Momentary Affect Surrounding Loss of Control and Overeating in Obese Adults With and Without Binge Eating Disorder

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 09/2011; 20(6):1206-11. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2011.286
Source: PubMed


Research suggests that loss of control (LOC) while eating (the sense that one cannot control what or how much one is eating) is a more salient feature of binge eating than the amount of food consumed. This study examined the unique contributions of LOC and episode size to negative affect surrounding eating episodes in binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Twenty-two obese adults with (n = 9) and without (n = 13) BED completed daily records of eating patterns and mood using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Linear mixed modeling revealed that across groups, greater premeal self-reported LOC was associated with higher premeal negative affect independent of episode size. For individuals with BED, greater premeal self-reported LOC was associated with higher postmeal negative affect, regardless of the amount of food eaten, whereas for obese controls, the combination of LOC and consumption of large amounts of food was associated with lower postmeal negative affect. Results indicate that LOC, but not the quantity of food consumed, is associated with momentary distress related to aberrant eating in BED. Findings also highlight the need for further research investigating the emotional context surrounding aberrant eating in obese individuals without BED.

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Available from: Li Cao, Sep 12, 2014
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    • "Indeed, negative emotions have found to be associated with (Svaldi et al., 2014a) and preceded by (Agras and Telch, 1998; Goldschmidt et al., 2012) failures in the behavioral control over eating. It has been suggested that loss of control may be the most salient aspect of binge eating (Agras & Telch, 1998; Wolfe et al., 2009; Goldschmidt et al., 2012). A negative mood may lower an individual's threshold for losing control over eating with binge eating as a result. "
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    ABSTRACT: Executive functions play an important role in problem-solving and self-control. Set-shifting is an aspect of executive functioning and represents cognitive flexibility. The inability to control eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may imply deficits in set-shifting which could be exacerbated by negative mood and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to test whether there is a causal relationship between set-shifting ability, changes in mood and loss of control over eating in BED. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to a negative or neutral mood induction. Set-shifting abilities, depressive symptoms, current mood and loss of control over eating were assessed. Having depressive symptoms and poorer set-shifting abilities resulted in a more negative mood after a negative mood induction, whereas this was not observed in the neutral mood induction. Post-hoc analyses revealed that individuals with poorer set-shifting abilities and more changes in negative mood, experienced more feelings of loss of control over eating than individuals whose set-shifting abilities were better and whose mood did not change. The results suggest that both depressive symptoms and deficits in set-shifting abilities may decrease an individual's ability to handle negative affect and increase loss of control over eating in individuals with BED.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "Body dissatisfaction, elevated depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, and ruminative tendencies during early adolescence more consistently predict the onset and persistence of LOC eating in late adolescence and young adulthood (Stice et al. 2002; Nolen-Hoeksema et al. 2007; Goldschmidt et al. 2014a–c). While adolescent dieting and extreme weight control behaviors also predict LOC eating patterns (Haines & Neumark-Sztainer, 2006; Keel & Forney, 2013), negative affect may be more salient when both constructs are considered together (Goldschmidt et al. 2012a, b). Overall, these data (see Supplementary Table S3) suggest that the NVS alone is insufficient to characterize LOC eating, and identify adolescence as a potential sensitive period for the increasing influence of NVS disturbances on LOC eating. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric loss-of-control (LOC) eating is a robust behavioral precursor to binge-type eating disorders. Elucidating precursors to LOC eating and binge-type eating disorders may refine developmental risk models of eating disorders and inform interventions. We review evidence within constructs of the Negative Valence Systems (NVS) domain, as specified by the Research Domain Criteria framework. Based on published studies, we propose an integrated NVS model of binge-type eating-disorder risk. Data implicate altered corticolimbic functioning, neuroendocrine dysregulation, and self-reported negative affect as possible risk factors. However, neuroimaging and physiological data in children and adolescents are sparse, and most prospective studies are limited to self-report measures. We discuss a broad NVS framework for conceptualizing early risk for binge-type eating disorders. Future neural and behavioral research on the developmental trajectory of LOC and binge-type eating disorders is required.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Psychological Medicine
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    • "Binge eating not only involves eating a large amount of food in a short period of time, but is also accompanied by a sense of a loss of control over eating (American Psychiatric Association , 2013). Binge eating episodes are often associated with negative affect and are triggered by emotional stressors (Goldschmidt et al., 2012; Haedt-Matt and Keel, 2011; Hilbert and Tuschen-Caffier, 2007). Stress reactivity, attention, and mood are modulated, in part, by brain norepinephrine (NE) (Hamon and Blier, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Binge eating is a prominent feature of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Stress or perceived stress is an often-cited reason for binge eating. One notion is that the neural pathways that overlap with stress reactivity and feeding behavior are altered by recurrent binge eating. Using young adult female rats in a dietary-induced binge eating model (30min access to binge food with or without 24-h calorie restriction, twice a week, for 6weeks) we measured the neural activation by c-Fos immunoreactivity to the binge food (vegetable shortening mixed with 10% sucrose) in bingeing and non-bingeing animals under acute stress (immobilization; 1h) or no stress conditions. There was an increase in the number of immunopositive cells in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stressed animals previously exposed to the binge eating feeding schedules. Because attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) medications target the mPFC and have some efficacy at reducing binge eating in clinical populations, we examined whether chronic (2week; via IP osmotic mini-pumps) treatment with a selective alpha-2A adrenergic agonist (0.5mg/kg/day), guanfacine, would reduce binge-like eating. In the binge group with only scheduled access to binge food (30min; twice a week; 8weeks), guanfacine increased total calories consumed during the 30-min access period from the 2-week pre-treatment baseline and increased binge food consumption compared with saline-treated animals. These experiments suggest that mPFC is differentially activated in response to an immobilization stress in animals under different dietary conditions and chronic guanfacine, at the dose tested, was ineffective at reducing binge-like eating.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
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