Relationship of sacral articular surfaces and gender with occurrence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae
Research on lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) has yielded important information on the structural alterations of the sacrum associated with LSTV. Nevertheless, very little data are available on the relationship of a given type of LSTV with either a typical pattern of sacral morphology or its gender distribution in the population.
To investigate the probable relationship between different variants of LSTVs with sacral morphology at the articular surfaces of the bone and the gender distribution of the anomalies in the population.
Cross-sectional descriptive study involving dried human sacral bones and meta-analysis of data available related to LSTVs.
Three hundred twenty sacra were screened for the presence of LSTV, the type of auricular surface, and facet joints in them. Samples were grouped against their sexes, type of the auricular surfaces present in them, the nature of facet joints, and the variety of LSTV (if present). Data on LSTV from reliable Internet databases were collected to account for the prevalence of LSTV in the population in terms of the types of the anomaly and their gender distribution.
The detection rates of LSTV in the present study were similar to those observed in available literature. Accessory L5-S1 articulations and lumbarization of S1 were more commonly observed in the women. Sacralization was seen to be predominantly distributed in men. Higher auricular surfaces were associated with accessory articulations; lower auricular surfaces were present with partially separated S1 segment and in L5-S1 specimens. Morphology of the facets significantly altered in LSTV with accessory articulations.
Different lumbosacral transitions share a stronger, definite, and specific patterns of relationship with certain sacral morphologies and gender. It is important to recognize the nuances of these connections so as to understand low back pain conditions in the setting of a typical sacral articular morphology or the sex of the individual.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Available from: Tobias A. Mattei
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ABSTRACT: Variations in sacral segmentation may preclude safe placement of transsacral screws for posterior pelvis fixation. We developed a novel automated 3D technique to determine the safe zone size for transsacral screws in the upper two sacral segments in 526 adult pelvis computed tomography scans. Safe zone sizes were then compared by gender and sacral segmentation variations (number of neuroforamen and the presence/absence of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae, ±LSTV). Ten millimeters was used as the safety threshold for a large screw. 3 (0.6%), 366 (70%), and 157 (30%) sacra had 3, 4, or 5 neuroforamen, respectively. Eighty-eight (17%) were +LSTV. Safe zone size depended on gender, number of neuroforamen in −LSTV sacra and presence of LSTV (p < 0.001) but not on the uni- or bilateral nature of the LSTV. 17% of −LSTV sacra were below the safety threshold in S1, 27% in S2, whereas 3% of +LSTV sacra were below in S1, 74% in S2. Of −LSTV sacra that cannot take an S1 screw safely, 77% can do so in S2, leaving only 4% of sacra that cannot accommodate a screw safely in either upper segment. The results demonstrate a predictable pattern of safe zone size based on gender and sacral segmentation variations. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res
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