Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness: Construct Validity and Psychometric Properties of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire

Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA. .
Psychological Assessment (Impact Factor: 2.99). 09/2011; 24(1):197-215. DOI: 10.1037/a0025358
Source: PubMed


The present study examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of scores derived from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) using latent variable modeling with 5 independent samples varying in age and level of psychopathology. The INQ was derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide and was developed to measure thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness-both proximal causes of desire for suicide. Results support that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are distinct but related constructs and that they can be reliably measured. Further, multiple-group analyses were consistent with invariance for young versus older adults and nonclinical versus clinical populations, thereby supporting the relevance of these constructs to diverse populations. Finally, both constructs demonstrated convergent associations with related interpersonal constructs-including loneliness and social support for belongingness and social worth and death ideation for burdensomeness--as well as prospective associations with suicidal ideation.

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Available from: Kimberly Van Orden
    • "The INQ perceived burdensomeness subscale has been tested using: a single item that was rated on a 3-point scale (Van Orden et al., 2006), a 5-item version (Bryan, 2011; Bryan et al., 2012), and a 7-item version (Van Orden, Witte, Gordon, et al., 2008). For the 7-item version, only two of the seven items were found to load on the perceived burdensomeness subscale (Freedenthal, Lamis, Osman, Kahlo, & Gutierrez, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: People who feel they have become a burden on others may become susceptible to suicidal ideation. When people no longer feel capable or productive, they may assume that friends and family members would be better off without them. Aim: The present study was designed to assess preliminary psychometric properties of a new measure, the Perceived Burdensomeness (PBS) Scale. Method: Depressed psychiatric patients (N = 173) were recruited from a veterans affairs medical center. Patients were assessed with a structured diagnostic interview and self-report measures assessing perceived burdensomeness, depression severity, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. Results: The present study supported preliminary evidence of reliability and concurrent validity of the PBS. Additionally, perceived burdensomeness was significantly associated with higher levels of hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Conclusion: It is hoped that with the aid of the PBS clinicians may be able to intervene more specifically in the treatment of suicidality.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Crisis The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention
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    • "Considerable evidence supports a significant association between perceived burdensomeness and suicidal ideation among adults (e.g., Hill & Pettit, 2014; Van Orden et al., 2010), and recent findings provide support for a significant association between perceived burdensomeness and suicidal ideation among adolescents (Hill, Rey, Marin, Sharp, Green, & Pettit, in press; Venta, Mellick, Schatte, & Sharp, 2014). Evidence for an association between thwarted belongingness and suicidal ideation has been mixed in adults (Van Orden et al., 2012; Woodward et al., 2014; O'Keefe et al., 2014); two published studies among adolescents found a significant association between thwarted belongingness and suicidal ideation (Hill et al., in press; Venta, Mellick, Schatte, & Sharp, 2014). Thus, evidence is accumulating to support perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness as correlates of suicidal ideation in adolescents. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Research has documented significant associations between life stress, especially interpersonal stress, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. Little is known about variables that explain the association between interpersonal stress and suicidal ideation. Methods: The present study evaluated a conceptual model in which interpersonal stress (chronic and episodic) predicted suicidal ideation indirectly via thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness among 180 inpatients (65.0% girls) ages 12-17 years (M=14.72, SD=1.49). Non-interpersonal stress was also examined to determine whether the model was specific to interpersonal stress or common to stress in general. Results: Structural equation modeling identified a significant indirect effect of chronic interpersonal stress on suicidal ideation via perceived burdensomeness. Episodic interpersonal stress was significantly correlated with thwarted belongingness and suicidal ideation, but was not a significant predictor of suicidal ideation in a model that controlled for depressive and anxious symptoms. No significant associations were found between non-interpersonal stress and suicidal ideation. Limitations: Adolescents were the sole informant source, data on psychiatric diagnoses were not available, and the optimal time interval for examining stress remains unclear. The cross-sectional study design prevents conclusions regarding directionality. Conclusions: These findings highlight the role of chronic interpersonal stress in suicidal ideation in adolescents, as well as the potential promise of perceived burdensomeness as a target for programs designed to prevent or reduce suicidal ideation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    • "The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire—15 item version (INQ-15; Van Orden et al. 2008; Van Orden et al. 2012) was utilized to measure feelings of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, the components of suicidal desire as conceptualized by the IPTS. The INQ is a self-report measure in which items are scored on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (Not at all true for me) to 7 (Very true for me), with higher scores indicating greater risks for these two components. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prior research has established a connection between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) posits that an individual must possess both a desire and capability for suicide in order to engage in a lethal suicide attempt. The IPTS conceptualizes the role of NSSI in suicidal behavior as contributing to an individual’s acquired capability. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frequency of engagement in NSSI and suicidal desire ( thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness). In this study, undergraduate students (n = 999) completed various questionnaires online. Results revealed a significant, positive association between NSSI frequency and thwarted belongingness and a non-significant association between NSSI frequency and perceived burdensomeness. Additionally, results indicated a significant indirect effect of NSSI frequency on burdensomeness and belongingness through depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms. The direct effect of NSSI frequency on belongingness remained significant; however, the direct effect of NSSI frequency on burdensomeness did not. These findings suggest that the relationship between NSSI and suicide is not strictly limited to acquired capability, but rather includes a component of suicidal desire.
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