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Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of residential satisfaction and sense of belonging on loneliness in old age in two different contexts: the community and the residential care facility. We used two surveys of 1106 non-institutionalized and 234 institutionalized older adults, aged 60 years or more in Spain. Results from structural equation modeling and path analysis suggest that residential satisfaction would positively affect sense of belonging and would be negatively associated with loneliness in both residential environments, thus playing a protective role against the experience of loneliness.

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... Loneliness emerges especially when a person has difficulties adapting to a new life situation (Savikko et al., 2005). In longterm care facilities, residents have described severe experiences of loneliness, and lonely older people have even felt invisible in these settings (Jansson, Karisto, & Pitkälä, 2019 (Drageset, Espehaug, & Kirkevold, 2012;Prieto-Flores, Fernandez-Mayoralas, Forjaz, Rojo-Perez, & Martinez-Martin, 2011), poor selfrated health, disability and mobility problems have been reported as being associated with loneliness among institutional residents. The risk of has been significantly higher among the 'lonely' than among the 'not lonely' residents of institutions (Jansson et al., 2017). ...
... A third limitation in our study is the lack of data concerning residents' social relationships. However, the frequency of social contacts is not necessarily associated with the residents' experiences of loneliness in long-term care (Drageset et al., 2011;Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). ...
... Previous studies have mainly examined the factors associated with loneliness in bivariate analyses, which means that background characteristics highly intertwined with loneliness have not been adjusted for in the analyses. Functional dependence, gender, and marital status have been associated with loneliness in some studies, although the findings are contradictory (Bekhet & Zauszniewski, 2012;Drageset et al., 2011;Prieto-Flores et al., 2011;Tse, Leung, & Ho, 2012). In our multivariate analysis, feeling depressed was the only characteristic significantly associated with loneliness. ...
Article
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of loneliness over time from 2011 to 2017 in long-term care facilities; and its related factors. Material and methods Repeated cross-sectional studies exploring loneliness and its associated factors among residents in long-term care facilities were conducted in Helsinki, Finland in 2011 (N = 4966) and 2017 (N = 3767). Residents in temporary respite care or with severe cognitive impairment, and those unable or refusing to respond to the loneliness item were excluded. The total number of participants in this analysis was 1563 in 2011, and 1367 in 2017. In both samples, we used the same loneliness measurement by asking “Do you suffer from loneliness?” (never/sometimes/often or always). When comparing the samples in order to reduce the effect of confounding between them, we used propensity score matching. A multivariable logistic regression model explored the relationship between various characteristics and loneliness. Results Loneliness showed no change in prevalence over time: propensity score-adjusted loneliness was 36% in 2011 and 2017. In the multivariate logistic regression model, feeling depressed was the only independent characteristic associated with loneliness. Of the respondents who did not feel depressed, 24% suffered from loneliness at least sometimes. Among the respondents who felt depressed, the respective figure was 55%. Conclusion Loneliness is common in institutional settings. It remained stable, and not decreased over time. Because loneliness impairs the well-being, quality of life and health of residents, it needs to be addressed. Screening loneliness and developing interventions to alleviate it, is essential.
... The complexity of loneliness is not adequately reflected in binary definitions of loneliness and social isolation (Smith and Victor, 2019). In assisted living facilities, the frequency of social contacts, or their absence, is not necessarily associated with the residents' experiences of loneliness (Drageset et al., 2011;Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). It is important that we deepen our understanding of this (Brownie and Horstmanshof, 2011;Tiilikainen and Seppänen, 2017). ...
... The aim is that in the facility, residents consider their lives safe, meaningful and valuable (Finlex, 2012). Fulfilment of these goals is supposed to increase residential satisfaction, which has a protective effect against loneliness (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). However, there may be a gap between these goals and reality in care practices (Pirhonen, 2017). ...
... Earlier research findings (Drageset et al., 2011;Prieto-Flores et al., 2011) have also demonstrated that frequency of social contacts does not necessarily alleviate loneliness; passing contacts may even cause or intensify it. ...
Article
The purpose of the study is to explore feelings of loneliness among residents in assisted living facilities in terms of how loneliness is experienced and articulated, and what specific factors are related to the experiences. The study used a mixed-method approach. We individually interviewed 13 residents twice over six months. We conducted two focus group interviews and noted our observations each time we met the respondents. Data analysis leaned on abductive reasoning. The respondents described loneliness in versatile, rich ways. It proved to be time and place dependent. It was dependent on the time of day, days of the week and seasons. Lonely time was meaningless and filled with a feeling of waiting. Loneliness was also intertwined with place. None of the respondents called their apartment home; instead they called it a hospital, even a prison. They had to spend long periods of time in their apartments against their will, and their desire to interact with other residents was not met. The respondents felt invisible. Residents’ experiences of loneliness in assisted living facilities are unique and distinctive. Time- and place-dependent experiences of loneliness act as important signals for reflection on how care practices in these facilities could be more satisfying. Loneliness should therefore be a key topic and the target of prevention and interventions.
... Insecure rental tenure and low-quality housing in older age can thus deplete wellbeing and exacerbate health problems, especially when accompanied by emotional and financial stresses. For example, greater prevalence of depressive symptoms and (di)stress has been observed among those living in dwellings and/or neighbourhoods that are experienced as challenging or unsatisfactory (Aneshensel et al., 2007;Macintyre et al., 2003;Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). ...
... The challenges associated with these changes can be made more difficult by stigmatising stereotypes or societal attitudes that cast older people as frail or "unagentic" (Grenier et al., 2017). Age-and healthrelated precarities can be compounded by social isolation and loneliness, which can impede an older person's wellbeing and sense of belonging (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). Such aloneness can be further exacerbated by self-consciousness about low-quality housing or financial barriers restricting social outings when basic living costs are unaffordable (Cattell, 2001). ...
... Strategies can include being physically active to ensure continued life enjoyment, or seeking moral support, social connections and professional assistance to enhance independence (Golant, 2015;Wiles et al., 2012a). Social connections and friendships can play a role in either assisting a person to change their housing circumstances if required, or in supporting them through difficult situations and maintaining their optimism, independence, quality of life and wellbeing (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011;Wiles et al., 2009Wiles et al., , 2012a. A sense of security, home and life enjoyment can be experienced through attachment to 'special things', including photographs, furniture and sentimental belongings as well as the house itself, if this is experienced positively (Chapman, 2006;Coleman and Wiles, 2018). ...
Article
Older renters may encounter a wide range of challenges and constraints in their experiences of ageing, housing and community life that influence their wellbeing. We employ a two-part conceptualisation of precarity and resilience to investigate how housing-related precarities may impact upon experiences of ageing and home during later life. We draw on narratives collected through in-depth interviews with 13 older renters living in a particularly high-pressure housing market within the greater Auckland area. We ground our analysis in ideas of precarity and resilience evident in participants' experiences of being 'at home' at the scale of both the dwelling and wider community. Results show that experiences of renting and ageing can be complicated and compromised in diverse ways by interrelated aspects of precarity and resilience related to housing, community, health, financial and personal circumstances. Distance or isolation from services and healthcare, tourism-related infrastructural pressures, and community changes can intensify precarious experiences of home, and can have implications for older people's wellbeing, as well as their ongoing opportunities to age well in place. In addition to these potential precarities, older renters appear to draw strength from their familiarity with, attachment to, and enjoyment of, place and community. These responses demonstrate older renters' capacity for resilience to challenge and adversity when ageing in rented places.
... Empirical studies that deal with residential satisfaction as a measure of environmental quality, treat residential satisfaction as an outcome variable (De Jong et al. 2012;Van Dyck et al. 2011;Huang and Du 2015). Other studies, however, regard it as an explanatory variable of residents' behavioral and psychological outcomes, such as SWB (Prieto-Flores et al. 2011;Wang et al. 2019). ...
... Previous research has suggested that increasing residential satisfaction and social capital could lead to benefits for the public good (Light 2004;Prieto-Flores et al. 2011;Vidal 2004;Wang et al. 2019). In this vein, residents' residential satisfaction and social capital might represent desirable neighborhood environments to foster residents' SWB. ...
Article
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As urbanization has matured in many areas, interest in qualitative values such as residents' residential satisfaction, social capital, and subjective well-being (SWB) has increased. However, few studies have investigated the influence of different urban environments, including housing types, on residential satisfaction, social capital, and SWB. The present study compares residential satisfaction, social capital, and SWB levels of two different housing types: high-rise apartments and low-rise dwellings. To this end, the authors analyze the large-scale survey data collected from 20,000 residents in Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea, using structural equation modeling. The analysis found that the satisfaction level of apartment residents tends to be higher, but their social capital level tends to be lower than their counterparts in low-rise dwellings. Because residential satisfaction and social capital dimensions are positively associated with the dimensions of SWB, the model identified apartments' positive indirect effects via residential satisfaction and negative indirect effects via social capital on subjective well-being. The results imply countervailing effects of apartment developments on residents' SWB: although offering more satisfactory residential environments, high-rise apartments may discourage social capital formation. These results call for urban planning and policy approaches that encourage social ties and interactions, thereby eventually improving residents' SWB.
... Moving from a private home to a long-term care environment may be a stressful life event for an older person [1]. Social networks may shrink and the quality of life may decline [2]. According to some studies, older people who live in care homes are surprisingly vulnerable to loneliness [1,[3][4]. ...
... An assisted living facility is an interesting environment in which to examine loneliness, as it is somewhere between home and an institution [5,15]. People live there with support, care and activities, but their existing social surroundings and everyday life do not necessarily meet their expectations [2,5]. ...
