A comparison of laparoscopic-assisted (LAARP) and posterior sagittal (PSARP) anorectoplasty in the outcome of intermediate and high anorectal malformations
Laparoscopic-assisted ano-rectoplasty (LAARP) has gained popularity since its introduction in 2000. Further evidence is needed to compare its outcome with the gold standard of posterior sagittal ano-rectoplasty (PSARP).
A retrospective review of patients presenting with ano-rectal malformation (ARM) in the period 2000 - 2009. Demographics, associated abnormalities, and operative and post-operative complications were assessed. The functional outcome in children older than 3 years was assessed, applying the Krickenbeck scoring system and, where possible, by interviewing parents. Patients with cloacal abnormalities were excluded. Patients with a LAARP were compared with those managed by PSARP.
Seventy-three patients with ARM were identified during the study period. Male to female ratio was 1.6:1. All 32 low ARMs (perineal and vestibular fistulae) were excluded. Thirty-nine had levator or supra-levator lesions. Twenty males presented with recto-bulbar, 3 with recto-prostatic, and 1 with a recto-vesical fistula; 2 had no fistula; and in 2 the data were insufficient to determine the level. Among the females, 6 had recto-vaginal fistulae, 4 had cloacas and 1 had an ARM without fistula. There were 3 syndromic ARMs (2 Trisomy 21 and 1 Baller-Gerald syndrome). One neonate with a long-gap oesophageal atresia had a successful primary LAARP. Seventy-five per cent of all patients had VACTERL associations. Two early deaths after colostomy formation were related to a cardiac anomaly and an oesophageal atresia. In both groups, mean age at anoplasty was 8 months. Twenty of the intermediate/high lesions were treated with LAARP, and 19 by PSARP. There were slightly more complications in the LAARP group; intra-operative injury to the vas deferens and urethra occurred once each. Post-operatively, 2 port-site hernias and 1 case of pelvic sepsis occurred. A poorly sited colostomy caused difficulty in 2 patients. Two patients were converted to laparatomy: severe adhesions in one and a poorly sited stoma in another. Five patients required redo-anoplasty for mucosal prolapse, anal stenosis, incorrect placement of the anus, retraction of the rectum and an ischaemic rectal stricture. Complications in the PSARP group included 2 wound dehiscences, 1 anal stenosis, 3 mucosal prolapses, 1 recurrent fistula and 2 incorrect anal placements requiring redo surgery. The Krickenbeck questionnaire was used in 70% of PSARPs (mean age 5.9 years) and LAARPs (mean age 5.5 years) for a functional assessment. Both groups showed voluntary bowel movements in 14%. Soiling and overflow incontinence was a significant problem. Grade III constipation was less common in the LAARP (14%) than PSARP (21%) group. Four patients in the LAARP group were reliant on regular rectal washouts compared, with 6 in the PSARP group.
Both LAARP and PSARP can successfully treat ARM but have specific associated problems.
Available from: Richard J England
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ABSTRACT: The current standard repair for anorectal malformations in children is a posterior sagittal anorectoplasty. Recently, laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty (LAARP) was performed at the Red Cross Children's Hospital.
A detailed case note review was conducted. Patient outcome was prospectively evaluated by colorectal nurse specialists using the Krickenbeck standardized questionnaire. Comparison among patients undergoing posterior sagittal anorectoplasty was performed.
Between September 2005 and June 2009, 24 children underwent LAARP. Sixteen had associated anomalies, including 7 children with renal and 4 children with cardiac abnormalities. Median age at surgery was 7.5 months (range, 2.6-15.0 months). Subtypes of anorectal malformation were as follows: vestibular, 2; bulbar, 9; prostatic, 7; vesical, 3; and with no fistula, 3. There was a 16% early complication rate. Redo-anoplasty was required in 9 patients. Eleven children had difficulties with follow-up. Thirteen children had regular follow-up and were analyzed further. Toilet training had been completed in 7 children (median age, 4.3 years; range, 3.5-6 years). Six children developed voluntary bowel motions. Six children are awaiting toilet training or are unable to train because of incontinence.
Anal stenosis was the most common complication post-LAARP. Etiology appeared to be multifactorial, but poor compliance with dilatations was a leading cause.
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The aim of the study is to assess the characteristics and outcome of anorectal malformation (ARM) patients who underwent single-stage repair of perineal fistula without colostomy according to the Krickenbeck classification.
From 2002 to 2013, twenty-eight males and four females with perineal fistula who underwent single-stage repair without colostomy in our institute were included in this study. Patients with perineal fistula who underwent staged repair were excluded. Demographics, associated anomalies, and operative complications were recorded. The type of surgical procedures and functional outcome were assessed using the Krickenbeck classification.
Six patients had associated anomalies, including two patients with renal, two with cardiac, one with vertebral, and one with limb abnormalities. Thirteen patients underwent perineal operation, and fourteen patients underwent anterior sagittal approach in the neonatal period. One patient underwent anterior sagittal approach, and four patients underwent PSARP beyond the neonatal period. One patient had an intra-operative urethral injury and one a vaginal injury. Complications were not associated with the type of surgical procedure (p = 0.345). All perineal wounds healed without infection. By using the Krickenbeck assessment score, all sixteen children older than five years of age had voluntary control. One patient had grade 1 soiling, and no patient had constipation.
Single-stage operation without colostomy was safe with good outcomes in patients with perineal fistula. The use of Krickenbeck classification allows standardization in assessment on the surgical approach and on functional outcome in ARM patients.
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ABSTRACT: Anorectal malformations are relatively common congenital anomalies in pediatric surgery. After definitive surgery constipation, soiling, and fecal incontinence are frequently seen problems. Quality of life (QoL) can be influenced by these problems. In the last decades QoL has become an important aspect in the treatment and follow-up of patients with anorectal malformations. This has resulted in various reports concerning QoL. In order to deduce whether the drawn conclusions in the different studies are correct and can be used to adjust standard care for patients with ARM, a qualitative analysis of the studies was performed.
A literature study was performed in PubMed, Psychinfo, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library (240 hits). Thirty articles were used, following application of our inclusion criteria and in-depth analysis of the articles. A methodological qualitative analysis was also performed and QoL outcome assessed.
Six authors (20.0%) used validated QoL questionnaires. Four articles were longitudinal and had more than one measure moment. Eleven studies (36.7%) used only non-validated questionnaires, and eight studies (26.6%) used only validated questionnaires. Nineteen studies correlated fecal continence to QoL, and seven studies established no correlation. Three of these seven studies used validated QoL questionnaires. All twelve studies, which did establish a correlation, used non-validated QoL questionnaires.
Approximately 83% of the studies had not used validated QoL questionnaires. Further, conclusions concerning QoL were often based on functional outcomes, for example fecal incontinence. So far, longitudinal high quality research on QoL in this group has not been achieved.
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