Article

Therapeutic potential of cannabidiol against ischemia/reperfusion liver injury in rats

Authors:
  • Albaha University Faculty of Medicine Albaha Saudi Arabia
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Abstract

The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated in rats exposed to ischemia/reperfusion liver injury. Ischemia was induced by clamping the pedicle of the left hepatic lobe for 30 min, and cannabidiol (5mg/kg, i.v.) was given 1h following the procedure and every 24h thereafter for 2 days. Ischemia/reperfusion caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels, associated with significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters mediated by ischemia/reperfusion. Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver damage. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin protein in ischemic/reperfused liver tissue. These results emphasize that cannabidiol represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the liver against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.

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... Pre-clinical studies also indicate a protective role for CBD in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury, and hepatic encephalopathy, in mice and rats (767,768,769). Pre-treatment of mice with 3 or 10 mg/kg body weight CBD (i.p.), 2 h before induction of ischemia-reperfusion in liver, dose-dependently attenuated serum transaminase elevations at 2 and 6 h of reperfusion compared to vehicle (767). ...
... Pre-treatment with CBD also significantly reduced the signs of coagulation necrosis observed 24 h after ischemia-reperfusion, significantly attenuated hepatic cell apoptosis, significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, attenuated neutrophil infiltration into the injury site, and decreased the expression of markers of tissue and cellular injury (767). Similar beneficial findings in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury were reported in a different study; however, CBD (5 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered after ischemia-reperfusion injury (768). CBD treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum transaminase levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and the attenuation of various markers of tissue or cellular injury associated with ischemia-reperfusion (768). ...
... Similar beneficial findings in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury were reported in a different study; however, CBD (5 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered after ischemia-reperfusion injury (768). CBD treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum transaminase levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and the attenuation of various markers of tissue or cellular injury associated with ischemia-reperfusion (768). Administration of Δ 8tetrahydrocannabivarin (3 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) 2 h before induction of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury dosedependently attenuated serum transaminase elevations at 2 and 6 h of reperfusion compared to vehicle (770). ...
Research
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This research monograph is a peer-reviewed summary of the scientific evidence on the uses and harms of cannabis and cannabinoids for medical purposes.
... Fouad et al. [87] investigated the role of CBD in liver IRI. Ischemia was induced by clamping the pedicle of the left hepatic lobe for 30 min and CBD was administered 1 h following the procedure and every 24 h thereafter for 2 days. ...
... These effects were mediated by CB2 but not CB1 receptors Cappellano et al. [82] (2013) Human adipose tissue Coronary artery bypass surgery or valve surgery CB2, PLC and PKC, ERK1/2, and eNOS are more strongly expressed in patients without ischemic heart disease, high CB1 and PKA expression is associated with low survival intracellular pathway activation and high iNOS activation in ischemic heart disease patients. The changes in the endocannabinoid system in ischemics may contribute to cardiac dysfunction and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target Gonzá lez et al. [76] IRI caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde, TNF-a and NO levels, associated with significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione [87]. CBD led to amelioration of the increase in the measured biochemical parameters mediated by IRI [87]. ...
... The changes in the endocannabinoid system in ischemics may contribute to cardiac dysfunction and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target Gonzá lez et al. [76] IRI caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde, TNF-a and NO levels, associated with significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione [87]. CBD led to amelioration of the increase in the measured biochemical parameters mediated by IRI [87]. Moreover, CBD significantly reduced the expression of iNOS, COX-2, NFkB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin protein in liver IRI [87]. ...
Article
Introduction: In recent years, the endocannabinoid system has emerged as a new therapeutic target in variety of disorders associated with inflammation and tissue injury, including those of the neuronal, liver, renal and cardiovascular system. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the effect of endocannabinoid system on ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in different organs and systems. Areas covered: The MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched for publications with the medical subject heading Cannabinoids* (CBs), CB receptors*, organ*, ischemia/reperfusion injury*, endocannabinoid* and system*. The initial relevant studies retrieved from the literature were 91 from PubMed. This number was initially limited to 35, after excluding the reviews and studies reporting data for receptors other than cannabinoid. Expert opinion: CB2 receptors may play an important compensatory role in controlling tissue inflammation and injury in cells of the neuronal, cardiovascular, liver and renal systems, as well as in infiltrating monocytes/macrophages and leukocytes during various pathological conditions of the systems (atherosclerosis, restenosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart, liver and renal failure). These receptors limit inflammation and associated tissue injury. On the basis of preclinical results, pharmacological modulation of CB2 receptors may hold a unique therapeutic potential in stroke, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, IRI and liver disease.
... Fouad et al. [87] investigated the role of CBD in liver IRI. Ischemia was induced by clamping the pedicle of the left hepatic lobe for 30 min and CBD was administered 1 h following the procedure and every 24 h thereafter for 2 days. ...
... These effects were mediated by CB2 but not CB1 receptors Cappellano et al. [82] (2013) Human adipose tissue Coronary artery bypass surgery or valve surgery CB2, PLC and PKC, ERK1/2, and eNOS are more strongly expressed in patients without ischemic heart disease, high CB1 and PKA expression is associated with low survival intracellular pathway activation and high iNOS activation in ischemic heart disease patients. The changes in the endocannabinoid system in ischemics may contribute to cardiac dysfunction and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target Gonzá lez et al. [76] IRI caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde, TNF-a and NO levels, associated with significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione [87]. CBD led to amelioration of the increase in the measured biochemical parameters mediated by IRI [87]. ...
... The changes in the endocannabinoid system in ischemics may contribute to cardiac dysfunction and therefore represents a potential therapeutic target Gonzá lez et al. [76] IRI caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde, TNF-a and NO levels, associated with significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione [87]. CBD led to amelioration of the increase in the measured biochemical parameters mediated by IRI [87]. Moreover, CBD significantly reduced the expression of iNOS, COX-2, NFkB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin protein in liver IRI [87]. ...
... Julien and co-workers showed that cannabinoid receptors type 2 are expressed in cirrhotic human liver, predominantly in hepatic fibrogenic cells, but not in normal liver, and when activated endogenously they counteract liver fibrogenesis (Julien et al., 2005). Cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic cannabis component, ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver damage (Fouad & Jresat, 2011). Indeed, cannabidiol treatment resulted in significant reduction of ischemia/reperfusion-induced elevations of tumour necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide in liver homogenates, as well as the serum level of ALT (Fouad & Jresat, 2011). ...
... Cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic cannabis component, ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver damage (Fouad & Jresat, 2011). Indeed, cannabidiol treatment resulted in significant reduction of ischemia/reperfusion-induced elevations of tumour necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide in liver homogenates, as well as the serum level of ALT (Fouad & Jresat, 2011). Furthermore, the hepatoprotective effect of cannabidiol was also shown on the histopathological examination, where the histological picture of the ischemia/reperfusion cannabidiol-treated group was comparable to the control group (Fouad & Jresat, 2011). ...
... Indeed, cannabidiol treatment resulted in significant reduction of ischemia/reperfusion-induced elevations of tumour necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide in liver homogenates, as well as the serum level of ALT (Fouad & Jresat, 2011). Furthermore, the hepatoprotective effect of cannabidiol was also shown on the histopathological examination, where the histological picture of the ischemia/reperfusion cannabidiol-treated group was comparable to the control group (Fouad & Jresat, 2011). Yang and co-workers showed that cannabidiol protects mouse liver from acute alcohol-induced steatosis . ...
