Heart Rate Dynamics after Exercise in Cardiac Patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes

Department of Exercise and Medical Physiology Verve, Oulu, Finland.
Frontiers in Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.53). 09/2011; 2:57. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2011.00057
Source: PubMed


Purpose: The incidence of cardiovascular events is higher in coronary artery disease patients with type 2 diabetes (CAD + T2D) than in CAD patients without T2D. There is increasing evidence that the recovery phase after exercise is a vulnerable phase for various cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that autonomic regulation differs in CAD patients with and without T2D during post-exercise condition. Methods: A symptom-limited maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer was performed for 68 CAD + T2D patients (age 61 ± 5 years, 78% males, ejection fraction (EF) 67 ± 8, 100% on β-blockade), and 64 CAD patients (age 62 ± 5 years, 80% males, EF 64 ± 8, 100% on β-blockade). Heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise was calculated as the slope of HR during the first 60 s after cessation of exercise (HRRslope). R–R intervals were measured before (5 min) and after exercise from 3 to 8 min, both in a supine position. R–R intervals were analyzed using time and frequency methods and a detrended fluctuation method (α1). Results: BMI was 30 ± 4 vs. 27 ± 3 kg m2 (p < 0.001); maximal exercise capacity, 6.5 ± 1.7 vs. 7.7 ± 1.9 METs (p < 0.001); maximal HR, 128 ± 19 vs. 132 ± 18 bpm (p = ns); and HRRslope, −0.53 ± 0.17 vs. −0.62 ± 0.15 beats/s (p = 0.004), for CAD patients with and without T2D, respectively. There was no differences between the groups in HRRslope after adjustment for METs, BMI, and medication (ANCOVA, p = 0.228 for T2D and, e.g., p = 0.030 for METs). CAD + T2D patients had a higher HR at rest than non-diabetic patients (57 ± 10 vs. 54 ± 6 bpm, p = 0.030), but no other differences were observed in HR dynamics at rest or in post-exercise condition. Conclusion: HR recovery is delayed in CAD + T2D patients, suggesting impairment of vagal activity and/or augmented sympathetic activity after exercise. Blunted HR recovery after exercise in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic patients is more closely related to low exercise capacity and obesity than to T2D itself.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise cessation is thought to reflect the rate of reestablishment of parasympathetic tone. Relatively little research has focused on improved HRR in women after completing cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise training. OBJECTIVE:: We examined the influence of exercise training on HRR in women completing a traditional CR program and in women completing a CR program tailored for women. METHODS:: A 2-group randomized clinical trial compared HRR between 99 women completing a traditional 12-week CR program and 137 women completing a tailored CR program. Immediately upon completion of a symptom-limited graded exercise test, HRR was measured at 1 through 6 minutes. RESULTS:: Compared with baseline, improvement in 1-minute HRR (HRR1) was similar (P = 0.777) between the tailored (mean [SD], 17.5 [11] to 19.1 [12]) and the traditional CR program (15.7 [9.0] to 16.9 [9.5]). The amount of change in the 2-minute HRR (HRR2) for the tailored (30 [13] to 32.8 [14.6]) and traditional programs (28.3 [12.8] to 31.2 [13.7]) also was not different (P = 0.391). Similar results were observed for HRR at 3 through 6 minutes. Given these comparable improvements of the 2 programs, in the full cohort, the factors independently predictive of post-CR HRR1, in rank order, were baseline HRR1 (part correlation, 0.35; P < 0.001); peak exercise capacity, estimated as metabolic equivalents (METs; 0.24, P < 0.001); anxiety (-0.17, P = 0.001); and age (-0.13, P = 0.016). The factors independently associated with post-CR HRR2 were baseline HRR2 (0.44, P < 0.001), peak METs (0.21, P < 0.001), and insulin use (-0.10, P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS:: One to 6 minutes after exercise cessation, HRR was significantly improved among the women completing both CR programs. The modifiable factors positively associated with HRR1 included peak METs and lower anxiety, whereas HRR2 was associated with insulin administration and peak METs. Additional research on HRR after exercise training in women is warranted.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · The Journal of cardiovascular nursing
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular risk can be calculated using the Framingham cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score and provides a risk stratification from mild to very high CVD risk percentage over 10 years. This equation represents a complex interaction between age, gender, cholesterol status, blood pressure, diabetes status, and smoking. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of how the autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulates the heart rate. HRV measures are sensitive to age, gender, disease status such as diabetes and hypertension and processes leading to atherosclerosis. We investigated whether HRV measures are a suitable, simple, noninvasive alternative to differentiate between the four main Framingham associated CVD risk categories. In this study we applied the tone-entropy (T-E) algorithm and complex correlation measure (CCM) for analysis of HRV obtained from 20 min. ECG recordings and correlated the HRV score with the stratification results using the Framingham risk equation. Both entropy and CCM had significant analysis of variance (ANOVA) results [F (172, 3) = 9.51; <0.0001]. Bonferroni post hoc analysis indicated a significant difference between mild, high and very high cardiac risk groups applying tone-entropy (p < 0.01). CCM detected a difference in temporal dynamics of the RR intervals between the mild and very high CVD risk groups (p < 0.01). Our results indicate a good agreement between the T-E and CCM algorithm and the Framingham CVD risk score, suggesting that this algorithm may be of use for initial screening of cardiovascular risk as it is noninvasive, economical and easy to use in clinical practice.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Frontiers in Physiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive measure of cardiac autonomic modulation. Time and frequency domain measures have primarily been examined in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Not only do frequency domain HRV parameters tend to be reduced in T2D, but healthy individuals with low HRV are also more likely to develop T2D. Furthermore, patients with T2D with low HRV have an increased prevalence of complications and risk of mortality compared with those with normal autonomic function. These findings provide support for the use of HRV as a risk indicator in T2D. Exercise is considered an important component to T2D prevention and treatment strategies. To date, few studies have examined the changes in HRV with exercise in T2D. One study showed changes in resting HRV, two studies showed changes in HRV during or following acute stressors, and one study showed no changes in HRV but improvements in baroreflex sensitivity. The most pronounced changes in HRV were realized following the exercise intervention with the greatest frequency of supervised exercise sessions and with the greatest intensity and duration of exercise bouts. These findings suggest that exercise following current American College of Sports Medicine/American Diabetes Association guidelines may be important in the prevention and treatment of T2D to improve autonomic function and reduce the risk of complications and mortality.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Show more