Article
Background: More than one in three older people in assisted living facilities suffer from loneliness that leads to adverse health outcomes. Group work may have the potential to improve residents’ quality of life. Aims/Objectives: The purpose of this feasibility study was to thoroughly describe a facilitated group process and compare its effects on cognitively impaired (n = 6) and cognitively intact (n = 7) lonely resident groups in assisted living facilities. Material and Methods: We used a closed, occupational therapy-oriented group model designed for lonely people. The study used a qualitative, multi-method approach. Material included individual and focus group interviews, observations and the facilitators’ field diaries. Results: Loneliness was reflected in diverse ways in both groups. Meaningful activities in mutual interaction played an important role in empowering the participants and enabling the development of the group process. Group processes had similar, parallel steps, from which the participants seemed to benefit. Surprisingly, the cognitively impaired group progressed towards self-direction more quickly than the cognitively intact group. Conclusions: A group process with clearly progressing steps revealed that lonely older people are capable of empowerment and self-direction – despite their frailty and cognitive impairment. Facilitators should be familiar with group processes to enable them to progress effectively.
... Together with other age-related transitions, this may affect how older people go about their daily lives, social interactions and active participation in the residential environment. This is particularly important in terms of housing and the area in which it is located, as these being the environments to which older people feel most attachment (Prieto-Flores et al. 2011;Rojo-Perez et al. 2016), considering them as an extension of their selves (Vanzella-Yang 2019). ...
... Another possibility is that a higher number of children may imply more time spent caring for any grandchildren, which would reduce the leisure time available to grandparents. Notwithstanding this, it was also observed that a higher number of children had a protective effect against feelings of loneliness, as has been shown in previous studies (Prieto-Flores et al. 2011). Finally, in addition to frequency of free-time activities, a lower feeling of loneliness led to higher satisfaction with free time and with life. ...
... Together with other age-related transitions, this may affect how older people go about their daily lives, social interactions and active participation in the residential environment. This is particularly important in terms of housing and the area in which it is located, as these being the environments to which older people feel most attachment (Prieto-Flores et al. 2011;Rojo-Perez et al. 2016), considering them as an extension of their selves (Vanzella-Yang 2019). ...
... Another possibility is that a higher number of children may imply more time spent caring for any grandchildren, which would reduce the leisure time available to grandparents. Notwithstanding this, it was also observed that a higher number of children had a protective effect against feelings of loneliness, as has been shown in previous studies (Prieto-Flores et al. 2011). Finally, in addition to frequency of free-time activities, a lower feeling of loneliness led to higher satisfaction with free time and with life. ...
Chapter
Active ageing is conditioned by social, economic and personal determinants, health and social services, and the physical environment. In connection with this, age-friendly residential environments enable to adjust the places of daily life to the changes that accompany the aging process, in order to promote integration and active ageing at all ages. This work analyzed the obstacles of the physical environment for the mobility of older people, as barriers to participation in leisure activities in the neighborhood or place of residence. Its impact on the quality of life indicators of satisfaction with free time and with life as a whole is also examined. For this purpose, the Pilot Survey of the Longitudinal Study on Ageing in Spain Project (ELES-EP Project) was used, with a representative sample of community residents aged 50 years and above. Structural equation models were applied to analyze the relationship of the focal variables (barriers, free time and life satisfaction), controlling for the effect of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health, functional capacity and social relationships, among other determinants of active ageing. The results indicated that obstacles relating to accessibility of housing or buildings might reduce the frequency with which older people participate in leisure activities in their community, which in turn negatively affects satisfaction with free time and quality of life. Ensuring a barrier-free residential environment is key to promoting active ageing and to enhancing quality of life.
... Europe, 'the old continent', is greatly exposed to this development and substantial demographic shifts can be observed in Poland as well [2]. Eurostat forecasts the European Union population aged 65 and more will expand from 19.2% in 2016 to 25.7% in 2035 [3]. ...
... Satisfaction with place of residence influences the sense of belonging to a community and is adversely related to loneliness. These authors emphasise such a relationship obtains for the elderly who live in nursing homes and in family environments [25]. ...
Article
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Background Numbers of the elderly have been on a steady increase both in Poland and other countries of the world. As they age, their health declines and they need help with their housekeeping. This, coupled with the transformation of intergenerational into single-generation or nuclear family structures, causes a markedly rising demand for institutional care. Holistic care of an elderly nursing home resident requires a comprehensive approach and consideration for their feelings. Loneliness and solitude are increasingly common among these feelings, undoubtedly affecting quality of life. Method 250 elderly residents of seven nursing home situated in Mazovia, Poland, have been examined using: De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, WHOQOL-BREF Questionnaire, Basic Hope Scale (BHI-12), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). Results Loneliness affects nearly 40% residents of the homes surveyed. Quality of their residents’ lives is reduced. Relations with their families and levels of motor efficiency imply a sense of loneliness. Degrees of illness acceptance, ability to adjust to change, and life satisfaction influence the level of loneliness felt. Conclusion 40% of nursing home residents exhibit a sense of loneliness, while the greater loneliness and solitude, the lower the quality of life.
... A previous study has reported on the importance of the sense of belonging to human growth and development such as human motivation and behavior [21]. Another study has reported the relationship between sense of belonging with depression, loneliness, anxiety and dissatisfaction [22,23,24]. Students who do not have a good sense of belonging will have psychological problems that affect their growth and development, especially when building relationships with others and communicating socially. ...
Article
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Medical programs have always been regarded as highly difficult and highly stressful professional programs when compared to other programs. Medical students need to be resilient because the programs are full of adversity that can bring stress and tension to themselves. The purpose of this study is to examine the level of resilience and sense of belonging among medical students. Respondents of this study consisted of 137-year three medical students. Two sets of questionnaires were used in this study; Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) and Sense of Belonging Instrument-Psychological (SOBI-P). The findings from this research show the level of resilience among medical students is considered as moderately high while sense of belonging level is high. The implications of this study on student's development and counselor's roles in higher learning institutions will also be discussed.
... At an individual level, sense of place can be a source of positive well-being, providing feelings of safety, control and autonomy which are important in achieving personal goals and positive fulfilment and, therefore, has a central role to play in supporting healthy and active ageing (Atkinson et al., 2012). At a social level, a strong sense of place is reflected in opportunities for the development of social capital, and the provision of informal support that can provide a coping mechanism, particularly for older adults (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). At a community level, sense of place is reinforced through opportunities for meaningful participation and involvement in neighbourhood decision-making (Mihaylov & Perkins, 2014). ...
Article
The ageing in place agenda emphasises the importance of supporting older adults to age in their communities surrounded by the personal resources to age well. In exploring the relationship between older people and their environment, the concept of place insideness is seen as central to constructing feelings of identity, belonging and attachment in old age. Yet there has been little research exploring how older adults experience place insideness across different urban, social and cultural contexts which is an impediment to identifying effective interventions for age-friendly cities and communities. This article explores how place insideness is experienced amongst older adults across India, Brazil and the United Kingdom. The article presents qualitative findings from 294 semi-structured interviews collected across 9 cities and 27 neighbourhoods. The findings reveal that older adults cultivate their sense of place insideness in old age through dimensions of physical insideness (i.e., environmental competence in navigating and engaging in the community), social insideness (i.e., knowing others) and autobiographical insideness (i.e., shared place histories). In drawing on older people’s understanding of their communities, this article explores the opportunities and challenges in developing a sense of place insideness to support ageing well. We identify implications for policy and practice in terms of how we can better design urban environments as age-friendly communities which support a greater sense of place for older people.
... The association between loneliness and depression is well-documented, particularly in older adults (Domènech-Abella et al., 2017). A sense of belonging, however, is protective against loneliness (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011) and has been found to be negatively associated with depression and suicide in aging populations (Vanderhorst and McLaren, 2005) and positively with wellbeing (Park, 2009). Loneliness has been defined as a discrepancy between desired and real social relations (Peplau and Perlman, 1982), so inevitably evokes issues of entitlement. ...
Article
Full-text available
Our sense of entitlement influences our interactions and attitudes in a range of specific relational contexts, one of them being aging parents’ relationships with their adult children. This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Sense of Relational Entitlement—aging parents toward their offspring (SRE-ao), an 11-item questionnaire that assesses aging people’s sense of relational entitlement toward their children, and examine the associations of its subscales with related personality and mental health constructs. One thousand and six participants (24.6% men), aged 65–99, with at least one child, completed the SRE-ao, Brief Symptom Inventory, Loneliness Scale, and General Belongingness scale. The SRE-ao demonstrated good construct structure using confirmatory factor analysis. Both SRE-ao subscales (restricted and inflated sense of entitlement) were significantly and positively associated with anxiety, depression, somatization and sense of loneliness and negatively with sense of belonging. When all variables were entered into a regression model, age, anxiety, and low sense of belonging, but not sense of loneliness, positively predicted both restricted and inflated sense of entitlement. Somatization negatively predicted inflated sense of entitlement. The SRE-ao is a reliable and valid scale that can be used in clinical practice and research to enhance our understanding of parent–child relationships throughout the lifespan.
... Social activities were also shown to be associated with cognitive health through a psychological avenue, by improving mental health, corroborating the study's third hypothesis. Frequently engaging in social activities may provide various emotional benefits, such as a sense of belonging and meaning, and the social group members can aid in coping with stressful events (Jang, Mortimer, Haley, & Graves, 2004;Prieto-Flores, Fernandez-Mayoralas, Forjaz, Rojo-Perez, & Martinez-Martin, 2011;Schwartz & Litwin, 2019b;Thoits, 2011). Mental health has important implications for cognition (Hertzog et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Background and Objectives One of the greatest challenges of old age is the risk of cognitive decline. Engagement in social activities has been identified as a possible protective factor. However, it is not yet clear what are the mechanisms underlying this association. This study aims to elucidate the pathways through which social activities impact cognitive functioning, focusing on physical activity and mental health as possible mediators. Research Design and Methods The study utilized 3 waves of data—the fourth, fifth, and sixth waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, collected in 2011, 2013, and 2015, respectively. It focused on respondents aged 60 and older. Cognitive functioning was assessed via immediate recall, delayed recall, and fluency. Social activities were measured by volunteering and attending social clubs. Data were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach. Results The results indicated a significant direct effect of social activities on cognitive functioning. That is, being socially active at baseline was related to better cognitive function 4 years later. The results also indicated the existence of indirect effects. Engaging in social activities was related to better mental health and more physical activities 2 years later, which were related to better subsequent cognitive performance. Discussion and Implications These findings highlight the mediating roles of physical activity and mental health in the effects of social activities on cognitive functioning. Understanding these mechanisms can help optimize social activity interventions to improve cognitive aging.