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As we get ready to welcome 2018, Xjenza Online will enter a new era under the leadership of the new editor Dr Cristiana Sebu, Associate Professor of Biomathematics at the University of Malta. It is incredible how fast time has gone by as I am now writing my last editorial as the Editor-in-Chief of Xjenza Online. It has been an honour and a privilege for me to have had the opportunity to lead this prestigious Journal, the official organ of the Malta Chamber of Scientists, for the past 5 years. My Editorship has been a rewarding and fulfilling experience. During this time, Xjenza Online has been reborn, grown in size and become the Maltese journal for authoritative reports in all the areas of science. We have published 10 issues, 2 per year, 1 virtual issue on Maltese COST Actions and 1 as Proceedings of the International Mediterranean Neuroscience Conference (MNS2017) held in Malta in 2017. When I look back on my Editorship, I am very proud of what Xjenza Online has achieved and of what it has become. The tremendous growth in science and technology has resulted in a proliferation of high-quality research articles published in Xjenza Online from both Maltese and international Scholars. This, my last issue of Xjenza Online, continues this trend, showcasing some local and international important research and offering several valuable insights into different fields. The issue opens with the contribution by Melanie Grima and colleagues who have reviewed the molecular mechanisms of the sleep wake cycle with the aim of finding some therapeutic applications for insomnia. Gabriella Gatt et al., show that the prevalence of an easily preventable tooth condition such as erosive tooth wear is high in school aged Maltese children. Brockdorff and Bernice Amaira produce an estimate for human capital stock for Malta over the period 2005 to 2013 and compare Malta’s performance with that of other countries. Emanuele Colica et al., present a 3D digital model of Ramla Bay (Gozo) obtained by using photograms taken from drones useful for monitoring the dynamics of the beach-dune system and the characterization of the coast for the mitigation of coastal erosion. Jennifer Fiorentino present a revised appraisal of Lichens of the Maltese Islands described by S. Sommier and A. Caruana Gatto in 1915. Yanica Ellul and Katya De Giovanni report on the social impact of the American University of Malta’s Cospicua site on the Cottonera and the surrounding localities. The selection contains three commentaries. Manuela Radic and colleagues’ contribution from Malta and Palermo, Italy focused on liver diseases induced by alcohol, cannabinoids and nicotine; Tiziana M. Florio from L`Aquila, Italy gives her view of Parkinson’s Disease motor disorganization and temporal processing and finally Cristiana Sebu has revised the application of the Electrical Impedance Mammography for low-cost, portable and non-invasive breast cancer screening. The collection ends with 6th Annual Science in the House Exhibition by David C. Magri. The success of this Journal would not have been possible without the involvement, commitment, and support from a large group of associates and colleagues. First, I would like to thank Professor Alex Felice for his trust and support. Then, there are the Associate Editors, without their important work, it would not be possible to maintain the Journal's high standards of publication. Additionally, I take this opportunity to thank my visiting students from Cardiff University who have served as Editorial Assistants during these years (Stephanie in 2013, Caitlin 2014, Magdalena 2015, Katie and Amber 2016, Katie and Sunneth 2017) and above all Dr Jackson Said the Managing Editor and the copy editors William Hicklin and Gabriel Farrugia. Last but not least, the continued success of this Journal is only possible through the combined cooperation of authors and reviewers. Without their contributions, there would be no Xjenza Online! I am grateful to the authors for their high-standard of work and to the reviewers for their crucial help in the peer-review process. In turning the reins over to the new Editor-in-Chief, with great hopes I look forward to the future of Xjenza Online and I wish all the best to the new editorial team. The new Xjenza Online will continue to make every effort to improve content and wide fields, for the benefit of our readers and all others interested in the recent development in the different branches of science in Malta and abroad. It is now time to pass the baton to the new Editor and to conclude my last Editorial, but this is not my final farewell to Xjenza. Indeed, I have been asked to act as Publication Manager for the Chamber of Scientists to continue supporting the new Editors behind the scenes in furthering the success of Xjenza Online. Giuseppe Di Giovanni Editor-in Chief of Xjenza Online December 2017
... interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10) [190,191,23] and inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α) [10,50,55,62,63,113,130,149,154,186] and reactive oxygen species [62,130,186]. Models demonstrating such effects have included lung injury induced by chemical treatment [149] and hypoxic-ischemia (HI) [10]; liver injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion [63,130] and alcohol feeding [186]; myocardial [55] and renal [62] ischemia-reperfusion injuries; surgically induced oral lesions [102]; chemically induced osteoarthritis [145]; spinal cord contusion injury [113], and colitis [23,50,154] (see Burstein [24] for review). ...
... IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α) [10,50,55,62,63,113,130,149,154,186] and reactive oxygen species [62,130,186]. Models demonstrating such effects have included lung injury induced by chemical treatment [149] and hypoxic-ischemia (HI) [10]; liver injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion [63,130] and alcohol feeding [186]; myocardial [55] and renal [62] ischemia-reperfusion injuries; surgically induced oral lesions [102]; chemically induced osteoarthritis [145]; spinal cord contusion injury [113], and colitis [23,50,154] (see Burstein [24] for review). Anti-inflammatory effects are generally observed at higher CBD doses in vivo (e.g. ...
... reduce necrosis, blood concentrations of tissue damage markers and inflammation) induced by acute, peripheral ischemia-reperfusion (e.g. kidney, myocardium, liver) [55,60,62,63,130,185] and colitis [23,50,154] in vivo; benefits that have generally been attributed to its reported antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects (see also section "Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage-Muscle Function, Soreness, and Injury") [50,55,60,62,63,130,154,185]. Also, of interest is that CBD (1-100 μM) has been reported to restore intestinal permeability in vitro following exposure to Clostridium difficile toxin A, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and pro-inflammatory stimuli (e.g. ...
Article
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Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid derived from Cannabis sativa. CBD initially drew scientific interest due to its anticonvulsant properties but increasing evidence of other therapeutic effects has attracted the attention of additional clinical and non-clinical populations, including athletes. Unlike the intoxicating cannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), CBD is no longer prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency and appears to be safe and well-tolerated in humans. It has also become readily available in many countries with the introduction of over-the-counter "nutraceutical" products. The aim of this narrative review was to explore various physiological and psychological effects of CBD that may be relevant to the sport and/or exercise context and to identify key areas for future research. As direct studies of CBD and sports performance are is currently lacking, evidence for this narrative review was sourced from preclinical studies and a limited number of clinical trials in non-athlete populations. Preclinical studies have observed robust anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and analgesic effects of CBD in animal models. Preliminary preclinical evidence also suggests that CBD may protect against gastrointestinal damage associated with inflammation and promote healing of traumatic skeletal injuries. However, further research is required to confirm these observations. Early stage clinical studies suggest that CBD may be anxiolytic in "stress-inducing" situations and in individuals with anxiety disorders. While some case reports indicate that CBD improves sleep, robust evidence is currently lacking. Cognitive function and thermoregulation appear to be unaffected by CBD while effects on food intake, metabolic function, cardiovascular function, and infection require further study. CBD may exert a number of physiological, biochemical, and psychological effects with the potential to benefit athletes. However, well controlled, studies in athlete populations are required before definitive conclusions can be reached regarding the utility of CBD in supporting athletic performance.
... Among its numerous biological functions, the endocannabinoid system has been implicated in protection against deleterious stimuli in various tissues, including the brain [21] and the liver [22,23]. Previous studies also demonstrated that CBD possesses efficient antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities against ischemia/reperfusion liver injury in rats [24,25]. Moreover, CBD restored liver/brain function in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice revealing that its effects may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain [26]. ...
... In respect to effects of CBD on liver, recent data showed that CBD protected against liver toxicity induced by a single dose of cadmium chloride [62]. Similarly, CBD attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters and damages mediated by ischemia/reperfusion liver injury besides reducing the inflammatory response in tissue liver [24]. Previous studies already revealed that CBD pretreatment significantly protected against liver ischemia for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 24 hs [25]. ...
Article
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Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.
... CBD improved brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice 15 , decreased hepatic ischemia-reperfusion induced injury both in mice 16 and rats 17 , attenuated alcohol-binge-induced injury in mice 18 and hepatotoxicity of cadmium 19 and cocaine 20 . Some of these studies have not explored the detailed mechanisms behind the protective effects of CBD against liver injury, but others proposed attenuation of the pro-inflammatory response and signaling (e.g. ...
... Some of these studies have not explored the detailed mechanisms behind the protective effects of CBD against liver injury, but others proposed attenuation of the pro-inflammatory response and signaling (e.g. neutrophil infiltration, TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/2, cyclooxygenase 2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), oxidative/nitrative stress, stress signaling (p38MAPK and JNK) and cell death (apoptotic/necrotic), as well as promotion of autophagy [16][17][18] . CBD also attenuated bacterial endotoxin-triggered NF-κB activation and TNF-α production in isolated Kupffer cells 16 , and attenuated the intracellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in TNF-α stimulated primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and attachment of human neutrophils to the activated endothelium 16 . ...
