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The effect of 90 day administration of a high dose vitamin B‐complex on work stress

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Abstract

Occupational stress is increasing in Western societies and the impact is significant at a personal, organisational and community level. The present study examined for the first time the efficacy of 3 months administration of two forms of high dose vitamin B complex on mood and psychological strain associated with chronic work stress. Sixty participants completed the 3-month, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in which personality, work demands, mood, anxiety and strain were assessed. After individual differences in personality and work demands were statistically controlled, the vitamin B complex treatment groups reported significantly lower personal strain and a reduction in confusion and depressed/dejected mood after 12 weeks. There were no treatment-related changes in other measures of mood and anxiety. The results of the study are consistent with two previous studies examining multivitamin supplementation and personal (non-work) feelings of strain and suggestive of significant decreases in the experience of workplace stress after 90 day supplementation of a B multivitamin. Given the direct and indirect costs of workplace stress, these findings point to the utility of a cost-effective treatment for the mood and psychological strain effects of occupational stress. These findings may have important personal health, organisational and societal outcomes given the rising cost and incidence of workplace stress.

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... In the various studies, stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS); (22,24,26,28,29), Berocca Stress Index (30), Personal Strain Questionnaire of the Occupational Stress InventoryVRevised (23), and Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) (25). ...
... The length of intervention period was between 28 and 90 days. Table 2 lists the composition of the supplements used, which fell broadly into two categories: those studies that used a broad combination of vitamins and minerals at doses no more than once to twice the recommended intake (24,26,27) and those studies that used doses much higher than the recommended daily allowance (RDA; including B vitamins) but three minerals or less (22,23,25,28,30). ...
... Stress was investigated in all but one trial (27), with five trials reporting a beneficial effect of multivitamin/mineral supplementation (22,23,26,28,30), although two trials did not (24,25). Meta-analysis revealed that multivitamin/mineral supplementation significantly reduced stress (pooled sample size, n = 1076; SMD = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47Y0.22; ...
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Objective: Biochemical processes in the brain affect mood. Minor dietary inadequacies, which are responsible for a small decline in an enzyme’s efficiency, could cumulatively influence mood states. When diet does not provide an optimal intake of micronutrients, supplementation is expected to benefit mood. This meta-analysis evaluated the influence of diet supplementation on mood in nonclinical samples. Methods: Databases were evaluated and studies were included if they considered aspects of stress, mild psychiatric symptoms, or mood in the general population; were randomized and placebo-controlled; evaluated the influence of multivitamin/ mineral supplements for at least 28 days. Eight studies that met the inclusion criteria were integrated using meta-analysis. Results: Supplementation reduced the levels of perceived stress (standard mean difference [SMD] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47Y0.22; p = .001), mild psychiatric symptoms (SMD = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.43Y0.18; p = .001), and anxiety (SMD = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.48Y0.16; p G .001), but not depression (SMD = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.42Y0.030; p G .089). Fatigue (SMD = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.40Y0.146; p G .001) and confusion (SMD = 0.225; 95% CI = 0.38Y0.07; p G .003) were also reduced. Conclusions: Micronutrient supplementation has a beneficial effect on perceived stress, mild psychiatric symptoms, and aspects of everyday mood in apparently healthy individuals. Supplements containing high doses of B vitamins may be more effective in improving mood states. Questions about optimal levels of micronutrient intake, optimal doses, and active ingredients arise. Key words: anxiety, depression, minerals, mood, stress, vitamins.
... These studies were separated from the previous mood studies due to their measurement of depression as a secondary outcome or measuring the concept of mood more broadly. Of these, eight reported mixed treatment effects [68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75] and two reported no treatment effects [76,77]. ...
... Occupational stress in employed adults was the focus of a further micronutrient supplementation trial. Stough and colleagues (2011) administered a broad-spectrum vitamin and mineral product (Blackmores Executive A and B) to 60 participants over 12 weeks [75]. Data for the separate Executive formulas were combined as there were no differences found between the products. ...