... Social relationships imbue life with meaning, whereas loneliness diminishes one's sense of meaning-in-life. The 'search for meaning and finding answers', 'feelings of support and trust', 'a perspective beyond death' [19], along with a sense of belonging [31][32][33][34] are fundamental to perceived meaning-in-life, spiritual-emotional wellbeing [35,36] and life satisfaction [37] in older adults. Perceived meaning-in-life is seen to predict life satisfaction among NH residents [38]. ...
Article
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Background: Due to the shift to an older population worldwide and an increased need for 24-hours care, finding new and alternative approaches to increase wellbeing among nursing home (NH) residents is highly warranted. To guide clinical practice in boosting wellbeing among NH residents, knowledge about nurse-patient interaction (NPI), inter- (ST1) and intra-personal (ST2) self-transcendence and meaning-in-life (PIL) seems vital. This study tests six hypotheses of the relationships between NPI, ST1, ST2 and PIL among cognitively intact NH residents. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 188 (92% response rate) out of 204 long-term NH residents representing 27 NHs responded to NPI, ST, and the PIL scales. Inclusion criteria were: (1) municipality authority's decision of long-term NH care; (2) residential time three months or longer; (3) informed consent competency recognized by responsible doctor and nurse; and (4) capable of being interviewed. The hypothesized relations between the latent constructs were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) using Stata 15.1. Results: The SEM-model yielded a good fit (χ2=146.824, p=0.021, df=114, χ2/df=1.29 RMSEA=0.040, p-close 0.811, CFI=0.97, TLI=0.96, and SRMR=0.063), supporting five of the six hypothesized relationships between the constructs of NPI, ST1, ST2 and PIL. Conclusion: NPI significantly relates to both ST1, ST2 and PIL in NH residents. ST revealed a fundamental influence on perceived PIL, while NPI demonstrated a significant indirect influence on PIL, mediated by ST. Keywords: interpersonal and intrapersonal self-transcendence, meaning-in-life, nursing, nurse-patient interaction, nursing home, older adults, wellbeing
... Social relationships imbue life with meaning, whereas loneliness diminishes one's sense of meaning-in-life. The 'search for meaning and finding answers', 'feelings of support and trust', 'a perspective beyond death' [19], along with a sense of belonging [31][32][33][34] are fundamental to perceived meaning-in-life, spiritual-emotional wellbeing [35,36] and life satisfaction [37] in older adults. Perceived meaning-in-life is seen to predict life satisfaction among NH residents [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Due to the shift to an older population worldwide and an increased need for 24-hours care, finding new and alternative approaches to increase wellbeing among nursing home (NH) residents is highly warranted. To guide clinical practice in boosting wellbeing among NH residents, knowledge about nurse-patient interaction (NPI), inter- (ST1) and intra-personal (ST2) self-transcendence and meaning-in-life (PIL) seems vital. This study tests six hypotheses of the relationships between NPI, ST1, ST2 and PIL among cognitively intact NH residents. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 188 (92% response rate) out of 204 long-term NH residents representing 27 NHs responded to NPI, ST, and the PIL scales. Inclusion criteria were: (1) municipality authority's decision of long-term NH care; (2) residential time three months or longer; (3) informed consent competency recognized by responsible doctor and nurse; and (4) capable of being interviewed. The hypothesized relations between the latent constructs were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) using Stata 15.1. Results: The SEM-model yielded a good fit (χ2=146.824, p=0.021, df=114, χ2/df=1.29 RMSEA=0.040, p-close 0.811, CFI=0.97, TLI=0.96, and SRMR=0.063), supporting five of the six hypothesized relationships between the constructs of NPI, ST1, ST2 and PIL. Conclusion: NPI significantly relates to both ST1, ST2 and PIL in NH residents. ST revealed a fundamental influence on perceived PIL, while NPI demonstrated a significant indirect influence on PIL, mediated by ST. Keywords: interpersonal and intrapersonal self-transcendence, meaning-in-life, nursing, nurse-patient interaction, nursing home, older adults, wellbeing
... A systematic review of living well in elderly care homes identified four key themes: (1) connectedness with others, (2) caring practices, (3) acceptance and adaptation, and (4) a homelike environment [52]. Moreover, studies have identified a sense of belonging (connectedness) as a core issue for well-being among NH residents [43,48,[71][72][73][74] pointing at "feelings of support and trust," "searching for meaning and finding answers," and "a perspective beyond death" as essential to their spiritual well-being [53]. A sense of belonging and connectedness contribute to meaning-in-life [54,55] as well as NH resident satisfaction [56] and dignity [37]. ...
Chapter
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We are now witnessing a major change in the world’s population. Many people globally grow very old: 80, 90, and 100 years. Increased age is followed by an increased incidence of functional and chronic comorbidities and diverse disabilities, which for many leads to the need for long-term care in a nursing home. Quality of life and health promotive initiatives for older persons living in nursing homes will become ever more important in the years to come. Therefore, this chapter focuses on health promotion among older adults living in nursing homes. First, this chapter clarifies the concepts of health, salutogenesis, and pathogenesis, followed by knowledge about health promotion. Then insight and knowledge about the nursing home population is provided; what promotes health and well-being in nursing home residents?
... After including place attachment as an indicator of belongingness and ownership of the house in the model, the role of living environment on wellbeing is no longer significant. Two studies stated that residential satisfaction could play as a mediating factor to positively influence wellbeing (Fernández-Portero, Alarcón, and Padura 2017;Prieto-Flores et al. 2011). ...
Article
In view of the demographic profile of the older adults in the United States, in the next two decades, cities and communities need to adapt the form, environment, and transportation systems to accommodate the growing aging population. In this article, I review two streams of literature in the mobility among the older population: the mobility/living environment and wellbeing; the relationship between living environment and mobility. I argue that two streams of literature should be combined to inform an interdisciplinary dialogue and a new agenda for future research.
... The variety of definitions of loneliness in contemporary literature [40] makes it difficult to directly compare rates in older adults from different populations. Studies using criteria such as a single-item enquiry about the experience [41] or those including persons who were "sometimes" lonely in their categorizations [42] tend to report higher rates. A previous study applying definition of loneliness similar to those used in the ISA to a representative sample of community-dwelling older adults in the Spanish population found a prevalence of 13.1%. ...
Article
Background: Socially disaffiliated elderly Nigerians are at higher risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). It is unclear whether subjective experience of loneliness has independent association with MDD. Methods: A household multistage probability sample of persons who were 65 years or older was drawn from a geographical area with approximately 25 million population. We measured loneliness using the three‑item University of California at Los Angeles scale. Poor social engagement, social isolation, and MDD were assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Schedule II and Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO), respectively. Results: Of 1704 respondents, 179 (16.7%) were classified as lonely. Lonely respondents were more likely to have poor social engagement (P < 0.001) and social isolation (P < 0.001). While loneliness (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–4.0) and poor social engagement (adjusted OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.6–6.1) were independent correlates of MDD, the association of loneliness with MDD was substantially, but not totally, mediated by poor social engagement. Conclusion: The association of loneliness with late-life depression in this African sample is partly explained by poor social engagement. Interventions for loneliness based on social activity schedules and networking programs can be adapted to reduce loneliness and lower the burden of late-life depression in Africans.
... In AL, a few studies found that constructs relevant to SOC also related to positive psychological outcomes. For example, sense of belonging negatively related with depression and loneliness (McLaren et al., 2013;Prieto-Flores et al., 2011), and resident influence positively related with facility satisfaction (Mitchell & Kemp, 2000). Taken together, a large body of literature suggests that SOC positively relates with psychological well-being, and there is some evidence to support the existence of this relationship in the AL setting. ...
Article
Objectives: Sense of community (SOC) is a comprehensive psychological assessment of the relationship between person and place and relates to positive psychological outcomes in community-living adults, but has not been tested in assisted living (AL). This study describes SOC, identifies associated factors, and explores the relationship between SOC and psychological well-being with a sample of AL residents. Method: Participants included 202 residents of 21 ALs. The Brief Sense of Community Scale, a multidimensional theory-based measure, assessed total SOC (Cronbach’s α = .87; M = 25.89, SD = 6.08) and dimensions of SOC (i.e. need fulfillment, group membership, influence, and emotional connection). Results: A second-order confirmatory factor analysis supported the multidimensional theoretical framework of SOC with the current sample. While bivariate correlations and multiple regressions varied by dimension, social relationships, physical health, and decisional control in the move to AL consistently yielded positive relationships with SOC factors. In the final step of a hierarchical multiple regression, total SOC significantly related to psychological well-being (F(1, 192) = 7.92, p = .005); although, its contribution was small (3%) when accounting for relevant covariates. Conclusion: Key findings suggest that the most accepted framework of SOC with community-living adults can be applied to the AL setting, but requires additional theoretical and empirical work. Findings also provide preliminary support for the relationship between SOC and psychological well-being. The authors discuss implications for future research and clinical practice, including strategies to promote SOC for AL residents.