Article
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Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive component of marijuana, which has anti-inflammatory effects. It has also been approved by FDA for various orphan diseases for exploratory trials. Herein, we investigated the effects of CBD on liver injury induced by chronic plus binge alcohol feeding in mice. CBD or vehicle was administered daily throughout the alcohol feeding study. At the conclusion of the feeding protocol, serums samples, livers or isolated neutrophils were utilized for molecular biology, biochemistry and pathology analysis. CBD significantly attenuated the alcohol feeding-induced serum transaminase elevations, hepatic inflammation (mRNA expressions of TNFα, MCP1, IL1β, MIP2 and E-Selectin, and neutrophil accumulation), oxidative/nitrative stress (lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine formation, and expression of reactive oxygen species generating enzyme NOX2). CBD treatment also attenuated the respiratory burst of neutrophils isolated from chronic plus binge alcohol fed mice or from human blood, and decreased the alcohol-induced increased liver triglyceride and fat droplet accumulation. Furthermore, CBD improved alcohol-induced hepatic metabolic dysregulation and steatosis by restoring changes in hepatic mRNA or protein expression of ACC-1, FASN, PPARα, MCAD, ADIPOR-1, and mCPT-1. Thus, CBD may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of alcoholic liver diseases associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and steatosis, which deserves exploration in human trials.
... CBD improved brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice 15 , decreased hepatic ischemia-reperfusion induced injury both in mice 16 and rats 17 , attenuated alcohol-binge-induced injury in mice 18 and hepatotoxicity of cadmium 19 and cocaine 20 . Some of these studies have not explored the detailed mechanisms behind the protective effects of CBD against liver injury, but others proposed attenuation of the pro-inflammatory response and signaling (e.g. ...
... Some of these studies have not explored the detailed mechanisms behind the protective effects of CBD against liver injury, but others proposed attenuation of the pro-inflammatory response and signaling (e.g. neutrophil infiltration, TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/2, cyclooxygenase 2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), oxidative/nitrative stress, stress signaling (p38MAPK and JNK) and cell death (apoptotic/necrotic), as well as promotion of autophagy [16][17][18] . CBD also attenuated bacterial endotoxin-triggered NF-κB activation and TNF-α production in isolated Kupffer cells 16 , and attenuated the intracellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in TNF-α stimulated primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and attachment of human neutrophils to the activated endothelium 16 . ...
... Similar protective effects were obtained in rodents submitted to ischemia/reperfusion of the liver. Thus, CBD reduced serum transaminases (markers of liver damage) and histopathological changes, cell death, oxidative and nitrative stress, and inflammation in the liver [140,141]. It has been shown that the mechanism of this hepatoprotective action may include attenuated activation of NF-κB, p38 MAPK and JNK by CBD [141]. ...
Article
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Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating and generally well-tolerated constituent of cannabis which exhibits potential beneficial properties in a wide range of diseases, including cardiovascular disorders. Due to its complex mechanism of action, CBD may affect the cardiovascular system in different ways. Thus, we reviewed the influence of CBD on this system in health and disease to determine the potential risk of cardiovascular side effects during CBD use for medical and wellness purposes and to elucidate its therapeutic potential in cardiovascular diseases. Administration of CBD to healthy volunteers or animals usually does not markedly affect hemodynamic parameters. Although CBD has been found to exhibit vasodilatory and antioxidant properties in hypertension, it has not affected blood pressure in hypertensive animals. Hypotensive action of CBD has been mainly revealed under stress conditions. Many positive effects of CBD have been observed in experimental models of heart diseases (myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis), stroke, neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, sepsis-related encephalitis, cardiovascular complications of diabetes, and ischemia/reperfusion injures of liver and kidneys. In these pathological conditions CBD decreased organ damage and dysfunction, oxidative and nitrative stress, inflammatory processes and apoptosis, among others. Nevertheless, further clinical research is needed to recommend the use of CBD in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
... In diabetic retina, the increase in phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, a stressactivated protein kinase that is a downstream target of proinflammatory cytokines, is blocked by CBD treatment [60]. Additionally, CBD beneficial effects have been recently described in the liver injury model of hepatic ischemia/ reperfusion by attenuating inflammatory signaling in a CB1/2 receptors independent manner [61,62]. ...
Article
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Disc degeneration is a multifactorial process that involves hypoxia, inflammation, neoinnervation, accelerated catabolism, and reduction in water and glycosaminoglycan content. Cannabidiol is the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa with protective and anti-inflammatory properties. However, possible therapeutic effects of cannabidiol on intervertebral disc degeneration have not been investigated yet. The present study investigated the effects of cannabidiol intradiscal injection in the coccygeal intervertebral disc degeneration induced by the needle puncture model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analyses. Disc injury was induced in the tail of male Wistar rats via a single needle puncture. The discs selected for injury were punctured percutaneously using a 21-gauge needle. MRI and histological evaluation were employed to assess the results. The effects of intradiscal injection of cannabidiol (30, 60 or 120 nmol) injected immediately after lesion were analyzed acutely (2 days) by MRI. The experimental group that received cannabidiol 120 nmol was resubmitted to MRI examination and then to histological analyses 15 days after lesion/cannabidiol injection. The needle puncture produced a significant disc injury detected both by MRI and histological analyses. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the effects of disc injury induced by the needle puncture. Considering that cannabidiol presents an extremely safe profile and is currently being used clinically, these results suggest that this compound could be useful in the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration.
... It plays a significant role in IR-induced liver injury [44]. There are many processes implicated in activation of caspase-3 including TNF-α/TNF receptor, Fas/Fas ligand interaction, oxygen-free radical generation and nuclear factor-κB activation [8,10]. In support of the current results, Hamada et al. [17] reported that COX-2-deficient mice showed decreased caspase-3 activity in livers with IR. ...
Article
Aim Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury represents an important pathological process of liver injury during major hepatic surgery. The role of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced liver injury is not clear. This study investigated the effect of selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, versus non-selective, indomethacin, on hepatic IR injury in rats. Hepatic IR was induced in adult male rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: normal control (sham group), IR non-treated group; IR- indomethacin-treated group; and IR- celecoxib-treated group. Liver injury was evaluated by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and histopathological examination of liver tissues. Hepatic tissue content of oxidative stress parameters glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and the inflammatory marker, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, (TNF-α) were measured. Moreover, the immunohistochemical detection of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and caspase-3 in hepatic tissue was performed. Celecoxib, but not indomethacin, significantly attenuated hepatic IR injury as evidenced by reduction in serum ALT as well as by improvement in the histopathological scoring. Such effect was associated with attenuation in oxidative stress and TNF-α, along with modulation of immunohistochemical expression of eNOS, iNOS and caspase-3 in hepatic tissue. The present study concluded that selective COX-2 inhibition (but not non-selective), is hepatoprotective against liver IR injury; indicating a differential role of COX-1 versus COX-2. Modulation of iNOS, eNOS and caspase-3 might participate in the protective effect of selective COX-2-inhibitors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... The scenery is also more baffling behind the nervous system, where CBs act both as pro-oxidants and as anti-oxidants. In rats exposed to ischemia/reperfusion liver injury, CBD attenuates the generation of the OS markers malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and the same was reported for renal injury [39,40]. In mice kidney, CBD is also able to reduce OS markers linked to cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, improving renal function [41]. ...
Article
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Oxidative Stress, deriving from a perturbation of the cellular balance between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant molecules, has been involved in the patho-physiology of multiple diseases, and anti-oxidant supplementation are largely studied for therapeutic purposes. The Cannabis sativa derivates, the cannabinoids (CBs), are widely used as a recreational drug, but pharmacological activities also prompt to therapeutic use. Exposure to CBs rises physical and psychic effects which can evolve in both short-term and long-term toxicity. High inter-individual variation exists in the susceptibility to these effects. Many evidences show a complex modulator action of CBs on cellular oxidative stress, with different outcomes according to cellular type, microenvironment, time and dose of exposition. The subtle balance between anti-oxidant or pro-oxidant action of CBs should be taken into account to achieve a more accurate comprehension of the molecular mechanisms involved in toxicity, considering that OS is not merely a damaging factor, but is also involved in protective pathways.
... Fouad and Jresat [32] demonstrated that cannabidiol administration protects the liver against ischemiareperfusion injury induced in rat models. Similarly, Hochhauser et al. [33] recently showed that the administration of a single, ultra low (0.002 mg/kg) dose of Δ 9 -THC protected the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury. ...
Article
The recent legalization of recreational marijuana use in some parts of the world, the discovery of new indications for the clinical application of cannabis, and the acceptance of the use of cannabis in practice has been paralleled by extensive research on the active components of cannabis and the endocannabinoid system within the human body. In this review, we evaluate the available evidence on cannabis and its constituents and the application of this evidence in clinical practice, focusing particularly on the liver and liver diseases. Constituents of cannabis, such as cannabidiol and Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol, have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects both in in vitro and clinical studies, and appear to have potential in the symptom management and treatment of various liver diseases that were previously considered difficult to manage conservatively. In addition, the manipulation of the inherent endocannabinoid response system has found favor in many clinical fields and has generated considerable research and clinical interest. Moreover, evidence with regard to the adverse effects of marijuana use in liver diseases is weak, which has led to raise a question on the prior rules, with regard to a denial of liver transplantation to marijuana users. All in all, the recent trends in research, clinical experiences, as well as the legislature, has opened up new avenues towards the widespread clinical application of cannabis and its derivatives as well as modifiers of the components of the endocannabinoid system. More research is required to fully exploit these new evidences.
... Not surprising was the up-regulation of glutathione (GSH) by 2.3 times compared to the ctrl group. In fact, it is widely documented that CBD has a powerful antioxidant activity [29][30][31][32][33][34]. Along with glutathione, its oxidized form (GSSG) was also present at a higher rate in the CBD group (2.4-fold), suggesting an increased antioxidant activity rate in the cells. ...
Article
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Cannabidiol (CBD), for long time considered as a minor cannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, has recently gained much attention due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant properties. A liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry based method was developed for the quantitative determination of CBD and other cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC) in rat brain samples after oral administration of a single high dose (50 mg/kg) of CBD. The main challenge of the present work was to study CBD pharmacokinetics in rat cortex: the identification of its metabolites and pharmacodynamics through the study of variations in endogenous compounds' concentrations following CBD administration. An untargeted metabolomics approach revealed the formation of some CBD metabolites that are not commonly found in other body tissues or fluids. Lastly, the changes in some endogenous compounds' concentrations were correlated with some of the pharmacological properties of this cannabinoid.
... In a mouse model of hepatic ischemia/repurfusion (I/R) injury, CBD reduced liver inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2011). CBD was also found to ameliorate I/Rinduced liver injury in rats (Fouad and Jresat, 2011). In a mouse model of hepatic encephalopathy (which refers to the neuropsychiatric abnormalities observed in patients with end-stage liver disease), CBD treatment improved neurological and cognitive functions, restored liver function and improved brain pathology (e.g., normalized 5-HT levels and reversed astrogliosis) (Avraham et al., 2011). ...
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... The prime factor in the regulatory considerations in the US relate to safety of long-term use of CBD. Although a number of studies cite potential hepatoprotective effects of CBD (Avraham et al. 2011;Fouad and Jresat 2011;Yang et al. 2014), evidence suggests that such effects may be dependent on setting, dose and timing. In the last few years reported results of clinical trials with EpidiolexV R raised cautions regarding potential for hepatotoxicity, as suggested by elevations in liver transaminases (Devinsky et al. 2016(Devinsky et al. , 2017Huestis et al. 2019). ...
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... The similar effects observed in the BLM treated groups in our study suggest that CB2 activation may participate in regulating ROS. Richter et al. (2015) reported increased cytokine levels in response to oxidative stress resulting from increased ROS and associated inflammation Fouad and Jresat (2011) reported elevated levels of TNF-α as a result of increased ROS. Molecular and biochemical events in BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis induced inflammation with subsequent release of cytokines, such as TNF-α and TNF-β (Khalil et al. 1993). ...
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Chapter
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Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major, nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by enhancing adenosine signaling. Inasmuch as adenosine receptors are promising pharmaceutical targets for ischemic heart diseases, we tested the effect of CBD on ischemic rat hearts. For the in vivo studies, the left anterior descending coronary artery was transiently ligated for 30 min, and the rats were treated for 7 days with CBD (5 mg/kg ip) or vehicle. Cardiac function was studied by echocardiography. Infarcts were examined morphometrically and histologically. For ex vivo evaluation, CBD was administered 24 and 1 h before the animals were killed, and hearts were harvested for physiological measurements. In vivo studies showed preservation of shortening fraction in CBD-treated animals: from 48 +/- 8 to 39 +/- 8% and from 44 +/- 5 to 32 +/- 9% in CBD-treated and control rats, respectively (n = 14, P < 0.05). Infarct size was reduced by 66% in CBD-treated animals, despite nearly identical areas at risk (9.6 +/- 3.9 and 28.2 +/- 7.0% in CBD and controls, respectively, P < 0.001) and granulation tissue proportion as assessed qualitatively. Infarcts in CBD-treated animals were associated with reduced myocardial inflammation and reduced IL-6 levels (254 +/- 22 and 2,812 +/- 500 pg/ml in CBD and control rats, respectively, P < 0.01). In isolated hearts, no significant difference in infarct size, left ventricular developed pressures during ischemia and reperfusion, or coronary flow could be detected between CBD-treated and control hearts. Our study shows that CBD induces a substantial in vivo cardioprotective effect from ischemia that is not observed ex vivo. Inasmuch as CBD has previously been administered to humans without causing side effects, it may represent a promising novel treatment for myocardial ischemia.
Article
(−)-Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis with possible therapeutic use as an anti-inflammatory drug. Little is known on the possible molecular targets of this compound. We investigated whether CBD and some of its derivatives interact with vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1), the receptor for capsaicin, or with proteins that inactivate the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide (AEA). CBD and its enantiomer, (+)-CBD, together with seven analogues, obtained by exchanging the C-7 methyl group of CBD with a hydroxy-methyl or a carboxyl function and/or the C-5′ pentyl group with a di-methyl-heptyl (DMH) group, were tested on: (a) VR1-mediated increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations in cells over-expressing human VR1; (b) [14C]-AEA uptake by RBL-2H3 cells, which is facilitated by a selective membrane transporter; and (c) [14C]-AEA hydrolysis by rat brain membranes, which is catalysed by the fatty acid amide hydrolase. Both CBD and (+)-CBD, but not the other analogues, stimulated VR1 with EC50=3.2 – 3.5 μM, and with a maximal effect similar in efficacy to that of capsaicin, i.e. 67 – 70% of the effect obtained with ionomycin (4 μM). CBD (10 μM) desensitized VR1 to the action of capsaicin. The effects of maximal doses of the two compounds were not additive. (+)-5′-DMH-CBD and (+)-7-hydroxy-5′-DMH-CBD inhibited [14C]-AEA uptake (IC50=10.0 and 7.0 μM); the (−)-enantiomers were slightly less active (IC50=14.0 and 12.5 μM). CBD and (+)-CBD were also active (IC50=22.0 and 17.0 μM). CBD (IC50=27.5 μM), (+)-CBD (IC50=63.5 μM) and (−)-7-hydroxy-CBD (IC50=34 μM), but not the other analogues (IC50>100 μM), weakly inhibited [14C]-AEA hydrolysis. Only the (+)-isomers exhibited high affinity for CB1 and/or CB2 cannabinoid receptors. These findings suggest that VR1 receptors, or increased levels of endogenous AEA, might mediate some of the pharmacological effects of CBD and its analogues. In view of the facile high yield synthesis, and the weak affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, (−)-5′-DMH-CBD represents a valuable candidate for further investigation as inhibitor of AEA uptake and a possible new therapeutic agent. British Journal of Pharmacology (2001) 134, 845–852; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704327
Article
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a pivotal mechanism of liver damage after liver transplantation or hepatic surgery. We have investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), the nonpsychotropic constituent of marijuana, in a mouse model of hepatic I/R injury. I/R triggered time-dependent increases/changes in markers of liver injury (serum transaminases), hepatic oxidative/nitrative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, nitrotyrosine content/staining, and gp91phox and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA), mitochondrial dysfunction (decreased complex I activity), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase 2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/2, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 mRNA levels; tissue neutrophil infiltration; nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation), stress signaling (p38MAPK and JNK), and cell death (DNA fragmentation, PARP activity, and TUNEL). CBD significantly reduced the extent of liver inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress, and cell death and also attenuated the bacterial endotoxin-triggered NF-κB activation and TNF-α production in isolated Kupffer cells, likewise the adhesion molecule expression in primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-α and attachment of human neutrophils to the activated endothelium. These protective effects were preserved in CB2 knockout mice and were not prevented by CB1/2 antagonists in vitro. Thus, CBD may represent a novel, protective strategy against I/R injury by attenuating key inflammatory pathways and oxidative/nitrative tissue injury, independent of classical CB1/2 receptors.
Article
In this study, we have investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on myocardial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways, using a mouse model of type I diabetic cardiomyopathy and primary human cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose. Cannabidiol, the most abundant nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) plant, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in various disease models and alleviates pain and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis in humans. Left ventricular function was measured by the pressure-volume system. Oxidative stress, cell death, and fibrosis markers were evaluated by molecular biology/biochemical techniques, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and flow cytometry. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was characterized by declined diastolic and systolic myocardial performance associated with increased oxidative-nitrative stress, nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p-38, p38α) activation, enhanced expression of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), tumor necrosis factor-α, markers of fibrosis (transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, fibronectin, collagen-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9), enhanced cell death (caspase 3/7 and poly[adenosine diphosphate-ribose] polymerase activity, chromatin fragmentation, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling), and diminished Akt phosphorylation. Remarkably, CBD attenuated myocardial dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation, cell death, and interrelated signaling pathways. Furthermore, CBD also attenuated the high glucose-induced increased reactive oxygen species generation, nuclear factor-κB activation, and cell death in primary human cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these results coupled with the excellent safety and tolerability profile of CBD in humans, strongly suggest that it may have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetic complications, and perhaps other cardiovascular disorders, by attenuating oxidative/nitrative stress, inflammation, cell death and fibrosis.
Article
The cytoprotective properties of baicalin (1), a flavonoid glycoside isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, have been investigated against injury to the liver caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Rats were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 5 h of reperfusion, and 1 was administered intraperitoneally 24 and 1 h before ischemia. Following I/R, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic lipid peroxidation were elevated, whereas the hepatic glutathione content was decreased, with these changes attenuated by 1. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 were markedly increased by I/R, but suppressed by 1. Baicalin attenuated increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and TNF receptor 1-associated protein expression and augmented an increase in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The increase in TNF-α, IL-6, and, COX-2 mRNA expression was attenuated by 1, while the increase in HO-1 mRNA expression was augmented. Nuclear factor-κB nuclear localization was inhibited by 1, and this compound limited the rate of mitochondrial swelling and the activation of caspases-3 and -8 observed in I/R rats. Rats treated with 1 had markedly fewer apoptotic cells than I/R rats. It was concluded that baicalin (1) exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, which protect against hepatocellular I/R-induced damage.
Article
This study investigated the time course of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression and the role of endogenous HO-1 in hepatic ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Rats were pretreated with hemin, an HO-1 inducer, and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), an HO-1 inhibitor. Hepatic HO activity increased at 1 h after reperfusion, reaching a maximum at 6 h after reperfusion and then declined. HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in I/R liver were upregulated prior to reperfusion and highly induced again by reperfusion. The ALT level was upregulated at all time points, with a peak at 4-6 h. This increase was augmented by ZnPP but attenuated by hemin. Lipid peroxidation and serum HMGB1 release significantly increased at 1 h after reperfusion and remained elevated throughout the 24 h of reperfusion period, whereas the glutathione content decreased markedly at 4-6 h after reperfusion. These changes were attenuated by hemin but augmented by ZnPP. The levels of serum TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 protein and mRNA expressions were upregulated after reperfusion, further enhanced by ZnPP, and suppressed by hemin. HO-1 overexpression protects the liver against I/R injury by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators.
Article
Cholestasis has been identified as a risk factor for oxidative stress, and it potentially enhances after ischemic-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of methylprednisolone on warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in the presence of cholestasis. A reversible cholestatic rat model was created. After 7 days, rats received 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone 2 hours before ischemia, followed by 30 minutes of ischemia. Rats were euthanized 24 hours after ischemia. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and interleukin-6 were measured, and the liver was harvested for histology and myeloperoxidase estimation. Methylprednisolone had a protective effect, with a statistically significant decrease in aspartate aminotransferase (P=.01) and a trend toward decreased levels of interleukin-6 (P=.07). Histology showed a significant difference in architectural distortion (P=.01), cytoplasmic vacuolation (P=.01), and nodular hepatocellular necrosis (P=.04). Methylprednisolone attenuated the ischemic-reperfusion injury in the presence of cholestasis and can be considered for clinical use in the presence of cholestasis.
Article
Recent studies have shown that cytochrome P450 inhibitors reduce oxidative stress and injury to the liver following warm ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The aim here was to test the effect of P450 induction by phenobarbital on the IR injury in rat livers. Rats were pre-treated with saline or phenobarbital and subjected to IR or sham operation. IR significantly increased the plasma alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Phenobarbital further exacerbated the injury by an additional 50% increase in the alanine aminotransferase levels. Phenobarbital also caused an approximately 40% increase in the total P450 content of the liver, which was also associated with a 75% increase in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the IR group. There was a strong correlation between the microsomal ROS generation and total P450 content, CYP3A2 activity or CYP2B1 activity. It is concluded that the induction of P450 by phenobarbital significantly increases hepatic production of ROS, leading to significantly higher hepatic IR injury.
Article
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of the rat liver can induce liver injury through mechanisms involving oxidative and nitrosative stresses. In this study we examined the effects of antioxidants Lycium barbarum (LB) and ascorbic acid on I/R-induced liver injury in rats. Liver ischemia was induced by clamping the common hepatic artery and portal vein of rats for 40 minutes. Thereafter, flow was restored with reperfusion for 90 minutes. Blood samples collected before ischemia and after reperfusion were analyzed for alanine transaminase (ALT), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), hydroxyl radical, and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Pharmacologic interventions included administration of ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, i.p., 1 hour before I/R) or LB, an extract of Gogi berries: 600 mg in 100 mL of drinking water for 2 weeks prior to experimentation. This protocol resulted in elevation of blood concentrations of NO, hydroxyl radical, ALT, and LDH (P < .001) in the I/R-induced liver injury group. Ascorbic acid significantly attenuated the reperfusion liver injury by attenuating hydroxyl radical (P < .01) and NO (P < .05) release. The LB aggravated I/R-induced liver injury by increasing hydroxyl radical release with no effect on NO release. This I/R protocol resulted in oxidative and nitrosative stress and liver injury. Ascorbic acid showed significant protective effects on reperfusion liver injury by attenuating hydroxyl radical and NO release. In contrast, LB aggravated liver injury by increasing hydroxyl radical release.
Article
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) displays anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities as evidenced by the inhibition of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and production of lipid peroxidation. H2S also exerts many physiological or pathological effects on livers. Therefore, we designed the present study to investigate the roles of H2S in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR)-induced injury in rats by measuring H2S levels, H2S synthesizing activity, and cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. We also applied DL-propargyl glycine (PAG) and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) to investigate their effects on the severity of liver injury induced by HIR. The levels of H2S, H2S production activity, and CSE mRNA expression in livers were increased by HIR. Administration of NaHS significantly attenuated the severity of liver injury and inhibited the production of lipid peroxidation, serum inflammatory factors [including nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 10, and intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1], cell apoptosis, and apoptosis-related proteins (including caspase-3, Fas, Fas ligand, and TNF-alpha), which were caused or elevated by HIR, whereas PAG aggravated them. However, NaHS or PAG did not show significant effects on the activation of caspase-9, which was also increased by HIR. Although further investigation is required, this study may indicate that H2S plays a protective role in HIR-induced injury.
Article
I/R injury is the main cause for hepatic dysfunction and failure after liver transplantation and liver resection. Therefore, reduction of I/R injury is the most important goal to improve the outcome of these procedures. Olprinone is a newly developed selective phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, which has been reported to ameliorate renal I/R injury in rats. However, no clear evidence for the actions of olprinone on inflammatory response after hepatic I/R injury has been disclosed thus far. Our study was designed to evaluate the action of olprinone on the hepatic I/R injury in rats. Olprinone increased the cyclic adenosine monophosphate level in injured liver tissue and ameliorated the liver injury after hepatic I/R. Moreover, olprinone suppressed the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and nuclear factor-kappaB, cytokine production (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant factor 1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in liver after hepatic I/R. These observations suggest that olprinone protects liver against I/R injury via the elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate level and suppression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression and cytokine production (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant factor 1), possibly by interfering with the signaling pathways of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and nuclear factor-kappaB in rats.
Article
Cannabidiol decreases cerebral infarction and high-mobility group box1 (HMGB1) in plasma in ischemic early phase. However, plasma HMGB1 levels in ischemic delayed phase reach higher concentration with the progressing brain injury. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic time window of cannabidiol on functional deficits, glial HMGB1 and plasma HMGB1 levels in a 4 h mouse middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model. Cannabidiol-treated mice were divided into 3 groups as follows: group (a) treated from day 1, group (b) treated from day 3, group (c) treated from day 5 after MCA occlusion. Moreover, minocycline, microglia inhibitor, and fluorocitrate, an inhibitor of astroglial metabolism, were used to compare with cannabidiol-treated group. Repeated treatment with cannabidiol from 1 and 3 d at the latest after cerebral ischemia improved functional deficits and survival rates. However, cannabidiol from 5 d could not improve the ischemic damage as well as fluorocitrate-treated group. Moreover, both group (a), group (b) and minocycline but not group (c) and fluorocitrate-treated group had a decrease in the number of Iba1 expressing HMGB1 positive cells and HMGB1 levels in plasma. Cannabidiol may provide therapeutic possibilities for the progressing brain injury via HMGB1-inhibiting mechanism.
Article
Hyperhomocysteinemia, an elevation of blood homocysteine (Hcy), is a metabolic disorder associated with dysfunction of multiple organs. Apart from endothelial dysfunction, Hcy can cause hepatic lipid accumulation and liver injury. However, the mechanism responsible for Hcy-induced liver injury is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a proinflammatory factor, expression in the liver during the initial phase of hyperhomocysteinemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-methionine diet for 1 or 4 wk. Serum and liver concentrations of Hcy were significantly elevated after 1 or 4 wk of dietary treatment. COX-2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in the liver of hyperhomocysteinemic rats. The induction of COX-2 expression was more prominent in 1-wk hyperhomocysteinemic rats than that in the 4-wk group. EMSA revealed an activation of NF-kappaB in the same liver tissue in which COX-2 was induced. Administration of a NF-kappaB inhibitor to hyperhomocysteinemic rats effectively abolished hepatic COX-2 expression, inhibited the formation of inflammatory foci, and improved liver function. Further investigation revealed that oxidative stress due to increased superoxide generation was responsible for increased phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha leading to NF-kappaB activation in the liver. Administration of 4-hydroxy-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl, an SOD mimetic, to hyperhomocysteinemic rats not only inhibited NF-kappaB activation but also prevented hepatic COX-2 induction and improved liver function. These results suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia-induced COX-2 expression is mediated via NF-kappaB activation. Increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response may contribute to liver injury associated with hyperhomocysteinemia.
Article
Survivin is one of the most cancer-specific proteins identified to date, being upregulated in almost all human tumors. Biologically, survivin has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, enhance proliferation and promote angiogenesis. Because of its upregulation in malignancy and its key role in apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis, survivin is currently attracting considerable attention as a new target for anti-cancer therapies. In several animal model systems, downregulation of survivin or inactivation of its function has been shown to inhibit tumor growth. Strategies under investigation to target survivin include antisense oligonucleotides, siRNA, ribozymes, immunotherapy and small molecular weight molecules. The translation of these findings to the clinic is currently ongoing with a number of phase I/II clinical trials targeting survivin in progress. These include use of the antisense oligonucleotide LY2181308, the low molecular weight molecule inhibitor YM155 and survivin-directed autologous cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The optimum use of survivin antagonists in the treatment of cancer is likely to be in combination with conventional cancer therapies.
Article
Aim: Bicyclol is a synthetic anti-hepatitis drug with anti-oxidative property. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bicyclol on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and related mechanisms. Methods: Rats were subjected to 90 min of hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion for 1, 3, 6 and 24 h. Three doses of bicyclol were orally administered before ischemia. Liver injury was evaluated by biochemical and histopathological examinations. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) contents, and plasma endotoxin levels were spectrophotometrically measured. The expressions of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liver intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was examined by immunohistochemistry, and the expressions of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were determined by western blot. Results: Bicyclol significantly inhibited the elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin and plasma endotoxin levels, alleviated the formation of liver MDA and nitrite/nitrate, restored impaired antioxidant SOD, attenuated hepatic necrosis and neutrophil infiltration, and also improved the 7-day survival in I/R rats. Additionally, bicyclol markedly downregulated the overexpression of ICAM-1, modulated the expression of inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited the expression of NF-κB and TLR4 in I/R rats. Conclusion: Bicyclol had a remarkable protective effect on hepatic I/R injury, which was partially due to inhibiting the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB via its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and endotoxin.
Article
Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HIR) not only results in liver injury, but also leads to endotoxemia, which aggravates HIR-induced liver injury and dysfunction, or even causes liver failure. Taurine has been shown to protect organs from ischemia reperfusion or endotoxin by its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether taurine could attenuate endotoxin-induced acute liver injury after HIR. Wistar rats subjected to 30 min of hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5 mg/kg) administration, exhibited liver dysfunction (elevated serum levels of ALT, AST and LDH) and hepatic histopathological alteration. The serum levels of TNF-alpha and production of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissues and apoptosis of hepatocytes were also increased after the combination of HIR and LPS. However, pre-administration of taurine protected livers from injury induced by the combination of HIR + LPS as the histological score, apoptotic index, MPO activity and production of MDA in liver tissues, and serum levels of AST, ALT, LDH and TNF-alpha, were significantly reduced. The expression of caspase-3, Fas and Fas ligand was upregulated in homogenates of livers from rats subjected to HIR and LPS, and this elevated expression could be inhibited by taurine. In summary, the results further emphasize the potential utilization of taurine in protecting livers against endotoxin-induced injury especially after HIR, by its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities.
Article
The platinum compound cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents available to treat various malignancies. Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy, which involves increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, limiting its clinical use. In this study, we have investigated the effects of a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol, which was reported to exert antioxidant effects and has recently been approved for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis in patients in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephropathy. Cisplatin induced increased expression of superoxide-generating enzymes RENOX (NOX4) and NOX1, enhanced reactive oxygen species generation, inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression, nitrotyrosine formation, apoptosis (caspase-3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling staining), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta) in the kidneys of mice, associated with marked histopathological damage and impaired renal function (elevated serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels) 72 h after the administration of the drug. Treatment of mice with cannabidiol markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death in the kidney, and it improved renal function. Thus, our results suggest that cannabidiol may represent a promising new protective strategy against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
Article
Survivin is a new and important gene in the regulation of apoptosis. It is very important to explore the effect of the expression of survivin protein caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The effect of IR injury caused by ischemic preconditioning (IP) on the liver in rats and the relation between the protective effect of IP and the expression of survivin are unclear. One hundred and fifty male Wistar rats (weighing 190-210 g, aged 6-7 weeks) were divided into three groups at random: ischemic preconditioning (IP), ischemia-reperfusion (IR) and sham-operation (SO). Sample specimens were collected from each group at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after reperfusion. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissue was measured. Pathological changes in the liver and immunohistochemical staining for survivin were determined with an optical microscope. The ALT levels in the IP and IR groups after reperfusion at each time were higher than those in the SO group (P<0.05), whereas after reperfusion for 6 and 12 hours, the ALT levels in the IP group were lower than those in the IR group (P<0.05). The AST levels in all IP and IR groups were higher than those in the SO group (P<0.05), whereas after reperfusion for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours, the AST levels in the IP group were lower than those in the IR group (P<0.05). The MDA concentrations after reperfusion in the IP group were lower than those in the IR group (P<0.05), though the MDA concentrations in the IP and IR groups increased in contrast to those in the SO group after reperfusion at each time (P<0.05). After reperfusion for 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours, the number of survivin-positive cells was larger in the IP and IR groups than in the SO group (P<0.05). After reperfusion for 12, 24, and 48 hours the number of survivin-positive cells in the IP group increased compared with that in the IR group (P<0.05). IR increases the protein expression of survivin in liver tissue. IP inhibits the accumulation of MDA, advances the expressive phase of survivin protein in hepatic tissue, and improves liver function.
