverse event (AE) rates.
The C3PO (Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes) has been prospectively collecting data using a Web-based data entry tool on all catheterization cases at 8 pediatric institutions since 2007.
A multivariable logistic regression model with high-severity AE outcome was built using a random sample of 75% of cases in the multicenter cohort; the models were assessed in the remaining 25%. Model discrimination was assessed by the C-statistic and calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The final models were used to calculate standardized AE ratios.
Between August 2007 and December 2009, 9,362 cases were recorded at 8 pediatric institutions of which high-severity events occurred in 454 cases (5%). Assessment of empirical data yielded 4 independent indicators of hemodynamic vulnerability. Final multivariable models included procedure type risk category (odds ratios [OR] for category: 2 = 2.4, 3 = 4.9, 4 = 7.6, all p < 0.001), number of hemodynamic indicators (OR for 1 indicator = 1.5, ≥2 = 1.8, p = 0.005 and p < 0.001), and age <1 year (OR: 1.3, p = 0.04), C-statistic 0.737, and Hosmer-Lemeshow test p = 0.74. Models performed well in the validation dataset, C-statistic 0.734. Institutional event rates ranged from 1.91% to 7.37% and standardized AE ratios ranged from 0.61 to 1.41.
Using CHARM (Catheterization for Congenital Heart Disease Adjustment for Risk Method) to adjust for case mix complexity should allow comparisons of AE among institutions performing catheterization for congenital heart disease.
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"A multivariable model for the outcome serious adverse events (levels 3 through 5) has previously been described ; three independent predictors are included in CHARM, namely, age, hemodynamic vulnerability (Supplemental Table 3) , and procedure type risk category (Supplemental Table 4) . The relationship between these factors and occurrence of life-threatening adverse events (levels 4 and 5) was evaluated using logistic regression analysis; odd ratios (ORs) and 95 % Confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Continued advancements in congenital cardiac catheterization and interventions have resulted in increased patient and procedural complexity. Anticipation of life-threatening events and required rescue measures is a critical component to preprocedural preparation. We sought to determine the incidence and nature of life-threatening adverse events in congenital and pediatric cardiac catheterization, risk factors, and resources necessary to anticipate and manage events. Data from 8905 cases performed at the 8 participating institutions of the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes were captured between 2007 and 2010 [median 1,095/site (range 133–3,802)]. The incidence of all life-threatening events was 2.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8–2.4 %], whereas mortality was 0.28 % (95 % CI 0.18–0.41 %). Fifty-seven life-threatening events required cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whereas 9 % required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Use of a risk adjustment model showed that age <1 year [odd ratio (OR) 1.9, 95 % CI 1.4–2.7, p < 0.001], hemodynamic vulnerability (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.1–2.3, p < 0.01), and procedure risk (category 3: OR 2.3, 95 % CI 1.3–4.1; category 4: OR 4.2, 95 % CI 2.4–7.4) were predictors of life-threatening events. Using this model, standardized life-threatening event ratios were calculated, thus showing that one institution had a life-threatening event rate greater than expected. Congenital cardiac catheterization and intervention can be performed safely with a low rate of life-threatening events and mortality; preprocedural evaluation of risk may optimize preparation of emergency rescue and bailout procedures. Risk predictors (age < 1, hemodynamic vulnerability, and procedure risk category) can enhance preprocedural patient risk stratification and planning.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00246-013-0752-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The broad range of relatively rare procedures performed in pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratories has made the standardization of care and risk assessment in the field statistically quite problematic. However, with the growing number of patients who undergo cardiac catheterization, it has become imperative that the cardiology community overcomes these challenges to study patient outcomes. The Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes was able to develop benchmarks, tools for measurement, and risk adjustment methods while exploring procedural efficacy. Based on the success of these efforts, the collaborative is pursuing a follow-up project, the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes-Quality Improvement, aimed at improving the outcomes for all patients undergoing catheterization for congenital heart disease by reducing radiation exposure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Pulmonary artery (PA) balloon angioplasty and/or stenting (PA rehabilitation) is one of the most common procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, but comprehensive and consistently reported data on procedure-related adverse events (AE) are scarce.
Data were prospectively collected using a multicenter registry (Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes). All cases that included balloon angioplasty and/or stent implantation in a proximal or lobar PA position were included. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate for independent predictors of AE and need for early reintervention. Between February 2007 and December 2009, 8 institutions submitted details on 1315 procedures with a PA intervention. An AE was documented in 22% with a high severity (level 3 to 5) AE in 10% of cases. Types of AE included vascular/cardiac trauma (19%), technical AE (15%), arrhythmias (15%), hemodynamic AE (14%), bleeding via endotracheal tube/reperfusion injury (12%), and other AE (24%). AE were classified as not preventable in 50%, possibly preventable in 41%, and preventable in 9%. By multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for level 3 to 5 AE were presence of ≥2 indicators of hemodynamic vulnerability, age below 1 month, use of cutting balloons, and operator experience of <10 years. Reintervention during the study period occurred in 22% of patients undergoing PA rehabilitation.
PA rehabilitation is associated with a 10% incidence of high-level severity AE. Hemodynamic vulnerability, young age, use of cutting balloons, and lower operator experience were significant independent risk factors for procedure-related AE.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions