Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cognitive Processing in Young Adults With Down Syndrome

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (Impact Factor: 2.08). 09/2011; 116(5):344-59. DOI: 10.1352/1944-7558-116.5.344
Source: PubMed


The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation during a semantic-classification/object-recognition task in 13 persons with Down syndrome and 12 typically developing control participants (age range  =  12-26 years). A comparison between groups suggested atypical patterns of brain activation for the individuals with Down syndrome. Correlation analyses between an index of visual spatial ability and brain activation depicted a positive relationship between (a) this index and brain activation in regions of the occipital and parietal lobes for the typically developing individuals and (b) the middle and dorsal frontal gyri in the individuals with Down syndrome. These findings supported the authors' hypothesis that persons with Down syndrome demonstrate atypical neural activation compared with typically developing individuals matched for chronological age.

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Available from: Lisa M Jacola, Jun 19, 2015
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    • "ed to tones , suggesting a need in the group with DS to recruit greater cognitive resources to process the story . Moreover , this altered functional organization is not limited to language , because a semantic classification task for objects also yielded a pattern of brain regions differing in their spatial distribution and extent of activation ( Jacola et al . , 2011 ) . Adults with DS showed activation in the middle and dorsal frontal cortex relative to an age - matched control group . Three published studies have examined cross - regional brain connectivity in young adults with DS and each has pointed to a pattern of over - connectivity in local networks and under - connectivity of long - range co"
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    ABSTRACT: Much progress has been made toward behavioral and pharmacological intervention in intellectual disability, which was once thought too difficult to treat. Down syndrome (DS) research has shown rapid advances, and clinical trials are currently underway, with more on the horizon. Here, we review the literature on the emergent profile of cognitive development in DS, emphasizing that treatment approaches must consider how some " end state " impairments, such as language deficits, may develop from early alterations in neural systems beginning in infancy. Specifically, we highlight evidence suggesting that there are pre-and early postnatal alterations in brain structure and function in DS, resulting in disturbed network function across development. We stress that these early alterations are likely amplified by Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and poor sleep. Focusing on three network hubs (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum), we discuss how these regions may relate to evolving deficits in cognitive function in individuals with DS, and to their language profile in particular.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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    • "These morphological and cognitive deficits are consistent with aberrant synaptic plasticity, and, indeed, while difficult to measure directly in human subjects, evidence suggests that plasticity is reduced at least in the motor cortex of DS individuals [40]. Additionally, functional MRI (fMRI) during cognitive processing tasks reveals abnormal neural activation patterns in DS children and young adults [41, 42]. Examination of resting glucose metabolism in the cerebral cortex of DS individuals found enhanced uptake in brain regions associated with cognition suggesting cellular hyperactivity in those areas [43]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Down syndrome is the most common form of intellectual disability and results from one of the most complex genetic perturbations that is compatible with survival, trisomy 21. The study of brain dysfunction in this disorder has largely been based on a gene discovery approach, but we are now moving into an era of functional genome exploration, in which the effects of individual genes are being studied alongside the effects of deregulated non-coding genetic elements and epigenetic influences. Also, new data from functional neuroimaging studies are challenging our views of the cognitive phenotypes associated with Down syndrome and their pathophysiological correlates. These advances hold promise for the development of treatments for intellectual disability.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Nature Reviews Neuroscience
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