Article
To test the neuroprotective effects of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), piglets received i.v. CBD or vehicle after hypoxia-ischemia (HI: temporary occlusion of both carotid arteries plus hypoxia). Nonhypoxic-ischemic sham-operated piglets remained as controls. Brain damage was studied by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) and by histologic assessment (Nissl and FluoroJadeB staining). In HI+vehicle, HI led to severe cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic impairment, as reflected in NIRS by an increase in total Hb index (THI) and a decrease in the fractional tissue oxygenation extraction (FTOE); in HI+CBD the increase of THI was blunted and FTOE remained similar to SHAM. HI profoundly decreased EEG amplitude, which was not recovered in HI+vehicle, indicating cerebral hypofunction; seizures were observed in all HI+vehicle. In HI+CBD, however, EEG amplitude recovered to 46.4 7.8% baseline and seizures appeared only in 4/8 piglets (both p < 0.05). The number of viable neurons decreased and that of degenerating neurons increased in HI+vehicle; CBD reduced both effects by more than 50%. CBD administration was free from side effects; moreover, CBD administration was associated with cardiac, hemodynamic, and ventilatory beneficial effects. In conclusion, administration of CBD after HI reduced short-term brain damage and was associated with extracerebral benefits.
Article
The aim of this study was to test whether conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase as induced by fasting, ischemia of the liver or both is an in vivo process or only occurs in vitro in homogenates. For this purpose, the conversion rate of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase was studied in liver homogenates obtained from rats after normal feeding or 24 hr of fasting followed or not by 2 hr of ischemia of the liver. In fed rats, the conversion rate of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase was studied as well in liver homogenates after different periods of reperfusion after 2 hr of ischemia. Homogenization was carried out under strictly controlled conditions, after which the supernatants were incubated at 37 degrees C in buffer for 0 to 5 hr. Enzyme activities were assayed spectrophotometrically by measuring urate production at 295 nm. Conversion started only after 2 to 3 hr of incubation of supernatants of control fed livers, whereas conversion started immediately after 24 hr of fasting. The percentage oxidase activity of total xanthine oxidoreductase activity in ischemic livers from fed animals was slightly higher (26.7% +/- 1.7%; p < 0.05) than in control livers (19.3% +/- 1.4%), whereas the percent oxidase activity in ischemic livers from fasted animals (16.7% +/- 1.0%) was not different from that in control animals (16.8% +/- 1.1%). Ischemia for 2 hr caused in vitro a substantial increase in the conversion rate in supernatants of livers of fed and fasted rats as compared with their controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The authors compared the intra- and postoperative course of patients undergoing liver resections under continuous pedicular clamping (CPC) or intermittent pedicular clamping (IPC). Reduced blood loss during liver resection is achieved by pedicular clamping. There is controversy about the benefits of IPC over CPC in humans in terms of hepatocellular injury and blood loss control in normal and abnormal liver parenchyma. Eighty-six patients undergoing liver resections were included in a prospective randomized study comparing the intra- and postoperative course under CPC (n = 42) or IPC (n = 44) with periods of 15 minutes of clamping and 5 minutes of unclamping. The data were further analyzed according to the presence (steatosis >20% and chronic liver disease) or absence of abnormal liver parenchyma. The two groups of patients were similar in terms of age, sex, nature of the liver tumors, results of preoperative assessment, proportion of patients undergoing major or minor hepatectomy, and nature of nontumorous liver parenchyma. Intraoperative blood loss during liver transsection was significantly higher in the IPC group. In the CPC group, postoperative liver enzymes and serum bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with abnormal liver parenchyma. Major postoperative deterioration of liver function occurred in four patients with abnormal liver parenchyma, with two postoperative deaths. All of them were in the CPC group. This clinical controlled study clearly demonstrated the better parenchymal tolerance to IPC over CPC, especially in patients with abnormal liver parenchyma.
Article
The morbidity associated with liver transplantation and major hepatic resections is partly a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The entire world literature on the subject was searched via Medline. Keywords included reperfusion injury, transplantation, liver resection, nitric oxide, endothelin, cytokines, Kupffer cells, ischemic/ischaemic preconditioning, and nuclear factor-kappa B. An imbalance between endothelin and nitric oxide levels results in failure of the hepatic microcirculation at the onset of reperfusion. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in the liver promotes proinflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecule synthesis. These result in oxygen-derived free radical production and neutrophil recruitment, further contributing to cellular injury. Various therapeutic modalities acting on the above mediators have been successfully used to attenuate reperfusion injury in animal models of hepatic transplantation and resection. Application of the knowledge gained from animal models of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion to the clinical setting will improve the outcome of hepatic surgery.
Article
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL/APO-2L) activates nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB). This activation is regulated by the recruitment of an adaptor protein Fas associating death domain (FADD) to TRAIL death receptors, death receptor 4 (DR4, TRAIL-R1) and death receptor 5 (DR5 TRAIL-R2). This leads to recruitment of caspase 8 and receptor interacting protein (RIP) to the receptor complex. Upon recruitment of caspase 8 and RIP, NFkappaB inducing kinase (NIK) becomes activated causing NFkappaB activation. The role of TRAIL induced NFkappaB activation in epithelial cells is unknown. Herein we demonstrate that TRAIL increases expression of DR5 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293, MCF-7 and MDA MB 231 epithelial cell lines while DR4 expression remains unchanged. Blockage of NFkappaB activation either by expression of dominant negative IkappaB or treatment with proteasome inhibitor lactacystin eliminates TRAIL induced DR5 expression. Expression of FADD dominant negative in HEK 293 cells that prevents the recruitment of caspase 8 and RIP to TRAIL death receptors also eliminates this increase. By over expression of the p65 subunit of NFkappaB that increases NFkappaB transcriptional activity, DR5 expression was increased compared to vector alone expressing cells. By blocking TRAIL induced NFkappaB activation, the sensitivity of cells to undergo TRAIL induced apoptosis was significantly decreased. Conversely, the amount of TRAIL induced apoptosis was increased in HEK 293 cells over expressing p65 subunit of NFkappaB. Finally blockage of NFkappaB activation eliminates the synergistic apoptotic response of TRAIL and etoposide. Thus, TRAIL mediated NFkappaB activation increases DR5 expression thereby amplifying the apoptotic response of TRAIL in epithelial derived cells.
Article
The TNFalpha receptor super-family consists of several members sharing a sequence homology in a unique function domain, the death domain, which is located in the intracellular portion of the receptor. These so-called death receptors, including Fas, TNF-R1 and TRAIL-R1/TRAIL-R2, are expressed on hepatocytes. When stimulated by their ligands, FasL, TNFalpha or TRAIL, respectively, the death receptors can activate multiple death domain-initiated apoptosis programs, including both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. A cascade of caspases is activated, which cleave proteins important for the cell structure and function. Activation of the intrinsic pathway also leads to mitochondrial release of several apoptotic proteins and mitochondrial dysfunction, which kill the cell through both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent mechanisms. Death receptor-induced hepatocyte apoptosis contributes to the development of a number of liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, inflammatory hepatitis, Wilson's disease, alcoholic liver disease, endotoxiemia-induced liver failure and ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver damage. This article comprehensively reviews the mechanisms of induction and regulation of death receptor-initiated apoptosis in hepatocytes, examines how these molecular events affect our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases and further discusses the potential therapeutic application of the knowledge. We hope we can provide a cohesive and integrated perspective on the many aspects of these complicated processes.
Article
Cannabidiol, the major non-psychoactive component of marijuana, has various pharmacological actions of clinical interest. It is reportedly effective as an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. The present study examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of cannabidiol, administered orally (5–40 mg/kg) once a day for 3 days after the onset of acute inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v in saline) in the rat. At the end of the treatment prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was assayed in the plasma, and cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, production of nitric oxide (NO; nitrite/nitrate content), and of other oxygen-derived free radicals (malondialdehyde) in inflamed paw tissues. All these markers were significantly increased following carrageenan. Thermal hyperalgesia, induced by carrageenan and assessed by the plantar test, lasted 7 h. Cannabidiol had a time- and dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesic effect after a single injection. Edema following carrageenan peaked at 3 h and lasted 72 h; a single dose of cannabidiol reduced edema in a dose-dependent fashion and subsequent daily doses caused further time- and dose-related reductions. There were decreases in PGE2 plasma levels, tissue COX activity, production of oxygen-derived free radicals, and NO after three doses of cannabidiol. The effect on NO seemed to depend on a lower expression of the endothelial isoform of NO synthase. In conclusion, oral cannabidiol has a beneficial action on two symptoms of established inflammation: edema and hyperalgesia.