... Participants in the treatment group demonstrated improved mood as measured by the POMS, in the areas of depression-dejection and confusion. No other mood variables showed significant group differences [75]. These data demonstrate some positive benefit for micronutrient supplementation; however, it is unclear if these benefits were due to the treatment of underlying mood problems or work stress. ...
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Introduction: Vitamin and mineral nutritional supplements are becoming increasingly popular as alternative treatments for anxiety and depression, as issues such as side effects from medication, failure to respond to psychotherapy and workforce limitations pose barriers for successful treatment. Areas covered: This review covered double-blind, randomized controlled trials (DBRCTs) testing formulas including at least four vitamins and/or minerals used for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety, stress or depression in adults not currently taking medication for psychiatric difficulties. Expert opinion: The majority of the 23 trials reviewed were conducted on people without psychological difficulties, limiting the generalizability of the results to people with diagnosed mood and anxiety difficulties. 16 studies demonstrated positive effects for symptoms of anxiety, depression or stress. Micronutrient supplementation in healthy nonclinical adults has limited benefits for mood and anxiety symptoms, although may convey some subtle general improvements. The evidence for adults with physical or mental ill health is more positive although limited by small samples and variability in nutrients studied. Broad spectrum nutrient products may be more effective than a selected few. While an effect of micronutrients cannot be dismissed, the variability of the studies makes it extremely challenging to identify specific treatment benefits.
... Pycnogenol has also been shown to reduce concentrations of oxidative stress marker F2-isoprostanes (24), which has been associated with better episodic memory (27), while Bacopa has been shown to reduce anxiety (23). Furthermore, a 90-day intervention of high-dose B vitamin multivitamin was shown to be effective in reducing personal strain, depressive symptoms and confusion (28). ...
... Higher scores on the QRQ and PSQ indicate high occupational stress and psychological stress and low scores on the PRQ indicate poor occupational adjustment. The OSI-R has been effective in identifying reduced personal strain and depressive symptoms following a 90-day B vitamin intervention (28). ...
... High scores indicate greater mood disturbance on all scales, except Vigor (44). The POMS has been effective in identifying reductions in tension-anxiety, angerhostility, fatigue and confusion following a 90-day B vitamin intervention (28). ...
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B vitamins are essential for optimal brain and body function, and are particularly important for cortical metabolic processes that have downstream effects on mitigating oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been linked to poor psychological outcomes including psychological distress, which has wide-reaching implications for the community and the workplace. Given work-related stress has been associated with poor mental health outcomes, high-dose B vitamin supplementation may be effective in improving brain function and psychological outcomes via attenuation of oxidative stress. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated psychological outcomes following 6-month supplementation of a high-B-vitamin multivitamin in a large sample of healthy adults (n = 108, aged 30–70 years), as well as changes in default mode network functional connectivity in a subset of the original sample (n = 28). Improvements in occupational stress, general health, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and mood profiles were identified for both active and placebo groups over time (p < 0.05 corrected). Seed-based functional connectivity analysis centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) showed that connectivity between the PCC and the caudate increased for the active treatment group, but decreased for the placebo group (p < 0.05 corrected). These findings reveal a substantial intervention effect for both active and placebo treatments, which could in part be associated with a placebo effect in subjective measures. There was, however, a significant treatment effect in the objective measure of functional connectivity, suggesting that reduced psychological stress and high-B-vitamin multivitamin supplementation may lead to an increase in DMN and caudate functional connectivity, which might reflect a strengthening of neurocircuitry within areas associated with reward and emotion at rest. Future studies should consider a placebo run-in methodology to reduce the placebo effect on the subjective measures of stress.
... More recently, Haskell et al. [17] reported that nine weeks supplementation with a multivitamin in younger women led to reductions in fatigue and improvements on the multi-tasking stressor test [18], while in healthy older men, Harris et al. [19] reported that eight weeks supplementation with a multivitamin brought about significant reductions in scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. In a workplace setting there is also evidence of efficacy for B vitamins in alleviating chronic stress, with a recent study by Stough et al. [20] reporting that three months supplementation with a high dose vitamin B-complex resulted in significantly lower ratings of personal strain on the Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI-R). Rucklidge et al. [21] reported that multinutrient supplementation may also improve emotional recovery following a substantial acute stressor. ...
