Pulmonary hypertension and reopening of the ductus arteriosus in an infant treated with diazoxide
Diazoxide is the main therapeutic agent for persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Generally, it is tolerated well, but rarely it can cause severe life-threatening complications. We report a neonate who was treated with diazoxide for hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. On the 6th day of the treatment we observed sepsis-mimicking symptoms, mild pulmonary hypertension, and re-opening of the ductus arteriosus. All these findings resolved dramatically shortly after discontinuation of treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of re-opening of the ductus arteriosus due to diazoxide toxicity.
Available from: Tohru Yorifuji
- "Hypertrichosis occurs in most patients and could be a serious concern. Other side effects include water retention, which could cause serious problems such as congestive heart failure or reopening of the ductus arteriosus65,66). This side effect may be of particular concern in patients with a low birth weight, as in transient CHI. "
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis and treatment of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) have made a remarkable progress over the past 20 years and, currently, it is relatively rare to see patients who are left with severe psychomotor delay. The improvement was made possible by the recent developments in the understanding of the molecular and pathological basis of CHI. Known etiologies include inactivating mutations of the KATP channel genes (ABCC8 and KCNJ11) and HNF4A, HNF1A, HADH, and UCP2 or activating mutations of GLUD1, GCK, and SLC16A1. The understanding of the focal form of KATP channel CHI and its detection by (18)F-fluoro-L-DOPA positron emission tomography have revolutionized the management of CHI, and many patients can be cured without postoperative diabetes mellitus. The incidence of the focal form appears to be higher in Asian countries; therefore, the establishment of treatment systems is even more important in this population. In addition to diazoxide or long-term subcutaneous infusion of octreotide or glucagon, long-acting octreotide or lanreotide have also been used successfully until spontaneous remission. Because of these medications, near-total pancreatectomy is less often performed even for the diazoxide-unresponsive diffuse form of CHI. Other promising medications include pasireotide, small-molecule correctors such as sulfonylurea or carbamazepine, GLP1 receptor antagonists, or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Unsolved questions in this field include the identification of the remaining genes responsible for CHI, the mechanisms leading to transient CHI, and the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous remission of CHI. This article reviews recent developments and hypothesis regarding these questions.
Available from: omicsonline.org
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ABSTRACT: Neonatal hypoglycemia is one of the most common biochemical abnormalities encountered in the newborn. However, controversy remains surrounding its definition and management especially in asymptomatic patients.
New information has been published that describes the incidence and timing of low glucose concentrations in the groups most at risk for asymptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia. Furthermore, one large prospective study failed to find an association between repetitive low glucose concentrations and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. But hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism, especially genetic causes, continued to be associated with brain injury. New advances were made in the diagnosis and management of hyperinsulinism, including acquired hyperinsulinism in small for gestational age infants and others. Continuous glucose monitoring remains an attractive strategy for future research in this area.
The fundamental question of how best to manage asymptomatic newborns with low glucose concentrations remains unanswered. Balancing the risks of overtreating newborns with low glucose concentrations who are undergoing a normal transition following birth against the risks of undertreating those in whom low glucose concentrations are pathological, dangerous, and/or a harbinger of serious metabolic disease remains a challenge.
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