... Residential facilities for older people may differ in various aspects, such as the level of care, social and caregiving support, physical features, and accessibility . Studies were carried out in order to identify which home characteristics can be considered to be good predictors of residential satisfaction in older persons (Prieto- Flores, Fernandez-Mayoralas, Forjaz, Rojo-Perez, & Martinez-Martin, 2011), or rather to detect relationships between residential satisfaction and "objective" attributes of the environments at different age stages (Carp & Carp, 1982;Christensen, Carp, Cranz, & Wiley, 1992). Regarding the latter, residential satisfaction is an example of a "subjective" measure, because it relies on self-report tools through which the individual expresses her/his own perception or assessment, whereas "objective" measures involve tools of technical disciplines or expert ratings (Fornara, Bonaiuto, & Bonnes, 2006). ...
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Using the “user-centered” design perspective and the construct of design “humanization” as theoretical underpinnings, this field study verified the role of “objective” design quality of residential facilities for the elderly in the prediction of “subjective” users’ psychological responses. A sample of over-65-year-old adults (N = 114) was recruited in eleven residential facilities, which differed for the degree of “objective” design humanization (rated on the basis of a design expert assessment). Participants had to fill in a questionnaire including measures of both specific perceived environmental qualities (spatial-physical and social-relational) and more general psychological responses (such as residential satisfaction and psychological well-being). Outcomes revealed that older residents living in high-humanization structures show higher scores of residential satisfaction, psychological well-being and perceived environmental qualities than those living in low-humanization structures. Moreover, significant correlations emerged between specific perceived environmental qualities of the facility and general psychological outcomes. These results confirm the importance of design features for supporting elders’ needs and fostering their quality of life.
... A systematic review of living well in elderly care homes identified four key themes: (i) acceptance and adaptation, (ii) connectedness with others, (iii) a homelike environment and (iv) caring practices (40). Moreover, studies have identified a sense of belonging (connectedness) as a core issue for well-being among NH residents (30,38,(41)(42)(43) pointing at 'feelings of support and trust', 'searching for meaning and finding answers' and 'a perspective beyond death' as essential to their spiritual well-being (44). Also, a sense of belonging and connectedness contributes to meaning-in-life (45,46) as well as resident satisfaction (47) and dignity (20). ...
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Background: The nursing-home population is at a high risk of declined wellbeing and quality-of-life. Finding approaches to increase wellbeing among older adults in nursing-homes is highly warranted. Responding to this need, the approach framed ‘Joy-of-Life-Nursing-Homes’ (JoLNH) was developed in Norway. Aim: To investigate the association between nurse-patient-interaction and joy-of-life in the nursing-home population. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected in 2017 and 2018 using the Nurse-Patient-Interaction Scale and the Joy-of-Life Scale. A total of 204 cognitively intact nursing-home residents met the inclusion criteria and 188 (92%) participated. A structural equation model (SEM) of the relationship between nurse-patient-interaction and joy-of-life was tested by means of STATA/MP 15.1. Ethical approval was given and each participant provided voluntarily written informed consent. Results: The SEM-model yielded a good fit with the data (χ2=162.418, p=0.004, df=118, χ2/df=1.38, RMSEA=0.046, p-close 0.652, CFI=0.97, TLI=0.96, and SRMR=0.054). As hypothesized, nurse-patient-interaction related significantly with JoL (γ1,1=0.61, t=7.07**). Limitations: The cross-sectional design does not allow for conclusions on causality. The fact that the researchers visited the participants to help fill in the questionnaire might have introduced some bias into the respondents’ reporting. Conclusion: Relational qualities of the nurse-patient-interaction should be essential integral aspects of nursing-home care. Consequently, such qualities should be emphasized in clinical practice, and research and education should pay more attention to nurse-patient-interaction as an important, integral part of the caring process promoting joy-of-life and thereby wellbeing. Key words: compassionate nursing; joy-of-life; loneliness; nurse-patient-interaction; nursing home residents; structural equation modeling; wellbeing
... Having a low sense of belonging within a community also predicts loneliness in older adults (Prieto-Flores et al. 2011). ...
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Community-based social capital interventions seem promising for mental health promotion. Existing interventions of this type provide interesting natural experiments to understand if ongoing initiatives have consequences for mental health outcomes. This thesis investigates how existing social capital interventions are related to mental health for older adults in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. It collaborates with the Neighbourhoods in Solidarity (NS), which are a series of local action research projects that encourage older adults to foster social capital. It looks at how social capital interventions can promote mental health in this context using three different empirical approaches at three different scales: A meta-systematic review, a cross-sectional study on multiple NS projects, and a longitudinal mixed-methods case study. Together, these produce four empirical studies that illustrate gaps in social capital and health research and show the importance of psychological mechanisms (collaborative competence), geographic contexts (place), and socio-demographic factors (migration status) when considering community-based social capital interventions for the mental health of older adults in Switzerland. This thesis also reflects on how access to the NS was negotiated, and how knowledge was exchanged between actors to inform the NS intervention. It concludes by making a series of recommendations for the NS and other community-based social capital interventions for mental health promotion.
... The sense of belonging may have a protective role against loneliness in older adults living at home (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). Engagement in the family, mainly children and grandchildren, can structure and control everyday life for the older person, instead of the older person focusing on illness and disability (Vik et al., 2008). ...
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Aim To describe the impact of mental health on the ability to function optimally among older adults experiencing mental health issues. Design This study had a descriptive qualitative design. Methods Six older females with a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score of ≥8 on either of the subscales (depression or anxiety) participated in individual interviews. All data were analysed using a phenomenological approach influenced by Giorgi. Results The phenomenological analysis led to a structured synthesis comprising the following three themes: (a) life situations affecting mental health, (b) consequences of mental health in everyday life and (c) strategies for maintaining mental health.
... A longitudinal study of a nationally representative cohort of older adults in Ireland using the same measure of QoL as ours found that multiple social factors, including loneliness, had a strong impact on QoL at follow-up [37]. Feelings of social connectedness may operate through different psychosocial mechanisms other than mental health to increase older people's QoL, such as fulfilling the need to belong [38] and providing a sense of control [39], as well as buffering biological stress processes [40]. The reason why no association between loneliness and QoL was found in Spain remains to be elucidated. ...
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Purpose: Loneliness and social isolation have detrimental effects on health in old age; however, the prospective associations with quality of life (QoL) remain unclear. Furthermore, despite the existence of a European north-south gradient in the distribution of loneliness and social isolation, little is known whether the associations are context-specific. We investigated the relationships between loneliness, social isolation and QoL of older adults residing in the North (Sweden) and South (Spain) of Europe. Methods: Study sample consisted of 2995 Swedish and 4154 Spanish older adults who participated in waves six and seven of the Study on Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Loneliness and social isolation were measured at the baseline, and QoL was measured at the baseline and follow-up using CASP-12. Prospective associations were assessed via multivariate linear regression. Results: In Sweden, subjects with higher vs. lower loneliness had 1.01 (95% CI: -1.55, -0.40) units lower QoL, while every standard deviation increase in social isolation was associated with a 0.27 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.09)-unit decrease in QoL. In Spain, every standard deviation increase in social isolation was associated with a 0.66 (95% CI: -1.11, -0.22)-unit decrease in QoL. The association was stronger in subjects aged ≤65 years old and those with no chronic diseases. The association with loneliness was not statistically significant in Spain. Conclusion: Loneliness and social isolation are prospectively associated with decreased QoL among older adults, yet the associations are contextually bound. Future interventions should target both exposures, among others, in order to increase QoL in this group.
... Loneliness was found to be negatively correlated with sense of belonging in the present study. A previous study analyzed the impact of loneliness, life satisfaction, and sense of belonging of older adults living in the community and in care facilities (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). Loneliness was found to be influenced by the living environment of people, and life satisfaction was suggested to determine a positive sense of belonging, which leads to lower loneliness. ...
Article
This study collected questionnaire data from 175 new immigrants (one-way permit holders) from Mainland China to investigate the relationship between need for belonging, loneliness, and life satisfaction while living in Hong Kong. We aimed to test two mediation models: (1) mediating role of loneliness in the relationship between unmet need for belonging and life satisfaction, and (2) mediating role of sense of belonging in the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction. Analyses revealed that loneliness was negatively correlated with life satisfaction and sense of belonging. Unmet need for belonging was positively correlated with loneliness. Sense of belonging had no significant correlation with life satisfaction. Regarding the first tested model, loneliness could significantly mediate the relationship between unmet need for belonging and life satisfaction. However, results for the second model did not support the hypothesis that sense of belonging can mediate the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction.
... If older adults have good social networks with emotionally satisfying relationships, this may serve as a protective factor between the loss experiences and the occurrence of depressive feelings (Carstensen, 2016). Therefore, the subjective well-being of older adults could depend on their capacity for alleviating feelings of loneliness after negative life events and those who have no or insufficient emotionally satisfying relationships or an even accessible social network are much more vulnerable to poorer well-being (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011;Theeke, 2009). ...
Article
Objectives Although older adults often experience negative life events or loss experiences, they rarely experience large decreases in their quality of life or well-being. Emotionally satisfying relationships in older adults may serve as a protective factor that reduces the impact of negative events in decreasing well-being. The availability of these close social contacts is essential, and their potential for alleviating feelings of loneliness after negative events could have an important role in promoting well-being. The aim of this study was to test the hypothetical moderation and mediation effects of social and emotional loneliness on the occurrence of negative old-age life events and well-being in later life. Design This was a cross-sectional survey conducted as part of the Detection, Support and Care for older people – Prevention and Empowerment research project (2015–2018). Setting Participants were community-dwelling older adults in Flanders (Belgium). Participants The sample composed of 770 participants aged 60 years and over. Measurements Participant demographics, social and emotional loneliness, and subjective well-being were measured. Moderation and mediation analyses were performed using the regression-based approach as conducted by Hayes and Rockwood (2017). Results Results indicated that a low degree of (social) loneliness is a protective, moderating factor and (emotional) loneliness is a mediating factor on the effects of negative life events on well-being in later life. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of emotionally and socially satisfying social contacts in order to maintain positive subjective well-being in later life when negative life events may occur.
... In the related literature, many studies suggest that age is a key variable that determines the type and intensity of activity (Schuett, 1993;Havitz et al., 2013). Especially, people in the younger age group have expectations from physical activities such as fun, learning new things, gaining social status and excitement; however, older people may be interested in physical activities for health purposes, for instance, to protect general body health, reducing the ageing process, to be mentally vigorous (Barber et al., 1999), and more, importantly, to minimise the feeling of loneliness (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011) that emerges at later ages (Toepoel, 2012;Broughton et al., 2017). In our findings, there are no significant differences found in the happiness scale among the students (p˃0.05) according to age variables. ...
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This study aims to examine the relationship between university students’ perceived health outcomes and happiness levels that result from engaging in recreational activities. The study evaluates this relationship using certain variables. The data were gathered from 652 students from various universities in Turkey. Appropriate sampling methods were used. The initial findings indicate that the highest score was obtained in the ‘improvement condition’ of health outcomes among university students. It shows that they are more likely to engage with physical activities for health purposes. Furthermore, all sub-dimensions of PHORS and the happiness scale significantly differed according to income and active-passive participation variables. This study further demonstrates a significant positive relationship between perceived health outcomes sub-scales and happiness among the students.
... A lack of meaning in life might indicate an existential demanding life situation, in which feeling valuable and contributing to others prove difficult. Meaning in life is found essential to NH residents' well-being, both emotionally, socially, spiritually, and physically (Haugan, 2014c;Haugan et al., 2020), and life satisfaction (Haugan, 2014a;Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). Therefore, attention toward these qualities in an old person's life should be included in NH care, assessing NH resident's experience of value, meaning, and life satisfaction. ...
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Abstract Background: Finding new approaches to increase health and wellbeing among nursing home (NH) residents is highly warranted. In a holistic perspective, several Norwegian municipalities have implemented the certification scheme framed ‘Joy-of-Life Nursing Home’. Aims: In a holistic perspective on NH care, this study investigated if NH residents despite potential symptom severity experience joy-of-life. Therefore, we examined the frequency of common symptoms and the association between common symptoms and Joy-of-Life (JoL) in cognitively intact NH residents. Methods: A cross-sectional design was employed. Using the QLQ-C15–PAL quality-of-life questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Joy-of-Life scale, a total of 188 cognitively intact NH residents participated. Results: Symptom severity was high; 54% reported fatigue, 52% constipation, 45% pain, 43% dyspnea and 32% insomnia, 22% reported appetite loss and 20% had nausea, while 20% had anxiety and 23% reported depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, 59% of the NH residents reported high JoL, which was significantly positively related with quality-of-life and negatively associated with anxiety and depression. Keywords: nursing home, residents, joy-of-life, health-related quality of life, symptom severity.
... Having a caring family is very important to them, but unfortunately some seniors find that their family do not care about them as genuine interest. Studies have shown that lack of a sense of belonging in life plays an important role in loneliness(Prieto-Flores et al., 2011;Silverstein & Giarrusso, 2010). Our study found that most seniors were suffering from a lack of belonging to the important people in life, which puts them in a state of emptiness. ...
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Aim: To develop and initially validate the Loneliness Inventory for Older Adults. Design: Scale development and evaluation. Methods: This was a two-phase study. In phase 1, the initial items pool (126 items) was generated based on the concept analysis and literature review. Moreover, content validity was established by geriatric and psychometric experts. Phase 2 evaluated structural validity by performing item analysis, exploratory factor analysis and convergent validity. Reliability was evaluated by examining internal consistency, stability (ICC) and absolute reliability. Results: Following the development process, 94 items were removed and a provisional version of the questionnaire with 32 items was subjected to psychometric evaluation. Three hundred and seventy older adults completed the questionnaire. After performing factor analysis, overall 3 items were removed due to low loading, and the questionnaire was reduced to 29 items tapping into five factors. The Cronbach's alpha for the instrument was 0.94, and the ICC value was 0.97.
... Sargent, Williams, Hagerty, Lynch-Sauer, & Hoyle, 2002), those aged 20-65 years in Italy(Prezza et al., 2001), and those who live in the rural-urban communities(McLaren, Jude, Hopes, & Sherritt, 2001). Additionally, sense of belonging was reported as a factor lessening loneliness among older adults in both community and residential care facilities in Spain(Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
Background/Purpose: Despite the fact that the society is rapidly aging and the number of individuals moving into assisted living (AL) facilities are increasing, little is known about AL residents’ psychological well-being. This dissertation includes three papers. The purpose was to (1) identify factors known to contribute to social engagement, (2) examine the relationship between social engagement and sense of belonging, and (3) examine the relationship between sense of belonging and psychological well-being of AL residents. Methods: This dissertation includes three papers. The first paper is a systematic review is to identify factors known to contribute to social engagement. Three databases were searched, Ovid Medline, PsychINFO, and Web of Science with search terms of social engagement, interaction, activities, and exchange/support, relationships, and networks of older adults in AL and residential care facilities. Papers 2 and 3 report on a descriptive study conducted with face-to-face interviews with AL residents (n=100). The sense of Belonging Model was used to guide this research. Sense of belonging was measured with the Sense of Belonging Instrument- Psychological, social engagement was measured with the Lubben Social Network Scale and psychological well-being was measured with PROMIS instruments for depression, social isolation, and satisfaction with participation in social roles and activities. Multiple linear regression was conducted to examine the relationships between social engagement and sense of belonging, and sense of belonging and psychological well-being. Results: The systematic review identified factors contributing to social engagement including functional disability, being married, hearing impairment, depression, being male, mealtime seating arrangements, and facility size (small facility). Quantitative results provided evidence that social engagement was the strongest predictor of sense of belonging, controlling for sample characteristics (p < 0.001). A lower level of sense of belonging was associated with higher levels of depression (p = 0.0063) and social isolation (p = 0.0011). Sense of belonging was not associated with satisfaction with participation in social roles and activities. Conclusion: Social engagement played an important role in predicting sense of belonging, which influenced depression and social isolation of AL residents. More work is needed to fully understand residents’ experiences of their social engagement as well as sense of belonging.
... Also, according to a study in Spain, reduced residential satisfaction and sense of belonginess surge feelings of loneliness and, in consequence, represent increased possibility for depression. These authors state that residential satisfaction is composed of social and emotional connections to people inside the facility and symbolic identification with the place (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
Introduction: Care models used in long-term care institutions for the older population have been characterized for their efficiency in meeting basic health and hygienic needs. Notwithstanding, residences that follow such model jeopardize older adult’s upper level needs (emotional, self- esteem, self-efficacy) and at the same time lead their professional caregivers down the path of burnout. Objective: The present thesis proposes an evidence-based intervention on the fundamentals of empowerment and client-engagement for long-term care institutions that care for older adults. The intervention has the purpose of contributing in the transformation of the care culture to a more humanized and dignifying one. Methods: The Power of Empowering Program (PEP) provides a total of 12 sessions to train older adults and professional caregivers in the essential aspects of empowering care. It will be delivered to a sample of 40 participants, who will be assessed pre- and posttest on empowerment levels, degree of client engagement, quality of life, and burnout syndrome. Results: At the end of the program it is expected that both groups accomplish a set of goals. On the one hand, it is hypothesized that older adults will increase their feelings of empowerment and client-engagement, as well as the perspective of quality of life. On the other hand, professional it is predicted that professional caregivers will increase client-engagement abilities and reduce burnout symptoms. Conclusions: The Power of Empowering Program looks forward to filling an essential gap in long-term care for the older population. The program aspires to be widely disseminated and to serve as an example for psychogerontologist and health care professionals interested in contributing to the cultural transformation of caring for the older people by the viewpoint of person-centered care. Keywords: Empowerment, client-engagement, person-centered care, upper level needs, older adults, professional caregivers. Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item - URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/172408
... older adults(Prieto-Flores, Fernandez-Mayoralas, Forjaz, Rojo-Perez, & Martinez-Martin, 2011). Despite the impact of both self-esteem and feelings of loneliness on an individual's sense of community, these variables have yet to be studied among congregational members. ...
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This study examined the contribution of personal aspects (i.e., self‐esteem and motivation to lead), social aspects (i.e., number of congregational friends and positive and negative societal conditional regard), and psychological aspects (feelings of loneliness) to the sense of community among congregational members. The study was conducted in Israel among 260 active synagogue members between the ages of 18 and 88 years old (mean = 32.91). Structural equation modeling indicated that social aspects made the most significant contribution to sense of community. A significant direct positive contribution of a number of congregational friends and societal conditional positive regard to sense of community was found. However, societal conditional negative regard made the highest negative direct contribution to sense of community, and motivation to lead made no contribution to sense of community. Self‐esteem made only an indirect positive contribution to sense of community via loneliness, and loneliness made a direct negative contribution to sense of community. Findings highlight the importance of the social aspect as a whole, and of societal conditional regard specifically, in understanding sense of community among congregational members.
... Along these lines, the results of our research suggest a significant role for support from the community, which in turn appears important for the design of social work intervention programs. The importance of aging in the living space (McDonough & Davitt, 2011) implies that it is appropriate to adjust the community environment to the support needs of older adults, in order to reduce loneliness and increase contexts of social interaction (Prieto-Flores, Fernández-Mayoralas, Forjaz, & Martinez-Martin, 2011). ...