... This study investigated the effects of chronic multivitamin supplementation on diurnal patterns of cortisol secretion and perceived stress. In contrast to previous studies of multivitamin supplementation and stress [15,16,20], 16-weeks supplementation with multivitamins was not found to be associated with a significant effect on self-report perceived stress. However, for reasons that are unclear a significant increase in perceived stress was reported across both treatment groups at 16-weeks in comparison to 8-weeks. ...
Article
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Recent evidence suggests that dietary intake of vitamins, in particular the B-vitamins including B6, B9 and B12 may have a number of positive effects on mood and stress. Given the effects of stress on a range of biological mechanisms including the endocrine system, it could be reasonably expected that multivitamin supplementation may also affect markers of these mechanisms such as diurnal cortisol secretion. In the current double-blind placebo-controlled study 138 adults (aged 20 to 50 years) were administered a multivitamin containing B-vitamins versus placebo over a 16-week period. Salivary cortisol measurements were taken at waking, 15-min, 30-min and at bedtime, at baseline, 8-weeks and 16-weeks. Perceived Stress (PSS) was measured at baseline, 8-weeks and 16-weeks, while blood serum measures of B6, B12 and homocysteine (HCy) as well as red cell folate (B9) were also collected at these time points. A significant interaction was found between treatment group and study visit for the Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR). Compared to placebo, at 16-weeks multivitamin supplementation was found to be associated with a near-significant trend towards an increased CAR. No significant differences in PSS were found between groups, with PSS increasing in both groups across the course of the study. Red cell folate was found to be significantly correlated with the CAR response at 16-weeks while HCy levels were not found to be associated with the CAR response, although HCy significantly correlated with waking cortisol levels at 8-weeks. A possible interpretation of the elevation in CAR associated with multivitamin supplementation is that this represents an adaptive response to everyday demands in healthy participants.
... 72 (2) B-complex vitamins with a broadspectrum multiple vitamin/mineral supplement Optimum doses of B-vitamins should be prescribed (in combination with a multiple vitamin/mineral supplement) since these essential nutrients are particularly susceptible to cortisol mobilization that results in their depletion, 73 and they also possess stressmoderating effects. 68,74,75 At the end of a 12-week study , during which 42 adults were randomized to the nutritional treatments (B-complex vitamins plus modest amounts of vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, potassium, lecithin, choline bitartrate, inositol, and the botanical medicines Avena sativa and Passiflora incarnata), there were significant reductions in personal strain, confusion and depressed/dejected mood. 74 Another of these studies evaluated the effects of a B-complex supplement (i.e., a whole nutrient natural source extract from probiotic colonies containing vitamins B 1 -B 12 , folate, PABA, biotin, and inositol) on depressive and anxiety symptoms among adults diagnosed with major depression or other forms of depressive disorders. ...
... 68,74,75 At the end of a 12-week study , during which 42 adults were randomized to the nutritional treatments (B-complex vitamins plus modest amounts of vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, potassium, lecithin, choline bitartrate, inositol, and the botanical medicines Avena sativa and Passiflora incarnata), there were significant reductions in personal strain, confusion and depressed/dejected mood. 74 Another of these studies evaluated the effects of a B-complex supplement (i.e., a whole nutrient natural source extract from probiotic colonies containing vitamins B 1 -B 12 , folate, PABA, biotin, and inositol) on depressive and anxiety symptoms among adults diagnosed with major depression or other forms of depressive disorders. 75 The 30 study participants taking the B-complex vitamins, had notable continuous improvements in depressive and anxiety symptoms compared to the participants in the placebo group. ...