Article
We investigated the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on hepatocellular killing after simulated ischemia/reperfusion and characterized signaling factors triggering cytoprotection by NO. Cultured rat hepatocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs-Ringer-HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 4 hours and reoxygenated at pH 7.4 for 2 hours. During reoxygenation, some hepatocytes were exposed to combinations of NO donors (S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine [SNAP] and others), a cGMP analogue (8-bromoguanosine-3,5-cGMP [8-Br-cGMP]), and a cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (KT5823). Cell viability was determined by way of propidium iodide fluorometry. Inner membrane permeabilization and mitochondrial depolarization were monitored by confocal microscopy. SNAP, but not oxidized SNAP, increased cGMP during reperfusion and decreased cell killing. Other NO donors and 8-Br-cGMP also prevented cell killing. Both guanylyl cyclase and cGMP-dependent kinase inhibition blocked the cytoprotection of NO. However, 5-hydroxydecanoate and diazoxide- mitochondrial K(ATP) channel modulators-did not affect NO-dependent cytoprotection or reperfusion injury. During reoxygenation, confocal microscopy showed mitochondrial repolarization, followed by depolarization, inner membrane permeabilization, and cell death. In the presence of either SNAP or 8-Br-cGMP, mitochondrial repolarization was sustained after reperfusion preventing inner membrane permeabilization and cell death. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, a cGMP analogue in the presence of a cytosolic extract and adenosine triphosphate blocked the Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), an effect that was reversed by KT5823. In conclusion, NO prevents MPT-dependent necrotic killing of ischemic hepatocytes after reperfusion through a guanylyl cyclase and cGMP-dependent kinase signaling pathway, events that may represent the target of NO cytoprotection in preconditioning.
Article
Cannabinoids, including the bioactive constituents of the marijuana plant, their synthetic analogs, and endogenous lipids with cannabinoid-like activity, produce their biological effects by interacting with specific receptors. To date, two G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors have been identified by molecular cloning, CB1 receptors mainly expressed in the brain and mediating most of the neurobehavioral effects of cannabinoids and CB2 receptors expressed by immune and hematopoietic tissues. Recent findings indicate that some cannabinoid effects are not mediated by either CB1 or CB2 receptors, and in some cases there is compelling evidence to implicate additional receptors in these actions. These include transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors and as-yet-unidentified receptors implicated in the endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect of certain cannabinoids and in the presynaptic inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus. The case for these additional receptors is being reviewed here.
Article
Survivin has aroused keen interest in disparate areas of basic and translational research. This stems from the complexity of a 'survivin network', which appears to intersect multiple pathways of cell division, resistance to apoptosis, surveillance checkpoints and adaptation to unfavorable environments. Such intricacy has also engendered different models for survivin function and its implications. As antagonists of survivin are being evaluated in the clinic, a critical reassessment of the pathway, especially with respect to cell division and cell survival, is now a priority. Building a unifying model to reconcile the differing views on survivin will aid in the design and interpretation of molecularly based clinical trials targeting this network in humans.
Article
Melatonin exerts complex physiological and pharmacological effects on multiple systems and organs. We hypothesized that melatonin might abate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the liver by inhibiting excessive oxidative stress and keeping nitric oxide (NO) from being scavenged by free radicals. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether melatonin protects the liver from I/R injury and, if so, by what underlying mechanism. Under anesthesia, Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg melatonin (dissolved in physiological saline containing 4% ethanol, Mel group), 4% alcohol (Alc group), or physiological saline (NS group). The artery, portal vein and bile duct of the left lobe of the liver were clamped for 60 minutes and then released. At different time points after I/R, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and NO. Hepatic tissue samples were collected for measuring endothelin expression by immunohistochemical staining and for routine morphological and histological examination. The levels of both ALT and LDH in the Mel group were significantly reduced for up to 24 hours after I/R compared with the Alc and NS groups (P<0.05). The levels of NO in the Mel group were significantly elevated for up to 12 hours after I/R relative to the NS group (P<0.05). The NO levels were also elevated at 0.5 and 6 hours after I/R in the Alc group (P<0.05). The immunohistochemical staining of hepatic tissue showed that endothelin-positive cells were significantly fewer in the Mel group than in the Alc and NS groups at 6 hours after I/R (P<0.01). The necrosis of hepatocytes and the destruction of hepatic cords in the Alc and NS groups were greatly improved in Mel-treated rats, which is in concert with our functional data. Pretreatment with melatonin increased NO bioavailability and decreased endothelin expression, and consequently played a protective role in preserving both liver function and structure during ischemia and reperfusion injury.
Article
Aim: Apoptosis is involved in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. The protein FNK, constructed from an anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, exhibits the stronger anticell death activity. We evaluated the effect of FNK on apoptosis after hepatic ischemia and reperfusion, using FNK-overexpressing transgenic mice and the HIV/Tat protein-transduction-domain (PTD) that mediates the introduction of FNK into cells when fused with FNK (PTD-FNK). Methods: Mice were given hepatic ischemic insult for 90 min followed by reperfusion for 3 h. FNK overexpression was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. PTD-FNK was intraperitoneally injected into wild mice 3 h before the insult. Liver injury was determined by the caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and hematoxylin–eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP- digoxigenin nick-end labelling (TUNEL) stainings. Results: In FNK-transgenic mice, FNK overexpression inhibited the activation of caspase 3/caspase 3-like activity and DNA fragmentation caused by the injury. In wild mice preinjected with PTD-FNK, PTD-FNK significantly inhibited the caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, reduced the area of liver vacuolization, and protected hepatic cells surrounding blood vessels, irrespective of central or portal veins, from the ischemia/reperfusion damage. Conclusions: FNK inhibits apoptotic death due to the ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our results provide the reasonable expectation of therapeutic protein PTD-FNK for clinical applications, such as transplantation, to protect against ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Article
To determine the effects of allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, and apocynin, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, on oxidant stress and liver injury caused by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) procedure in mice. Mice were pretreated with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, or NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, apocynin before the hepatic I/R procedure. Then treated or untreated mice underwent the hepatic I/R procedure. The effects on hepatic injury and superoxide anions were determined after starting reperfusion. A standard warm hepatic I/R procedure led to a marked increase in superoxide anion production as indicated by a superoxide anion tracer, MCLA. At the same time, the procedure caused profound acute liver injury, as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, reduced liver glutathione levels and elevated malondialdehyde contents, as well as a high apoptotic cell count. All these changes were reversed by the use of apocynin or allopurinol prior to the hepatic I/R procedure. Allopurinol and apocynin exerted protective effects on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. The protection is associated with blocking the generation of superoxide anions during the hepatic I/R procedure by inhibiting xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase activity.
Article
This study was designed to investigate the effect of Trolox, a hydrophilic analogue of vitamin E, on the alteration of vasoregulatory gene expression during hepatic ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Rats were subjected to 60 min of hepatic ischemia in vivo. The rats were treated intravenously with Trolox (2.5 mg/kg) or the vehicle as a control 5 min before reperfusion. Liver samples were obtained 5 h after reperfusion for a RT-PCR analysis on the mRNA for the genes of interest. These mRNA peptides are endothelin-1 (ET-1), potent vasoconstrictor peptide, its receptor ET(A) and ET(B), vasodilator endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). It was seen that serum alanine aminotransferase and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly increased after I/R and Trolox significantly suppressed this increase. In contrast, the glutathione concentration decreased in the I/R group, and this decrease was inhibited by Trolox. ET-1 mRNA expression was increased by I/R, an increase which was prevented by Trolox. The mRNA levels for ET(A) receptor was significantly decreased, whereas ET(B) receptor transcript increased in the I/R group. The increase in ET(A) was prevented by Trolox. The mRNA levels for iNOS and HO-1 significantly increased in the I/R group and Trolox attenuated this increase. There were no significant differences in eNOS mRNA expression among any of the experimental groups. The mRNA levels for COX-2 and TNF-alpha significantly increased in I/R group and Trolox also attenuated this increase. Our findings suggest that I/R induces an imbalanced hepatic vasoregulatory gene expression and Trolox ameliorates this change through its free radical scavenging activity.
Impacting tumor cell-fate by targeting the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin Nitric oxide protects rat he-patocytes against reperfusion injury mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition
  • R J Kelly
  • A Lopez-Chavez
  • D Citrin
  • J E Janik
  • J C Morris
Kelly, R.J., Lopez-Chavez, A., Citrin, D., Janik, J.E., Morris, J.C., 2011. Impacting tumor cell-fate by targeting the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin. Mol. Cancer 10, 35. Kim, J.S., Ohshima, S., Pediaditakis, P., Lemasters, J.J., 2004. Nitric oxide protects rat he-patocytes against reperfusion injury mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition. Hepatology 39, 1533–1543.