The Immunologic Outcome of Enhanced Function of Mouse Liver Lymphocytes and Kupffer Cells by High-Fat and High-Cholesterol Diet

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, National Defense Medical College and §Division of Traumatology, National Defense Medical College Research Institute, Tokorozawa, Japan.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.) (Impact Factor: 3.05). 09/2011; 36(5):484-93. DOI: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e31822dc6e4
Source: PubMed


Dietary lipids/cholesterol may modulate liver immune function. We have recently found that mouse F4/80 Kupffer cells are classified into phagocytic CD68 Kupffer cells and cytokine-producing CD11b Kupffer cells. We here investigate how a high-fat and/or high-cholesterol diet affects innate immune liver mononuclear cells. For 4 weeks, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFCD), a high-cholesterol diet (HCD), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a control diet (CD). High-fat and high-cholesterol diet and HCD increased liver cholesterol levels; serum cholesterol levels increased in HFCD and HFD mice but not in HCD mice. The increased proportion of natural killer (NK) cells, downregulated NK1.1 expression of natural killer T cells, and enhanced CD69 and IL-12 receptor β mRNA expression of liver lymphocytes indicate the activation of them by HFCD. IL-12 production from Kupffer cells and interferon γ production from NK/natural killer T cells activated by LPS and/or IL-12 both increased. IL-12 pretreatment more effectively improved the survival of HFCD mice relative to the survival of CD mice upon injections of liver metastatic EL-4 cells. In contrast, HFCD mouse survival decreased after LPS injection and generalized Shwartzman reaction. Consistently in HFCD mice, Toll-like receptor 4 mRNA expression of whole Kupffer cells was upregulated, and CD11b Kupffer cells proportionally increased. Although the proportion of CD68 Kupffer cells decreased in HFCD mice, phagocytic activity of them was enhanced. Mice fed with HCD rather than those fed with HFD showed features closer to HFCD mice. Thus, enhanced function of mouse liver mononuclear cells is likely dependent on the liver cholesterol level, rather than the liver triglyceride level.

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    • "The time course of the serum MCP-1 levels after the injection of c-lipo or bacteria [19] suggests an important point. When CD11b Kupffer cells are activated and produce TNF in vivo due to exposure to LPS, CpG-ODN and α-GalCer or whole bacteria, the serum TNF levels usually peak at 1 h after administration [17], [22], [23], [37], which is much earlier than the peaks of serum MCP-1 after bacteria or c-lipo injection (3 h or 6 h, respectively). This may be because the production of MCP-1 from CD68 Kupffer cells requires the digestion of c-lipo or bacteria (phagolysosomal formation) [19], whereas CD11b Kupffer cells may rapidly respond to these ligands via TLR-4, 9, or CD1d. "
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that F4/80+ Kupffer cells are subclassified into CD68+ Kupffer cells with phagocytic and ROS producing capacity, and CD11b+ Kupffer cells with cytokine-producing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury is a well-known chemical-induced hepatocyte injury. In the present study, we investigated the immunological role of Kupffer cells/macrophages in CCl4-induced hepatitis in mice. The immunohistochemical analysis of the liver and the flow cytometry of the liver mononuclear cells showed that clodronate liposome (c-lipo) treatment greatly decreased the spindle-shaped F4/80+ or CD68+ cells, while the oval-shaped F4/80+ CD11b+ cells increased. Notably, severe hepatic injury induced by CCl4 was further aggravated by c-lipo-pretreatment. The population of CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages dramatically increased 24 hour (h) after CCl4 administration, especially in c-lipo-pretreated mice. The CD11b+ Kupffer cells expressed intracellular TNF and surface Fas-ligand (FasL). Furthermore, anti-TNF Ab pretreatment (which decreased the FasL expression of CD11b+ Kupffer cells), anti-FasL Ab pretreatment or gld/gld mice attenuated the liver injury induced by CCl4. CD1d-/- mouse and cell depletion experiments showed that NKT cells and NK cells were not involved in the hepatic injury. The adoptive transfer and cytotoxic assay against primary cultured hepatocytes confirmed the role of CD11b+ Kupffer cells in CCl4-induced hepatitis. Interestingly, the serum MCP-1 level rapidly increased and peaked at six h after c-lipo pretreatment, suggesting that the MCP-1 produced by c-lipo-phagocytized CD68+ Kupffer cells may recruit CD11b+ macrophages from the periphery and bone marrow. The CD11b+ Kupffer cells producing TNF and FasL thus play a pivotal role in CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Previously, we reported that hepatosteatosis induced by high-fat diet was associated with a substantial reduction in resident hepatic NKT cell numbers, and this reduction was comfirmed in different models of obesity[17-19]. Our current findings confirm the previous reports but are inconsistent with two recent reports which failed to observe NKT cell deficiency in mice fed high fat diet (HFD) or high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) [35,36]. The reasons for such discrepancies are unclear, but possible contributing factors include differences in diet composition, feeding duration, and environment in different animal facilities. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through alternation of liver innate immune response. The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "We have recently reported that the HFCD activates liver innate immune MNCs including Kupffer cells, NK cells, NKT cells and CD8+ CD122+ T cells [13]. The CD69 activation Ag was upregulated in these liver lymphocytes, and the NK1.1 expression of NKT cells was downregulated due to their activation [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have reported that the mouse hepatic injury induced by either α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) or bacterial DNA motifs (CpG-ODN) is mediated by the TNF/NKT cell/Fas-ligand (FasL) pathway. In addition, F4/80(+) Kupffer cells can be subclassified into CD68(+) subset with a phagocytosing capacity and CD11b(+) subset with a TNF-producing capacity. CD11b(+) subset increase if mice are fed high-fat and cholesterol diet (HFCD). The present study examined how a HFCD affects the function of NKT cells and F4/80(+) CD11b(+) subset and these hepatitis models. After the C57BL/6 mice received a HFCD, high-cholesterol diet (HCD), high-fat diet (HFD) and control diet (CD) for four weeks, the HFCD mice increased surface CD1d and intracellular TLR-9 expression by the CD11b(+) population compared to CD mice. Hepatic injury induced either by α-GalCer or CpG-ODN was more severe in HCD and HFCD mice compared to CD mice, which was in proportion to the serum TNF levels. In addition, liver cholesterol levels but not serum cholesterol levels nor liver triglyceride levels were involved in the aggravation of hepatitis. The FasL expression of NKT cells induced by both reagents was upregulated in HFCD mice. Furthermore, the liver mononuclear cells and purified F4/80(+) CD11b(+) subset from HFCD mice stimulated with either reagent in vitro produced a larger amount of TNF than did those from CD mice. Intracellular TNF production in F4/80(+) CD11b(+) cells was confirmed. The increased number of F4/80(+) CD11b(+) Kupffer cells/macrophages by HFCD and their enhanced TNF production thus play a pivotal role in TNF/NKT cell/FasL dependent hepatic injury.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · PLoS ONE
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