Article
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For 15 years the author has focused his clinical practice on the evaluation and treatment of mental disorders. Here he presents two common patient scenarios, which are amalgams of many patient cases. He refers to these cases throughout this report to highlight specific themes, opinions, and/or observations about individuals having mental disorders. This paper focuses on the psychological domain of chronic stress as resulting from allosteric overload, how it manifests, what factors exacerbate it, and how chronic stress can be managed effectively with a holistic plan that includes the appropriate use of psychosocial strategies, therapeutic lifestyle changes, and several “core” orthomolecular therapies.
... 51 However, to date, there is scant research regarding the effectiveness of specific nutrients for women to use to manage anxiety or stress and possibly avoid depression, although the investigation into the complex relationship between specific nutrients and mental health is in progress. 35,[66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74] For example, researchers examining the work demands, mood, anxiety and strain of participants consuming a high-dose B vitamin complex for 12 weeks reported a significant improvement in personal strain and less confusion and depressed mood, although no changes in other measures of mood and anxiety were noted. 70 In addition, other research has indicated that higher nutrient intakes are associated with better mental health, and supporting this result, a separate group of researchers found that psychological distress in a group of women increased significantly as their consumption of fast food increased. ...
... 35,[66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74] For example, researchers examining the work demands, mood, anxiety and strain of participants consuming a high-dose B vitamin complex for 12 weeks reported a significant improvement in personal strain and less confusion and depressed mood, although no changes in other measures of mood and anxiety were noted. 70 In addition, other research has indicated that higher nutrient intakes are associated with better mental health, and supporting this result, a separate group of researchers found that psychological distress in a group of women increased significantly as their consumption of fast food increased. 72,75 Conversely, research examining a population sample of women's JBISRIR-2016-002965 diets and the association between specific nutrients and anxiety levels found no such positive correlation. ...
... In healthy adults, 90 days of high-dose vitamin B multivitamin supplementation has been shown to reduce negative mood states of personal strain, confusion, and depression [7]. More generally, multivitamin supplementation for four weeks has been shown to reduce depressive states [9], stress, anxiety, and tiredness [17], whereas 9-week supplementation reduced fatigue and improved performance during a cognitive task [5], and 16-week supplementation improved Stroop task performance for men but not women [18]. ...
... The quality of the human diet has a direct effect on body and brain functionality, with several studies pointing toward the efficacy of vitamin and mineral supplementation, particularly B vitamins, in preventing and alleviating disease and disability [1][2][3][4]. Even in healthy humans, multivitamin supplementation has been shown to improve cognitive performance and reduce negative mood states, including depression, anxiety, and stress [5][6][7][8][9][10]. Neuroimaging techniques such as proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) have proven effective in quantifying neural markers of metabolism supplementation, which has been shown to increase oxidative metabolism and thus reduce neural inflammation and oxidative stress [14]. ...
Article
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A diet rich in B-group vitamins is essential for optimal body and brain function, and insufficient amounts of such vitamins have been associated with higher levels of neural inflammation and oxidative stress, as marked by increased blood plasma homocysteine. Neural biomarkers of oxidative stress quantified through proton magnetic spectroscopy (1H-MRS) are not well understood, and the relationship between such neural and blood biomarkers is seldom studied. The current study addresses this gap by investigating the direct effect of 6-month high-dose B-group vitamin supplementation on neural and blood biomarkers of metabolism. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 32 healthy adults (20 female, 12 male) aged 30–65 years underwent blood tests (vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels) and 1H-MRS of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) before and after supplementation. Results confirmed the supplement was effective in increasing vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 levels and reducing homocysteine, whereas there was no change in folate levels. There were significant relationships between vitamin B6 and N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine, as well as between vitamin B12 and creatine (ps < 0.05), whereas NAA in the PCC increased, albeit not significantly (p > 0.05). Together these data provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of high-dose B-group supplementation in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation through increasing oxidative metabolism. It may also promote myelination, cellular metabolism, and energy storage.
... To date, just three studies examining the association between such nutrients and stress have included women in their study populations. In mixed-gender samples, Schlebusch et al. 40 found significant reductions in stress levels associated with 30 days of supplementation with a B-vitamin complex, and Stough et al. 41 reported a significant decrease in personal strain after supplementation with a high dose B vitamin complex for 12 weeks. In an all-female sample, Haskell et al. 42 reported 9 weeks of MVM supplementation was associated with a reduction in selfreported stress levels. ...
... It was found that supplementing with magnesium and vitamin B6 in combination was linked with an approximate 1 unit reduction in PSS scores. Although these associations were not statistically significant after adjustment, the findings were broadly consistent with previous studies that have shown a B complex multivitamin reduced stress in women when administered continuously over a 30-day 40 or 90-day period 41 and existing literature suggested that magnesium may exert stresslowering effects. [62][63][64] Many of the supplements accessed by participants contained magnesium, with more than half of all supplementers (31/58) obtaining magnesium through DSs. ...
Article
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Specific nutrient intake via diet and/or supplementation in relation to female stress: a cross-sectional study. Abstract Background Women are negatively impacted by psychological stress and despite the prolific use of dietary supplements to manage stress there is little evidence to support their use for such. The present study examined the relationship between intake of specific nutrients via diet and/or dietary supplementation and level of perceived stress. Method In this cross-sectional study of adult Australian women (n=74), perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire and supplement usage was recorded using a Supplement Use Questionnaire. Results Potentially substantive reductions in stress scores were associated with PUFA supplementation: α-linolenic acid (MD= -3.34, 95% CI -7.97, 1.29), linoleic acid (MD= -4.08, 95% CI -8.97, 0.82), γ-linolenic acid (MD= -2.23, 95% CI -7.20, 2.74) and EPA/DHA (MD=-4.05, 95% CI -8.07, -0.03). There were negative correlations between intake of vitamin B6 and vitamin C and stress (ρ =-0.50 and ρ =-0.35 respectively). Compared to non-supplementers, stress scores were on average 0.92 units lower among those supplementing with magnesium and B6 concurrently (95% CI -3.88, 2.03). An increase in B6 via food was related to lower stress scores. For most nutrients, intake from food was positively associated with supplementation status. Conclusion There is some evidence to suggest potentially meaningful associations between intake of particular nutrients and stress, although CIs were wide and there were no statistically significant relationships observed. Further research is warranted to investigate any potential benefits more precisely using randomized controlled trials or large-scale observational studies. Keywords Female; Dietary Supplements; Adaptation, Psychological; Stress, Psychological/psychology; Mood Disorders/epidemiology
... Activation: Amr, El-Mogy, Shams, Vieira, & Lakhan, 2013 Altered sense perception: Dakhale, Khanzode, Khanzode, & Saoji, 2005 Sedation: de Oliveira, de Souza, Motta, & DaSilva, 2015; Mazloom, Ekramzadeh, & Hejazi, 2013; Stough et al, 2011; Kennedy et al, 2010; Brody, Preut, Schommer, & Schürmeyer, 2002 Suggested daily dose: 250-3,000 mg ...
... Activation: Lewis et al, 2013 Altered sense perception: Levine et al, 2006 Sedation: Stough et al, 2011; Kennedy et al, 2010 Suggested daily dose: 1 pill with doses of Bcomplex vitamins ranging from 10-100 mg with lesser (i.e., microgram) amounts of folic acid and cobalamin ...
Article
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The author presents the perspective that orthomolecular treatments possess psychoactive effects that result in potentially desirable physiological changes (e.g., sedation, psychomotor slowing, activation, and/or altered sense perception). The psychoactive effects of a broad range of commonly-recommended orthomolecular interventions are listed. This perspective can be integrated into a more expansive understanding of how orthomolecular interventions work, without claiming specific biochemical alterations. Lastly, several key advantages are delineated to support the use of orthomolecular interventions for their psychoactive effects.