Article
Family and community social networks act as social resources that promote well-being at advanced ages. In this study, we analyze the association between social support received from personal social networks (social support from various family members and friends) and community social networks (social support from neighbors and the neighborhood, age, ethnic, or religious group peers and formal social support networks) and quality of life (QoL) for a sample of older Chilean persons (n = 777). The results confirm that social support from family (partner, children, and extended family) and friends, integration in the community (neighbors) and social support from informal systems (social groups) are associated with QoL. Moreover, the model including both types of support explains 25.8% of variance in QoL. The results and their possible implications are discussed.
... Residential satisfaction is closely related to the concept of liveability, as it provides information about the connection between aspects of the social and spatial environment and the needs and preferences of its inhabitants [16,17]. As it is also directly related to the level of well-being of older adults [18][19][20][21], it can be considered a key outcome variable in studying ageing in place [16]. In this study, we therefore focus on mapping the level of residential satisfaction of independently living older villagers. ...
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This article aims to contribute to the existing literature about liveability in rural areas by explicitly focusing on the level of residential satisfaction of older adults (55+) in four small Dutch villages. We strive not only to identify the key indicators of residential satisfaction among older villagers but also to better understand how these indicators affect their (daily) life. Moreover, in line with the person–environment fit tradition, we differentiate according to the capabilities and vulnerabilities of older villagers. To this end, we use a mixed-method approach, in which we combine survey data with qualitative data collected with photovoice in the four villages. The findings indicate that older adults’ perceptions of spatial, social and functional aspects of the living environment are related to the degree of residential satisfaction overall. However, these perceptions appear to be strongly intertwined, especially perceptions about spatial characteristics, local identity and connectedness. Older adults who are hindered by health problems in undertaking daily activities experience a lower level of person–environment fit, which is reflected in a lower level of residential satisfaction. However, this relationship between subjective health and residential satisfaction can only be partially explained by different perceptions of the spatial, social and functional environment.
... On the other hand, social interaction could also mediate the cognitive function-IADL disability association through psychological access. Frequent social interactions may provide various emotional benefits through enjoyable and meaningful experiences, such as a sense of belonging and companionship [41], therefore improving both physical and mental health [42]. Second, social interactions may involve the performance of social roles, which promotes a sense of meaning and self-efficacy [43]. ...
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(1) Background: Cognitive decline is associated with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability. Intervention targeting the mediators of this association will provide a path to avoid cognition-related IADL disability. (2) Methods: This study used data of wave 2008 (baseline) and wave 2014 of Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Surveys. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the mediating effect of social interaction, lifestyle (fruit and vegetable intake; exercise habits), and depressive status on the association between four baseline cognitive function dimensions (measured by the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and five (2014) IADL dimensions (visiting neighbors, shopping, preparing meals, washing clothes, and taking public transportation). (3) Results: Among 1976 older adults, 29.1% developed IADL disability 6 years later. The cognition–disability association was completely mediated by social interaction (estimate = −0.095, p < 0.001), lifestyle (estimate = −0.086, p < 0.001), and depressive status (estimate = −0.017, p = 0.003). The mediating effects of social interaction (46.3% variances explained) and lifestyle (42.0% variances explained) were both larger than that of depressive status (8.3% variances explained). (4) Conclusions: The development of interventions aimed at improving social interaction, depression, and lifestyle could be of value to prevent cognition-related IADL disability.
... Sense of belonging was negatively associated with loneliness in the current study, which was consistent with several other studies. Prieto-Flores et al. found that sense of belonging exerted a negative effect on loneliness among the elderly living in communities, and the result was robust for those living in residential care facilities [45]. De Jong Gierveld et al. explored the effect of ethnic-cultural background on loneliness among Canadian older immigrants at the micro, meso, and macro levels. ...
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Background: Driven by accelerating population aging and migration, the number of older migrants has increased rapidly in China. Those who moved to cities to look after grandchildren were referred to as the migrant elderly following children (MEFC). This study aims to examine the relationship between sense of belonging and loneliness and explore the moderating effect of migration pattern among the MEFC in China. Methods: The study included 656 MEFC aged 60 years and above. Loneliness was evaluated by the eight-item University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (ULS-8). Sense of belonging and migration pattern were measured using a self-designed questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to test the proposed association and moderating effect. A margins plot was introduced to illustrate this effect. Results: The average ULS-8 score was 12.82 ± 4.05, revealing a low level of loneliness. A weak sense of belonging was related with a higher level of loneliness (β = 0.096, p = 0.014). Migration pattern was found to exacerbate this association (β = 0.138, p = 0.026), especially for the elderly who migrated across provinces. Conclusions: Sense of belonging was correlated with loneliness, and the moderating role of migration pattern was established. Both policymakers and the adult children of inter-provincial migrant elderly should focus on this special subgroup.
... Humans have fundamental needs to establish and maintain strong, and stable interpersonal relationships (Perlman & Peplau, 1982), and having a low sense of belonging within a community predicts loneliness in older adults (Prieto-Flores et al., 2011). Based on studies of ethnicities, and cultures, older migrants face numerous challenges such as language, and cultural barriers, economic problems (Suwal et al., 2011), and lack of protective factors (e.g., co-reside with children, and connection with homogeneous networks) so they are at risk of loneliness, and poor health status compared to non-migrants (Van Tilburg & Fokkema, 2021). ...
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Loneliness of the older adults is defined as their inability to establish, and maintain satisfying relationships with others and is a widespread phenomenon, and associated with poor health status. The study aimed to investigate loneliness in Iranian older Kazaks, and its relationship with their health status. This is a descriptive-analytical investigation conducted among 234 Iranian older Kazaks selected through convenience sampling in 2020. Data collection tools included demographic, and health information questionnaires, and 21-items Loneliness Scale. The mean score of loneliness was 51.77 (SD = 6.113), and its cut-off point was 44.5. Health index had a significant and inverse relationship with loneliness (OR = 2.347, P = 0.001). Living alone, hypertension, and gender (OR = 5.034, 4.107, and 4.099, respectively) were the predictors of loneliness. In addition, general health and living alone showed significant relationship with loneliness. Providing conditions to Kazaks ethnic minority was suggested to keep them active in the community.
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As a multidimensional concept, active ageing is placed in relation to the most important domains of quality of later life, self-assessed by the individuals. It is well recognized in international research to have positive effects on personal wellbeing. From the point of view of an active living at an individual and ageing contexts, this paper aimed at analysing the profile of older-adults in relationship to their involvement in leisure and social and community participation activities, as factors that promote an active ageing to enhance quality of later life.
Article
Aim: This study examined the contribution of the social network to one's sense of belonging to the community (SCB) in two different long-term care settings: Continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs) and adult day care centers (ADCCs). Methods: Overall, 245 respondents participated in both waves of the study that were spaced about 1 year apart. Results: Results show that constraint in the social network (e.g., being socially invested in a single group of interconnected ties) is particularly detrimental for CCRC residents, but not for ADCC participants. Betweenness, defined as the number of shortest paths that pass through the focal person, was not significantly related to SCB. In addition, the size of the egocentric network, obtained through a name generator of a list of all potentially meaningful individuals identified by respondents, was directly correlated with SCB at follow-up. Conclusions: The findings are discussed in light of differences between the two long-term care settings and the different social network indicators examined in this study.
Article
Loneliness and social isolation are widely recognized as one of the most important and deep-rooted problems facing society, with special impact on people who are immersed in processes of social exclusion. The study examined the relationship between loneliness and social exclusion in residential centers. It used phenomenological interviews (N = 11) to explore the subjective experiences of loneliness among people in residential centers for social inclusion to determine the variables associated with their emergence and development, as well as the factors aggravating or alleviating the influence of loneliness on their lives. The results yielded five themes associated with the loneliness of residents, with an interweaving of different axes of exclusion: (1) loneliness and unfulfilled need for meaningful relationships; (2) family losses and conflicts; (3) the experiences of homelessness and residential centers; (4) the economic dependence, contribution, and social inclusion; and (5) the loneliness associated with marginalization and social stigma. Authors present the implications of these findings on social work and some lines of psychosocial intervention.
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Media portrayals of a loneliness "epidemic" are premised on an increase in the proportion of people living alone and decreases in rates of civic engagement and religious affiliation over recent decades. However, loneliness is a subjective perception that does not correspond perfectly with objective social circumstances. In this study, we examined whether perceived loneliness is greater among the Baby Boomers-individuals born 1948-1965-relative to those born 1920-1947 and whether older adults have become lonelier over the past decade (2005-2016). We used data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project and from the Health and Retirement Study collected during 2005-2016 to estimate differences in loneliness associated with age, birth year, and survey time point. Overall, loneliness decreased with age through the early 70s, after which it increased. We found no evidence that loneliness is substantially higher among the Baby Boomers or that it has increased over the past decade. Loneliness is, however, associated with poor health, living alone or without a spouse-partner, and having fewer close family and friends, which together accounted for the overall increase in loneliness after age 75. Although these data do not support the idea that older adults are becoming lonelier, the actual number of lonely individuals may increase as the Baby Boomers age into their 80s and beyond. Our results suggest that attention to social factors and improving health may help to mitigate this. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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Few studies have documented the pathways through which individual level variables mediate the effects of neighborhoods on health. This study used structural equation modeling to examine if neighborhood characteristics are associated with depressive symptoms, and if so, what factors mediated these relationships. Cross-sectional data came from a sample of mostly rural, older adults in North Carolina (n = 1,558). Mediation analysis indicated that associations among neighborhood characteristics and depressive symptoms were mediated by loneliness (standardized indirect effect = −0.19, p < 0.001), physical activity (standardized indirect effect = −0.01, p = 0.003), and perceived individual control (standardized indirect effect = −0.07, p = 0.02) with loneliness emerging as the strongest mediator. Monitoring such individual mediators in formative and process evaluations may increase the precision of neighborhood-based interventions and policies.
