Widespread Occurrence of Bisphenol A in Paper and Paper Products: Implications for Human Exposure

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, United States.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 09/2011; 45(21):9372-9. DOI: 10.1021/es202507f
Source: PubMed


Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in a variety of consumer products, including some paper products, particularly thermal receipt papers, for which it is used as a color developer. Nevertheless, little is known about the magnitude of BPA contamination or human exposure to BPA as a result of contact with paper and paper products. In this study, concentrations of BPA were determined in 15 types of paper products (n = 202), including thermal receipts, flyers, magazines, tickets, mailing envelopes, newspapers, food contact papers, food cartons, airplane boarding passes, luggage tags, printing papers, business cards, napkins, paper towels, and toilet paper, collected from several cities in the USA. Thermal receipt papers also were collected from Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. BPA was found in 94% of thermal receipt papers (n = 103) at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ, 1 ng/g) to 13.9 mg/g (geometric mean: 0.211 mg/g). The majority (81%) of other paper products (n = 99) contained BPA at concentrations ranging from below the LOQ to 14.4 μg/g (geometric mean: 0.016 μg/g). Whereas thermal receipt papers contained the highest concentrations of BPA (milligram-per-gram), some paper products, including napkins and toilet paper, made from recycled papers contained microgram-per-gram concentrations of BPA. Contamination during the paper recycling process is a source of BPA in paper products. Daily intake (DI) of BPA through dermal absorption was estimated based on the measured BPA concentrations and handling frequency of paper products. The daily intake of BPA (calculated from median concentrations) through dermal absorption from handling of papers was 17.5 and 1300 ng/day for the general population and occupationally exposed individuals, respectively; these values are minor compared with exposure through diet. Among paper products, thermal receipt papers contributed to the majority (>98%) of the exposures.

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Available from: Chunyang Liao, May 09, 2015
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    • "Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane), an indispensable organic raw material of elasticizer, antioxidant, hot stabilizer, and coating waterproofing material is widely used in cosmetics, paper products, food packaging, and water bottles (Staples et al. 1998; Vandenberg et al. 2007; Liao and Kannan 2011). However, numerous reports revealed that BPA possess certain estrogenic properties, constant exposure of BPA can induce the proliferation of cells and cause a series of potential pathological alteration of reproductive system even at extremely low exposure levels (Howdeshell et al. 1999; Hu et al. 2002; Takayanagi et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: An ultrasensitive fluorescence immunoassay was developed for detection of bisphenol A (BPA). Herein, thiol-modified single-strand DNA (SH-ssDNAs) and anti-BPA antibodies were simultaneously conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and the fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled single-strand DNA was hybridized with SH-ssDNAs to form a dual-codified probe. In the presence of BPA, a competitive immunoreaction was conducted between BPA and BPA coating antigens immobilized on microplate for the anti-BPA antibodies of dual-codified probe. Then, in order to avoid the fluorescent signals quenched by AuNPs, restriction enzyme BamH І was employed to cut the fluorescent labels from immunocomplex, resulting in an increase of fluorescence emission. Under optimized conditions, the linear range for detection of BPA is from 1.0 × 10−2 to 1.0 × 103 ng/L with a low limit of detection of 3.4 × 10−3 ng/L. This method is of good sensibility, stability, and specificity, and it can be used to detect BPA in actual milk products and its migration from packaging materials into milk.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Food Analytical Methods
    • "eu/documents/10162/b217276c-f60e-4461- a94cae6809712815). Liao and Kannan (2011a) determined BPA concentrations in 15 types of paper products, among which thermal receipts were obtained from cities in the United States, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. The highest concentration of BPA was found in thermal receipts (geometric mean: 0.21 mg/g), and 100% of thermal papers from the United States contained BPA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor commonly employed as a color developer in thermal papers. Consequently, BPA derived from thermal papers has been considered an important source of exposure for humans, since this chemical may migrate from paper to skin upon contact. Further, due to recent restrictions on BPA use in some countries, it has been replaced by a new analogue, bisphenol S (BPS). The aim of the present study was to determine levels of BPA and BPS in 190 different thermal receipts, randomly collected from different locations in São Paulo State, Brazil, including receipts from supermarkets, general and fast-food restaurants, gas stations, bus and airplane tickets, and credit card and bank accounts. BPA and/or BPS were detected in 98% of samples at concentrations ranging from below the quantification limit to 4.3% (mg/100 mg paper). The obtained values were higher than amounts previously reported in other countries. The estimated daily intake through dermal absorption from handling of thermal receipt papers was estimated on the basis of concentrations and frequencies of handling of papers by humans in both the general population and occupationally exposed individuals. Fifth percentile, median, and 95th percentile daily intakes by the general population were 0.44, 1.42, and 2 μg/d, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for occupationally exposed population are 21.8, 71 and 101 μg/d. The potential adverse consequences of elevated occupational exposure are currently being examined.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A
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    • "The release of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to drinking water sources, particularly that of bisphenol A (BPA), is a great public health concern [1] [2] [3]. BPA is widely used in the synthesis of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, metal container linings, textiles , paper products, leathers, storm water, and landfill leachate [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]. Most of the BPA used ends up in aquatic environments via municipal and industrial wastewater effluent discharge [11] [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The removal of bisphenol A (BPA) is important for the provision of safe drinking water, but its removal in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) is challenging. Thus, the present study involved the fabrication and characterization of powdered activated carbons impregnated with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPACs) with respect to the simultaneous removal of BPA and NOM. The number of Fe ions loaded into the PAC pores was optimized in terms of exposure time. Impregnation with iron oxide reduced the surface area and pore volume, but the pore size was maintained. IONPAC adsorbents had considerably greater sorption capabilities for BPA and NOM compared to native, bare PAC particles. The adsorption capacities of BPA and NOM were in the following sequence: bare PAC < hematite/PAC < magnetite/PAC < ferrihydrite/PAC. The enhanced removal by IONPACs was attributable to the surface coordination between the functional groups in the iron oxides (e.g., hydroxyl groups) and organics (e.g., phenolic/carboxyl groups). Iron oxide impregnation enabled the BPA uptake to be maintained in the presence of NOM, indicating that the hybrid adsorbent provided synergistic adsorption characteristics for BPA and NOM. Although the solution pH had a negligible impact on BPA uptake, the ionic strength showed a significant effect, particularly in the presence of divalent Ca ions.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Hazardous Materials
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