... 51 However, to date, there is scant research regarding the effectiveness of specific nutrients for women to use to manage anxiety or stress and possibly avoid depression, although the investigation into the complex relationship between specific nutrients and mental health is in progress. 35,[66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74] For example, researchers examining the work demands, mood, anxiety and strain of participants consuming a high-dose B vitamin complex for 12 weeks reported a significant improvement in personal strain and less confusion and depressed mood, although no changes in other measures of mood and anxiety were noted. 70 In addition, other research has indicated that higher nutrient intakes are associated with better mental health, and supporting this result, a separate group of researchers found that psychological distress in a group of women increased significantly as their consumption of fast food increased. ...
... 35,[66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74] For example, researchers examining the work demands, mood, anxiety and strain of participants consuming a high-dose B vitamin complex for 12 weeks reported a significant improvement in personal strain and less confusion and depressed mood, although no changes in other measures of mood and anxiety were noted. 70 In addition, other research has indicated that higher nutrient intakes are associated with better mental health, and supporting this result, a separate group of researchers found that psychological distress in a group of women increased significantly as their consumption of fast food increased. 72,75 Conversely, research examining a population sample of women's diets and the association between specific nutrients and anxiety levels found no such positive correlation. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Women juggling multiple roles in our complex society are increasingly experiencing psychological stress. Dietary supplementation to manage stress is widespread despite limited supporting evidence. A systematic review of the available literature was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of specific dietary supplements in managing female stress and anxiety. OBJECTIVES: To identify the impact of essential fatty acids (EFAs), B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and/or zinc, consumed as dietary supplements to the daily diet, on female stress and anxiety levels. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 18 years and over, who had participated in a study where stress and/or anxiety were assessed. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S): Dietary supplementation with EFAs, B vitamins, vitamin C, magnesium and/or zinc. TYPES OF COMPARATORS: Supplements, either alone or combined, were compared with either no intervention or placebo. TYPES OF STUDIES: Randomized controlled and pseudo-randomized trials were included. OUTCOMES: Stress and anxiety were assessed using self-report or physiological outcome measures. SEARCH STRATEGY: Published and unpublished studies were sought via MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, MedNar, National Institute of Mental Health and the International Association for Women's Mental Health. METHODOLOGICAL QUALITY: Methodological quality was evaluated using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted using the standardized data extraction instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. DATA SYNTHESIS: Due to heterogeneity of the included studies, narrative synthesis was performed. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included in this review. Essential fatty acids were effective in reducing perceived stress and salivary cortisol levels during pregnancy and anxiety in premenstrual women, and anxiety during menopause in the absence of depression, but were ineffective when depression was disregarded. Disregarding the hormonal phase, EFAs were ineffective in reducing stress or anxiety in four groups of women. Combined magnesium and vitamin B6 supplementation reduced premenstrual anxiety but had no effect when used in isolation and did not affect stress in women suffering from dysmenorrhea when combined or used in isolation. Older women experienced anxiety reduction using vitamin B6, but not folate or vitamin B12. High-dose sustained-release vitamin C was effective in reducing anxiety and blood pressure in response to stress. CONCLUSION: The current review suggests that EFAs may be effective in reducing prenatal stress and salivary cortisol and may reduce anxiety during premenstrual syndrome and during menopause in the absence of depression. Magnesium and vitamin B6 may be effective in combination in reducing premenstrual stress, and vitamin B6 alone may reduce anxiety effectively in older women. High-dose sustained-release vitamin C may reduce anxiety and mitigate increased blood pressure in response to stress. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Essential fatty acids may be effective in reducing prenatal stress and salivary cortisol levels, and premenstrual or menopausal anxiety in the absence of depression. Combining magnesium and vitamin B6 may reduce premenstrual anxiety and vitamin B6 may reduce anxiety in older women. High-dose sustained-release vitamin C may reduce anxiety and mitigate increased blood pressure in response to stress. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: Investigating supplementation in longer term studies is warranted and should include compliance testing, the use of inert substances as controls and reliable outcome measures.
