Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Future Alcohol Use in Patients with Co-Occurring Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol Dependence: A Prospective Analysis in an 8-Week Randomized Controlled Trial of Acamprosate
Bipolar disorders and alcohol use disorders commonly co-occur, yet little is known about the proximal impact of bipolar symptoms on alcohol use in patients with this comorbidity. The present study examined the impact of depressive symptoms and alcohol craving on proximal alcohol use in patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence.
Data were collected during an 8-week randomized controlled trial of acamprosate for individuals with co-occurring bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence (n = 30). Depressive symptoms and alcohol craving were assessed biweekly using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), respectively. Daily alcohol use data were available via administration of the Time-line Follow-back interview at baseline and at subsequent weekly study visits. Correlational analyses and hidden Markov modeling were used to examine the prospective relationships between depressive symptoms, alcohol craving, and alcohol use.
Depressive symptoms and alcohol craving were significantly correlated with proximal (i.e., 1 week later) alcohol use across a variety of alcohol consumption summary measures. In hidden Markov models, depressive symptoms (OR = 1.3, 95% credible interval = [1.1, 1.5]) and alcohol craving (OR = 1.6, 95% credible interval = [1.4, 1.9]) significantly predicted transitioning from a light to a heavy drinking state, or remaining in a heavy drinking state.
The results from the present study suggest that depressive symptoms and alcohol craving increase proximal risk for alcohol use in individuals with co-occurring bipolar and alcohol use disorders.
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"The importance of the study published in the March 2012 issue of ACER (Prisciandaro et al., 2012) is that it sheds light on the complex relationship between bipolar affective disorder symptoms, in particular depression, and AUDs in a prospective design, as previous studies often did not investigate trajectories of both disorders because of a number of methodological limitations like mixed samples of alcohol-and drug-dependent subjects, categorical measurement of diagnosis and alcohol consumption, and cross-sectional study designs. It also changes perspectives as the sequence of affective (depressive) symptoms, craving , and their relationship to drinking within a week are "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comorbidity of alcohol abuse and dependence with bipolar disorders is high. The aim of this short commentary is to review a current study investigating the impact of depressive symptoms and craving on alcohol use in individuals with co-occurring bipolar disorder and alcohol dependence.
The strengths of Prisciandaro and colleagues' (2012) study are reviewed. The research group collected data as part of an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of acamprosate treatment in comorbid individuals.
The importance of the study lies in highlighting the complex relationship between bipolar affective disorder symptoms, in particular depression, and alcohol use in a prospective design. It also overcomes several shortcomings of previous studies, since trajectories of both disorders within a short time frame of 1 week were hitherto rarely investigated.
While the current study is successfully shedding light on the relationship between depressive symptoms, craving, and alcohol use in comorbid individuals, future studies may also investigate the influence of rapid cycling, mixed states, and psychotic symptoms on alcohol consumption and vice versa. Further, other comorbid samples could be included like first episode versus subjects with multiple affective episodes or comorbidity in males versus females. This research may provide a better basis for future psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy or integrated treatment approaches in these comorbid and severely affected individuals.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical trials for alcoholism have historically regarded alcohol consumption as the primary outcome. In a subset of trials, quality of life (QOL) has been considered as a secondary outcome. Joint latent-variable modeling techniques may provide a more accurate and powerful simultaneous analysis of primary and secondary outcomes in clinical trials. The goal of this study was to evaluate longitudinal associations between treatment status, alcohol consumption, and QOL in the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) study.
A total of 1,383 alcohol-dependent patients were randomized to 9 treatment groups. Percent heavy drinking days (PHDD) and health-related QOL from the 30 days preceding baseline, week 16, and week 52 were calculated using the Form 90 and the Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey Short Form-12 (SF-12), respectively. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to determine an appropriate number of latent states to represent PHDD and QOL. Subsequently, univariate and coupled hidden Markov models (for PHDD and SF-12 mental health, and PHDD and SF-12 physical) were fit to the data.
LPA suggested that PHDD should be represented by 3 latent states and that each SF-12 scale should be represented by 2 states. Joint modeling results suggested that (i) naltrexone significantly predicted decreased PHDD (p < 0.05), and marginally predicted improved mental health QOL via decreased PHDD (p < 0.10), and (ii) that the combinations of naltrexone and combined behavioral intervention (CBI), and acamprosate and CBI, each predicted significantly improved physical QOL (p < 0.05), and marginally predicted decreased PHDD via improved physical QOL (p < 0.10).
This study illustrates a powerful and novel statistical approach for simultaneously evaluating the impact of treatments on primary and secondary outcomes in clinical trials. This study also suggests that behavioral interventions may impact drinking behavior through their ameliorative effects on QOL.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research