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Little is known about the psychosocial adjustment of older adults in the assisted living environment. A sense of belonging has been linked to psychological health and a lack of belonging could lead to loneliness. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to examine relationships between social engagement, sense of belonging, and psychological outcomes. Seventy female and 30 male assisted living residents participated. The mean age was 83.9 (range 65–99) years. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that older age, higher physical function, and greater sense of belonging were associated with fewer negative psychosocial outcomes (depression and loneliness) and that sense of belonging functioned as a mediator between social engagement and psychosocial outcomes. Additional work is needed to fully understand how sense of belonging and other factors influence psychosocial outcomes.
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The long-term influence of childhood economic and social exposures on adult health and well-being is well-known. Most childhood circumstances transpire in or near the home, yet research has largely neglected how early exposures shape people’s experience of their residential context in adulthood. To help address this gap, we draw on retrospective longitudinal data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. Drawing on a life course framework, we test the potential mediating roles of adult social, economic, and mental health processes. Results suggest that childhood parental warmth and maltreatment have an enduring influence on people’s satisfaction with their adult home, while there is little indication that childhood economic conditions shape adult dwelling satisfaction. Analyses of average controlled direct effects suggest that the effects of childhood parental warmth are mediated slightly by adult socioeconomic attainment and psychological adjustment but especially by supportive family relationships during adulthood. This pattern is consistent with an attachment-based interpretation of the importance of childhood conditions for adult relationships as well as home satisfaction. Taken together, our results suggest that parent-child bonds cast a long shadow over how people experience their residential context decades later, through a diffuse, multifaceted set of intervening pathways.
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Older adults are at a high risk for loneliness, and community-based interventions can help reduce loneliness for all older adults in a community, regardless of their migration status. However, little research has investigated how older adults, including locals and migrants (in this case, internal newcomers and international expats) participate in these interventions. The “Neighbourhoods in Solidarity” (NS) are a series of community-based interventions that aim to increase social connectedness and reduce loneliness in older adults (55+) in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. This longitudinal embedded mixed-methods study aimed to understand whether older adults (distinguishing between locals, newcomers, and expats) were aware of and participated in the NS, to assess whether participation was associated with changes in loneliness, and to identify relevant processes that could explain a reduction in loneliness. We combined a longitudinal pre/post survey (235 respondents) with ethnographic observations and informal interviews. Quantitative findings showed that individuals who participated in the NS did not have significant changes in loneliness. Qualitative findings showed that perceived migration played an important role in who participated, and that the community distinguished between two types of migrants: newcomers who spoke French fluently, and expats who did not. Individuals were only ‘local’ if they had ancestors from the town. Some newcomers and some locals used the NS as a platform to build a new sense of community within the NS, whereas expats rarely participated. This was due to linguistic and cultural determinants, institutional constraints, interpersonal relationships, and personal preferences.
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A widely held stereotype associates old age with social isolation and loneliness. However, only 5% to 15% percent of older adults report frequent loneliness. In this study, we report a meta-analysis of the correlates of loneliness in late adulthood. A U-shaped association between age and loneliness is identified. Quality of social network is correlated more strongly with loneliness, compared to quantity; contacts with friends and neighbors show stronger associations with loneliness, compared to contacts with family members. Being a woman, having low socioeconomic status and low competence, and living in nursing homes were also associated with higher loneliness. Age differences in the association of social contacts and competence with loneliness are investigated as well.
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This study tests a path model in which residential satisfaction, operationalized in terms of multidimensional perceived residential environment quality (PREQ), predicts neighbourhood attachment considered as the final criterion. Socio-demographic (age, sex, socio-economic level) and residential (length of residence both in the neighbourhood and in Rome, number of persons living together) variables are also included in the theoretical model as predictors of both PREQ and neighbourhood attachment. Using a multidimensional questionnaire for the measurement of PREQ and a unidimensional scale for the measurement of neighbourhood attachment, the study focuses on a sample of 497 inhabitants from 20 different neighbourhoods in the city of Rome. The multidimensional PREQ questionnaire comprises 20 different scales covering four main areas: architectural and town-planning features (six scales); social relations features (three scales); punctual and in-network services (six scales); context features (five scales). First, the path model is tested separately in each area using structural equation analysis. Then, the best predictors emerging from each area, together with all socio-demographic and residential variables, are included in a final model. This model shows both the relevance of predictors from all four areas in predicting attachment, and also a hierarchy between the areas in the power of the prediction (context area giving the most powerful predictors, services giving the weakest ones, architectural and town-planning, and social relations having intermediate importance). Length of residence in the neighbourhood and socio-economic level are the most relevant of the residential and socio-demographic variables. Results are discussed with reference to the multicomponential nature of the process of neighbourhood attachment.
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The purpose of this study is to explore social engagement and its relationship to the psychological well-being of older adults residing in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Drawing on activity theory, the study focuses on the salience of social relationships on residents' life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. A total of 82 residents were interviewed face-to-face in eight ALFs in a southern state of the United States. The data were analyzed using hierarchical regression models in that demographic and health variables, site characteristics, and social engagement variables were entered into the model in successive steps. Results indicate that perceived friendliness of residents and staff was significantly associated with life satisfaction and depressive symptoms controlling for other variables, and enjoyment of mealtimes was related to low depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that ALFs could promote residents' psychological well-being by encouraging residents to develop meaningful relationships within the facility and by designing enjoyable mealtimes.
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This study examines loneliness and its correlates-health, residential care, partner status, and network size-over a seven-year period among adults born between 1908 and 1937. The four waves of data are from the Dutch "Living Arrangements and Social Networks of Older Adults" and the "Longitudinal Aging Study of Amsterdam" programs. Data from at least two waves are available for 2,925 respondents. Results show that older adults generally become lonelier as time passes. The increase is greater for the oldest, the partnered, and those with a better functional capacity at baseline. Older adults who lose their partner by death show the greatest increase in loneliness. Not all older adults become more lonely: Improvement in functional capacity and network expansion lead to less loneliness. Entry into residential care does not affect loneliness. The longitudinal design provides new insights into factors that protect against loneliness compared to cross-sectional studies
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Loneliness is an indicator of social well-being and pertains to the feeling of missing an intimate relationship (emotional loneliness) or missing a wider social network (social loneliness). The 11-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale has proved to be a valid and reliable measurement instrument for overall, emotional, and social loneliness, although its length has sometimes rendered it difficult to use in large surveys. In this study, the authors empirically tested a shortened version of the scale on data from two surveys (N = 9,448). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the specification of two latent factors. Congruent validity and the relationship with determinants (partner status, health) proved to be optimal. The 6-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale is a reliable and valid measurement instrument for overall, emotional, and social loneliness that is suitable for large surveys.
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Abstract Using data collected in a general population survey from a random sample of individuals in four communities in Pennsylvania, I examine the effects of community satisfaction and attachment on self-assessed individual well-being. I find substantial support for the hypothesis that satisfaction with the community and attachment to the community are associated independently and positively with individual well-being. Bivariate and multiple correlation/regression analyses reveal that greater community satisfaction and attachment result in higher levels of perceived well-being. Although the total explained variances of the community satisfaction and attachment measures are small, they do not differ substantially from various social and demographic factors that have been found to be associated with well-being. I propose possible implications of these findings and make suggestions for future research.
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To analyze the influence of different health status dimensions and quality of life (QoL) domains on older adults’ subjective health, and to assess the role that residential satisfaction plays in these relationships. A QoL survey was conducted on a representative sample of the community-dwelling older adult population in Madrid province (Spain). Logistic regression models were applied to studying: the health status dimensions associated with satisfaction with health; the relationship between satisfaction with health and other QoL domains; and, the influence of these domains on satisfaction with life. Sociodemographic and residential characteristics were included in all the models. The determinants of satisfaction with health in the first model were: mobility, usual activities, morbidity, and satisfaction with neighborhood. QoL domains associated with health were: leisure activities, neighborhood, and finances. Satisfaction with life was explained by these three domains, along with age, family and health. In sum, leisure, neighborhood, and finances showed a positive effect on satisfaction with health and with life.
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Quality of life (QoL) has been defined in numerous ways from different disciplinary viewpoints and analysis objectives. Recent scientific work has again underscored the idea of the complexity of the concept, the multiple approaches to its study, definitions, and methods of measurement (Gilhooly et al., 2005; Martínez, 2006). One of the most widely considered definitions is the one established by the WHOQOL Group (1995), which emphasises both the subjective–objective dichotomous approach and the variety of domains to be considered.
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First, to seek if sociodemographic and health factors contribute differentially to the explanation of loneliness in institutionalized and noninstitutionalized older adults; and second, to analyze the influence of institutionalization on loneliness. This work was based on two surveys of older adults aged 60 years or more in Spain. A group of 234 community-dwelling people and 234 nursing homes residents were selected (n = 468). Logistic regression models were applied using the six-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale as dependent variable. Depression was associated with loneliness in both populations. Sex and marital status contributed to explain loneliness among those living at home, whereas gathering with family, friends, and neighbors showed a significant effect in the institutionalized group. Institutionalization per se showed a strong effect on loneliness. Findings have potential implications for targeting older adults at risk for loneliness.
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The process of transitioning into, and living in, a retirement community can be usefully examined with the concept of 'therapeutic landscapes.' While underutilized in anthropology and gerontology, the concept offers a combination of geographical and cultural views on the place and well-being relationship. The inclusion of an occupational science perspective, wherein occupations (or everyday activities of meaning) are seen as a crucial part of the person-place relationship, should enhance the therapeutic landscape perspective of older persons and their retirement communities. We present a case study analysis that attempts to combine these perspectives and examine the role of occupation in the lives of older people who moved to a Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC). 116 movers completed pre- and post-move questionnaires about their levels of engagement in 20 activities. Frequency distributions, paired t-tests, and logistic regression analyses performed on the data indicate that while overall levels of activity did not change from pre- to post-move, patterns of engagement did change in the course of the move to the CCRC. Some social and cultural activities (e.g., parties, concerts, movies, meetings) increased in frequency, and some maintenance chores (e.g., grocery shopping, housekeeping) and communication (email) decreased in frequency. Moreover, total activity engagement after the move was associated with residential satisfaction in the CCRC. Even with their limitations, the data and analytical findings suggest that occupations are an important part of the CCRC therapeutic landscape process.