... Recently, the use of broad-spectrum micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) has emerged as an effective treatment for a range of mental health problems, including stress, anxiety, depression, and neurodevelopmental problems (Adams et al., 2011;Gosney, Hammond, Shenkin, & Allsup, 2008;Kaplan, Rucklidge, Romijn, & Dolph, 2015;Rucklidge & Kaplan, 2013;Schlebusch et al., 2000;Stough et al., 2011). In the course of demonstrating positive effects of micronutrient treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults (Rucklidge, Frampton, Gorman, & Boggis, 2014) and children (Gordon, Rucklidge, Blampied, & Johnstone, 2015) and for counteracting the psychological effects of a natural disaster (a major earthquake; Rucklidge et al., 2012;Rucklidge & Blampied, 2011), we encountered many anecdotal reports of a positive effect on insomnia, hence the research reported here. ...
... There is now considerable research supporting the efficacy of micronutrients in reducing stress in both stressed and nonstressed individuals (Carroll, Ring, Suter, & Willemsen, 2000;Kennedy et al., 2010;Rucklidge et al., 2012;Rucklidge, Johnstone, Harrison, & Boggis, 2011;Schlebusch et al., 2000;Stough et al., 2011;see Head & Kelly, 2009, for a review). Thus, given the wide range of psychological symptoms that have benefitted from micronutrients and anecdotal reports of the benefit of micronutrients on sleep, it is plausible that insomnia may also resolve through the use of nutritional supplements. ...
Article
Insomnia is a debilitating condition causing psychological distress and frequently comorbid with other mental health conditions. This study examined the effect of 8 weeks of treatment by broad spectrum micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) on insomnia using a multiple-baseline-across-participants open-label trial design. Seventeen adults were randomized to 1-, 2-, or 3-week baseline periods (14 completed). Self-report measures were the Consensus Sleep Diary–Morning (CSD-M), the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale (PIRS), and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS). Baselines were generally stable. Treatment completers reported reliable and clinically significant change in insomnia severity (PIRS), in depression, stress, and anxiety (DASS), and on at least two aspects of sleep measured by the CDS-M. All completers were treatment-compliant, and side effects were minimal. Nutritional supplementation is shown to be a novel, beneficial treatment for insomnia in adults. Follow-up research using placebo-controlled designs as well as comparisons to cognitive-behavioral and other treatments is recommended.
... Payne et al. [64] suggested that naturally occurring folate in foods, such as fruit and vegetables, may be more beneficial for preventing depression than dietary supplements and food fortification. The mechanisms proposed for their association have been linked to B vitamins because of their effects on single-carbon metabolism and their role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, other monoamine neurotransmitters, and catecholamines [65,66]. Furthermore, the critical role of B vitamins in brain function is demonstrated by a number of neuropsychiatric symptoms commonly associated with deficiencies in any of the B vitamins, including folate and vitamin B 12 [66,67]. ...
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Purpose Growing evidence suggests that specific food groups may play an important role in improving mental health. However, very few studies explored the association between individual dietary factors and depression symptoms by following a large cohort of individuals over a long period. We examined the differential effects of fruit and vegetables in relation to depression symptoms over a 15-year follow-up period in the 1973–78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Methods Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed using short questions. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scale with a cut off ≥ 10 indicated depressive symptoms. Multiple imputations with generalised estimating equations models were performed to estimate odds ratio of depression symptoms according to fruit and vegetable consumption. Results A total of 4241 participants with a mean age of 27.6 (SD 1.45) years at baseline were followed up at five surveys (2003–2018). Fruit and vegetable intake (≥ 2 servings) was cross-sectionally associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms. In longitudinal analysis, a higher intake of fruit (≥ 4 servings) and vegetable (≥ 5 servings) was consistently associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms, with a 25% lower odds (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.57, 0.97; p = 0.031) and a 19% lower odds (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70, 0.94; p = 0.007) than consuming one serve or less fruit and vegetable, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that a higher intake of fruit and vegetables was associated with a lower risk of depression symptoms over 15 years from a population-based prospective study of Australian women.
