Changes in vascular function and structure in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Child Health Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
Arthritis care & research 12/2011; 63(12):1736-44. DOI: 10.1002/acr.20613
Source: PubMed


Chronic inflammatory diseases in adults have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk and impaired vascular function. We aimed to assess the presence of early vascular dysfunction in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and investigate the role of inherent inflammatory process of JIA in vascular health.
Thirty patients with JIA (age range 7-18 years) were compared to 33 age- and sex-matched controls. Endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), and arterial stiffness were examined. Endothelial inflammation was assessed by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin measurements.
Patients with JIA showed decreased FMD compared to controls (P = 0.001), independent of age (P = 0.9 among age subgroups). Baseline differences in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ICAM-1, and glucose between the 2 groups accounted for the difference in FMD. The presence of systemic JIA was associated with greater IMT compared to patients with oligoarticular disease, polyarticular disease, or controls (P = 0.014, P = 0.069, and P = 0.046, respectively). The difference in IMT between systemic versus oligoarticular/polyarticular JIA was attributed to the following risk factors: age, body mass index, blood pressure, disease activity, and corticosteroids use. There were no differences in arterial stiffness indices between JIA patients and controls or between patients with systemic versus nonsystemic disease.
Endothelial function is impaired in patients with JIA at a very young age, while IMT is increased only in the presence of systemic JIA. Vascular dysfunction may be partly attributed to the effects of disease-related characteristics (inflammation, disease activity, and medications).

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Available from: Katerina Naka, Sep 29, 2014
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    • "A small study from Poland showed that the mean CIMT was within the published normal range although increased CIMT was associated with disease duration [83,84]. A review of the English-language literature revealed only three reports that assessed surrogate measures of atherosclerosis in children with JIA (Table 3) [85-87]. The first reported study, using magnetic resonance imaging, showed that JIA patients had increased aortic stiffness, lower aortic distensibility and increased PWV, as compared with controls, suggestive of subclinical atherosclerosis [85]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are becoming major health concerns for adults with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The enhanced atherogenesis in this patient population is promoted by the exposure to traditional risk factors as well as nontraditional cardiovascular insults, such as corticosteroid therapy, chronic inflammation and autoantibodies. Despite definite differences between many adult-onset and pediatric-onset rheumatologic diseases, it is extremely likely that atherosclerosis will become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this pediatric patient population. Because cardiovascular events are rare at this young age, surrogate measures of atherosclerosis must be used. The three major noninvasive vascular measures of early atherosclerosis - namely, flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity - can be performed easily on children. Few studies have explored the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and even fewer have used the surrogate vascular measures to document signs of early atherosclerosis in children with pediatric-onset rheumatic diseases. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on cardiovascular risk and early atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis patients, and to review cardiovascular preventive strategies that should be considered in this population.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Arthritis research & therapy
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    • "There are very scarce published data on subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with JIA, reviewed in [10]. Recent studies showed increased IMT in JIA children or impaired endothelial function in these patients [11] [12]. However, children with traditional atherosclerosis risk factors were not included in those studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence of excess body mass in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) children and to investigate the influence of obesity into the early, subclinical changes in cardiovascular system in these patients. Methods: Fifty-eight JIA patients, aged median 13 years, were compared to 36 healthy controls. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-6, TNF α, adiponectin) were studied together with IMT (intima-media thickness), FMD (flow mediated dilation), and LVMi (left ventricle mass index) as surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results: Thirteen JIA children (22%) were obese and had increased systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA, hsCRP, and IL-6 compared to nonobese JIA and controls. FMD was decreased compared to nonobese JIA and controls, whereas IMT and LVMi were increased. In multivariate regression analysis, TNF α, SDS-BMI, and systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of early CV changes in JIA. Conclusions: Coincident obesity is common in JIA children and is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and increased levels of inflammatory markers leading to early changes in cardiovascular system. Thus, medical care of children with JIA should include strategies preventing cardiovascular disease by maintenance of adequate body weight.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Mediators of Inflammation
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    • "Arterial stiffness was assessed non-invasively with the commercially available Sphygmocor system (Version 7.01, At Cor Medical, Sydney, Australia) using applanation tonometry to measure carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) as previously described [28]. Pressure waveforms were recorded from the carotid and femoral arteries. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is independently associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases that is primarily due to the early development of advanced atherosclerotic vascular changes. The aim of our study was to investigate the predictors of vascular dysfunction in T2DM patients. Methods We studied 165 T2DM patients without known macrovascular or microvascular disease. Standard demographic (age, gender, cardiovascular risk factors, medications), clinical (body mass index, blood pressure) and laboratory (glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipids, renal function) parameters were included in analyses. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitrate mediated dilation (NMD) and Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) were measured. Results Median age was 66 years and duration since T2DM diagnosis was 10 years, 70% were females and 79% hypertensives, while only 10% had a glycated hemoglobin <7%. FMD was positively associated with NMD (r 0.391, P < 0.001), while PWV was inversely associated with FMD (r -0.218, P = 0.014) and NMD (r -0.309, P < 0.001). Time since diagnosis of diabetes was the single independent predictor of FMD (β -0.40, P = 0.003). Increased age and fasting glucose and the presence of hypertension were independent predictors of decreased NMD (P < 0.001). Increased age and systolic blood pressure were independently associated with increased PWV (P < 0.001). Conclusions In T2DM patients, impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation was independently associated only with longer diabetes duration while no association with other established risk factors was found. Vascular smooth muscle dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness were more prominent in older T2DM patients with hypertension. Worse glycemic control was associated with impaired vascular smooth muscle function.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
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