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Gerontologists have emphasised that older adults are not only recipients of support but also important support providers. Using data from the first wave of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study of 727 middle-generation adults aged 45 to 79 years, we examined the associations between loneliness and giving support up, across and down family lineages. Overall, the findings were consistent more with an altruism perspective, that giving brings rewards, than with an exchange perspective, which emphasises the costs of giving support. The results showed an inverse relationship between the number of generations supported and loneliness, and that those engaged in balanced exchanges with family members in three generations (parents, siblings and children) were generally the least lonely. As regards the direction of support giving, the findings showed that the association between giving support and loneliness was insignificant if the support was for parents, negative for support to siblings, and positive for support to children. Imbalanced support exchanges were differentially associated with loneliness, and depended on the type of family relationship involved. Non-reciprocated support made parents more vulnerable to loneliness, whereas non-reciprocated giving in sibling ties was associated with low levels of loneliness. Imbalanced support giving in relationships with parents was not associated with loneliness.
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This study explores the roles of place attachment, nonfamily social involvement, place valuation, and individual characteristics in the process of becoming at home in assisted living residences. Purposive sampling and cross-sectional data by means of a questionnaire completed by current assisted living residents in four states (N = 297) were used to estimate a structural equation model to explain becoming at home. Place attachment to town and community is a necessary but not sufficient explainer of older adults' process of becoming at home. Nonfamily social involvement plays a pivotal role through which place attachment works to explain becoming at home. Both place valuation and nonfamily social involvement exhibit direct positive effects on the outcome. Findings support a transactional interpretation of assisted living as home. The relationship between place attachment to one's community and full integration into assisted living is more complex than currently acknowledged.
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There is a need to assess the contribution of mood disorder, especially anxiety and depression, in order to understand the experience of suffering in the setting of medical practice. Most physicians are aware of this aspect of the illness of their patients but many feel incompetent to provide the patient with reliable information. The Hospital Anxiety And Depression Scale, or HADS, was designed to provide a simple yet reliable tool for use in medical practice. The term 'hospital' in its title suggests that it is only valid in such a setting but many studies conducted throughout the world have confirmed that it is valid when used in community settings and primary care medical practice. It should be emphasised that self-assessment scales are only valid for screening purposes; definitive diagnosis must rest on the process of clinical examination.
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The goal of this paper is to compile recent data on the housing and health in old age, with special emphasis on geropsychological and gerontological studies. The authors first introduce their understanding of both housing and health. Second, theoretical models that are important to understand better the relation between housing- and health-related outcomes are incorporated into an analytic scheme. Third, data on objective and subjective aspects of housing in old age in relation to health-related outcomes are presented. Among the objective functional housing aspects are health-relevant micro-environmental indicators like housing hazards and amenities, retrofitting and assistive devices, as well as meso- and macro-environmental indicators like housing type, neighborhood conditions, or urban-rural differences. Relocation is a classic field in environmental gerontology in which drastic environmental change has been linked to health outcomes. Among subjective housing aspects are residential satisfaction, housing-related control beliefs, and meaning of home. Direct health-related outcomes, such as physical and mental diseases and functional limitations, as well as indirect health-related outcomes like satisfaction or well-being receive attention. We conclude with a discussion addressing the environment and health dynamics of aging in the future.
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This article provides an overview of the basic underlying principles of structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM models have two basic elements: a measurement model and a structural model. The measurement model describes the associations between the indicators (observed measures) of the latent variables, whereas the structural model delineates the direct and indirect substantive effects among latent variables and between measured and latent variables. The application of SEM to health outcomes research is illustrated using two examples: (a) assessing the equivalence of the SF-36 and patient evaluations of care for English- and Spanish-language respondents and (b) evaluating a theoretical model of health in myocardial infarction patients. The results of SEM studies can contribute to better understanding of the validity of health outcome measures and of relationships between physiologic, clinical, and health outcome variables.
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A widely held stereotype associates old age with social isolation and loneliness. However, only 5% to 15% percent of older adults report frequent loneliness. In this study, we report a meta-analysis of the correlates of loneliness in late adulthood. A U-shaped association between age and loneliness is identified. Quality of social network is correlated more strongly with loneliness, compared to quantity; contacts with friends and neighbors show stronger associations with loneliness, compared to contacts with family members. Being a woman, having low socioeconomic status and low competence, and living in nursing homes were also associated with higher loneliness. Age differences in the association of social contacts and competence with loneliness are investigated as well.
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The aim was to explore the relationships between sense of community and various factors with respect to a fairly broad area (town, city, or large quarter of a metropolis). Degree of neighboring, life satisfaction, loneliness, and area of residence were also considered. Subjects included 630 men and women, aged 20-65 years, with different educational levels. They were individually administered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Italian Sense of Community Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the University of California Loneliness Scale, and a Neighborhood Relations Scale. The subjects all live in Central Italy. They were divided into six groups as follows: one group living in a quarter of Rome, three groups living in three different areas of Grottaferrata (a hill town near Rome) and two groups living in two areas of Spoleto (the historical center and a working class suburb), a town in the Umbria region. Multiple regression analysis revealed the following: Neighborhood relations are stronger for women, for members of large families, for those with less education, for those living in the community for many years and for members of groups or associations. The strongest predictor of sense of community is neighborhood relations, although years of residence, being married, group participation, and area of residence are also significant factors. Sense of community is related to life satisfaction and loneliness in both the large and small town and in the city. Moreover, although sense of community is strongly associated with area of residence in Spoleto, this is not true for Grottaferrata. Overall, the results confirm the usefulness of conceptualizing the sense of community construct separately }}}{{{� Journal of Community Psychology, January 2001 }}}{{{from degree of neighboring. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Recent research into urban patterns and residential conditions has shown that neighbourhood conditions are associated with both residential environment satisfaction, and health and well-being. Multivariate analyses performed on the LARES database confirmed that various environmental characteristics (noise, lack of recreational areas, perception of fear, low maintenance, etc.) show significant associations with residential environment satisfaction. An increased likelihood for sleep disturbance is identified for noise exposure, lack of recreational areas and the perception of fear, while depression is related to noise exposure and safety perceptions. Cardiovascular symptoms only showed a significant association with the perception of safety.
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Describes loneliness as a natural response of the individual to certain situations and not as a form of weakness. Emotional and social isolation (as 2 distinct forms of loneliness) are delineated, as well as feelings of emptiness, anxiety, restlessness, and marginality. Examples from case studies are included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The aim was to explore the relationships between sense of community and various factors with respect to a fairly broad area (town, city, or large quarter of a metropolis). Degree of neighboring, life satisfaction, loneliness, and area of residence were also considered. Subjects included 630 men and women, aged 20-65 years, with different educational levels. They were individually administered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Italian Sense of Community Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the University of California Loneliness Scale, and a Neighborhood Relations Scale. The subjects all live in Central Italy. They were divided into six groups as follows: one group living in a quarter of Rome, three groups living in three different areas of Grottaferrata (a hill town near Rome) and two groups living in two areas of Spoleto (the historical center and a working class suburb), a town in the Umbria region. Multiple regression analysis revealed the following: Neighborhood relations are stronger for women, for members of large families, for those with less education, for those living in the community for many years and for members of groups or associations. The strongest predictor of sense of community is neighborhood relations, although years of residence, being married, group participation, and area of residence are also significant factors. Sense of community is related to life satisfaction and loneliness in both the large and small town and in the city. Moreover, although sense of community is strongly associated with area of residence in Spoleto, this is not true for Grottaferrata. Overall, the results confirm the usefulness of conceptualizing the sense of community construct separately }}}{{{� Journal of Community Psychology, January 2001 }}}{{{from degree of neighboring. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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The promotion of a psychological sense of community by environmental factors was investigated in this study. Psychosocial factors in high-rise and garden apartments in public housing for the elderly were compared using the Sheltered Care Environment Scale (SCES), the Sense of Community Index (SCI), and a structured interview. Residents of garden apartments were found to have a significantly greater overall sense of community than were those in high-rise apartments as determined by the SCI. Garden apartment residents also indicated greater sense of membership, a factor related to community. Significant differences in cohesion among residents in the two high-rise apartment buildings studied suggest that variables other than the physical environment may contribute to cohesive behavior. One such variable, the presence of a community leader, demands more research. Self-disclosure was found to be the possible cause of conflict among residents in the high-rises. The necessity of qualitative interviews in social research is discussed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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A review of older people’s experiences with residential care placement Background. Transition to the care and environment of a residential home has been identified in the literature as the most significant relocation affecting older people. However, little effort has been made systematically to review and synthesize the body of knowledge relating to older people’s experiences with such placement. This has led to lack of concerted effort in the development of strategies to help elders adjust to such placement with dignity and success. Aim. This paper presents a critical review of the literature related to older people’s experiences with residential care placement, with an attempt to identify how knowledge in this area could be moved forward. Conclusions. It is concluded that, while understanding of older people’s pre and postplacement experiences was abundant, there was a dearth of literature on the actual experiences involved as older people made their day to day adjustment after placement. There is a need for future research to identify the dynamic processes of how older people come to terms with residential living. Future research should also focus on developing an accurate understanding of the adjustment experiences of elders with different ethnic background.
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ABSTRACT– A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxiety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of severity of the emotional disorder. It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.