Saha, A. et al. Safety and immunogenicity study of a killed bivalent (O1 and O139) whole-cell oral cholera vaccine Shanchol, in Bangladeshi adults and children as young as 1 year of age. Vaccine 29, 8285-8292
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Vaccine
(Impact Factor: 3.62).
09/2011; 29(46):8285-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.08.108
Safety and immunogenicity study of an oral, killed, bivalent whole-cell, cholera vaccine, Shanchol was carried out in Bangladeshi participants. This study was conducted prior to initiating a feasibility study in Bangladesh.
The double-blind, randomized placebo controlled study was carried out in adults (18-45 years), toddlers (2-5 years) and younger children (12-23 months). Two doses of the vaccine/placebo were given 14 days apart.
Shanchol did not elicit major adverse events in any age group. Vibriocidal antibody responses in adults were 60% against Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba, 72% against V. cholerae O1 Ogawa and 21% against V. cholerae O139. In toddlers, responses were 84%, 75% and 64% and in younger children it was 74%, 78% and 54% against Inaba, Ogawa and O139 serotypes. The responses in all ages were higher in vaccinees compared to pre-immune titers or to responses in placebo recipients (P<0.001). Plasma IgA antibody response to O1 Inaba LPS was seen in 61%, 73% and 45% of adults, toddlers and younger children, respectively.
The safety and immunogenicity data for Shanchol is promising and warrants future use in large scale trial in cholera endemic areas, high risk Bangladeshi population and in other countries in the region.
Available from: Iqbal Ansary Khan
- "The vaccine has no detectable levels of cholera toxin . A randomized placebo controlled trial in 330 Bangladeshi participants in three age groups, undertaken prior to the mass vaccination showed that the vaccine is safe and immunogenic  "
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ABSTRACT: A feasibility study of an oral cholera vaccine was carried out to test strategies to reach high-risk populations in urban Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study was cluster randomized, with three arms: vaccine, vaccine plus safe water and hand washing practice, and no intervention. High risk people of age one year and above (except pregnant woman) from the two intervention arms received two doses of the oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™. Vaccination was conducted between 17th February and 16th April 2011, with a minimum interval of fourteen days between doses. Interpersonal communication preceded vaccination to raise awareness amongst the target population. The number of vaccine doses used, the population vaccinated, left-out, drop out, vaccine wastage and resources required were documented. Fixed outreach site vaccination strategy was adopted as the mode of vaccine delivery. Additionally, mobile vaccination sites and mop-up activities were carried out to reach the target communities. Of the 172,754 target population, 141,839 (82%) and 123,666 (72%) received complete first and second doses of the vaccine, respectively. Dropout rate from the first to the second dose was 13%. Two complete doses were received by 123,661 participants. Vaccine coverage in children was 81%. Coverage was significantly higher in females than in males (77% vs. 66%, P<0.001). Vaccine wastage for delivering the complete doses was 1.2%. The government provided cold-chain related support at no cost to the project. Costs for two doses of vaccine per-person were US$3.93, of which US$1.63 was spent on delivery. Cost for delivering a single dose was US$0.76. We observed no serious adverse events. Mass vaccination with oral cholera vaccine is feasible for reaching high risk endemic population through the existing national immunization delivery system employed by the government.
Available from: Barbara Rath
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ABSTRACT: With more vaccines becoming available worldwide, vaccine research is on the rise in developing countries. To gain a better understanding of safety reporting from vaccine clinical research in developing countries, we conducted a systematic review in Medline and Embase (1989-2011) of published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting safety outcomes with ≥50% developing country participation (PROSPERO systematic review registration number: CRD42012002025). Developing country vaccine RCTs were analyzed with respect to the number of participants, age groups studied, inclusion of safety information, number of reported adverse events following immunization (AEFI), type and duration of safety follow-up, use of standardized AEFI case definitions, grading of AEFI severity, and the reporting of levels of diagnostic certainty for AEFI. The systematic search yielded a total number of 50 randomized vaccine clinical trials investigating 12 different vaccines, most commonly rotavirus and malaria vaccines. In these trials, 94,459 AEFI were reported from 446,908 participants receiving 735,920 vaccine doses. All 50 RCTs mentioned safety outcomes with 70% using definitions for at least one AEFI. The most commonly defined AEFI was fever (27), followed by local (16) and systemic reactions (14). Logistic regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between the implementation of a fever case definition and the reporting rate for fever as an AEFI (p=0.027). Overall, 16 different definitions for fever and 7 different definitions for erythema were applied. Predefined AEFI case definitions by the Brighton Collaboration were used in only two out of 50 RCTs. The search was limited to RCTs published in English or German and may be missing studies published locally. The reported systematic review suggests room for improvement with respect to the harmonization of safety reporting from developing country vaccine clinical trials and the implementation of standardized case definitions.
Available from: Daniel T Leung
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ABSTRACT: Cholera is a severe acute dehydrating diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139 infection, and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity globally. Although young children bear a high burden of the disease, currently available oral vaccines give a lower efficacy and shorter duration of protection in this group than in adults. According to the studies of natural infection, young children achieve comparable systemic anti-V. cholerae antigen-specific antibody, gut-homing antibody-secreting cell and memory B-cell responses as adults. Studies on innate and cell-mediated immune responses are lacking in children, and may offer important insights into differences in vaccine efficacy. The impact of host factors such as malnutrition, genetics and coinfection with other pathogens also remains to be fully defined.
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