... A trial exploring 33 days of MVM supplementation was shown to benefit mood and reduce stress, as well as self-reported general health in a sample of 215 males aged 30-55 [26]. Stough et al. [27] reported reductions in personal strain as measured by the Occupational Stress Inventory, in addition to reduced depression-dejection and confusion ratings on the Profile of Mood States after 90 days of MVM supplementation in healthy adults. Recent evidence suggests that MVM supplementation may also reduce stress and anxiety in the period following a natural disaster [28][29][30]. ...
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This study explored the effects of four-week multi-vitamin and mineral (MVM) supplementation on mood and neurocognitive function in healthy, young adults. Fifty-eight healthy adults, 18-40 years of age (M = 25.82 years, SD = 4.87) participated in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in which mood and blood biomarkers were assessed at baseline and after four weeks of supplementation. Compared to placebo, MVM supplementation was associated with significantly lowered homocysteine and increased blood B-vitamin levels (p < 0.01). MVM treatment was also associated with significantly improved mood, as measured by reduced scores on the "depression-dejection" subscale of the Profile of Mood States (p = 0.018). These findings suggest that the four weeks of MVM supplementation may have beneficial effects on mood, underpinned by elevated B-vitamins and lowered homocysteine in healthy young adults.
... 1,17,28 Furthermore, the absorption of some of these nutrients is also hampered during ongoing stress, and increased excretion of others occurs. 1 A number of studies have examined the role that some of these nutrients play in mental health, generally, either in various combinations or alone. [28][29][30][31][32][33][34] There is however a lack of evidence to support the use of nutrient supplementation for the management of stress, even though supplementation to ameliorate the symptoms of stress is widespread. 35 The aim of this systematic review is therefore to investigate whether EFAs, B vitamins, Vitamin C, magnesium and zinc are capable of reducing levels of stress experienced by women. ...
... 1,17,28 Furthermore, the absorption of some of these nutrients is also hampered during ongoing stress, and increased excretion of others occurs. 1 A number of studies have examined the role that some of these nutrients play in mental health, generally, either in various combinations or alone. [28][29][30][31][32][33][34] There is however a lack of evidence to support the use of nutrient supplementation for the management of stress, even though supplementation to ameliorate the symptoms of stress is widespread. 35 The aim of this systematic review is therefore to investigate whether EFAs, B vitamins, Vitamin C, magnesium and zinc are capable of reducing levels of stress experienced by women. ...
Article
Review question: The question that this systematic review aims to address is: does the use of evidence-based, treatment-oriented, clinical practice guidelines by healthcare professionals result in improvements in patient outcomes?
... A trial of 60 adults with major depressive disorder showed greater reductions on the Beck Depression Inventory for participants who were randomized to receive a B-complex formula compared with those receiving a placebo (Lewis et al., 2013). In other research, compared with a placebo control group, nonclinical samples who consumed a complex nutrient formula showed improved mood and decreases in anxiety and perceived stress Stough et al., 2011), although not all trials have documented benefit in nonclinical samples (Cockle, Haller, Kimber, Dawe, & Hindmarch, 2000;Haskell et al., 2008). ...
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We live in a transformational moment for understanding the etiology of mental disorders. The previous leap in understanding occurred 60 years ago, which led us to incorporate psychopharmacology into our curricula to address the chemical basis of neurotransmitter function, especially as explained through the then-popular catecholamine hypothesis. The current revolution is broader, consisting of the rapidly accumulating knowledge of how inflammation, microbiome imbalance (gut dysbiosis), oxidative stress, and impaired mitochondrial output affect brain function. Suitable interventions for fighting inflammation, restoring normal gut function, reducing oxidative stress, and improving mitochondrial metabolism incorporate lifestyle variables, including nutrients and probiotics. This article invites readers to stay abreast of this emerging model of the biological basis of mental illness, given that it has particular relevance for those readers interested in alleviating the suffering of individuals with mental disorders. This overview describes the basis for a new field in mental health: nutritional psychiatry/psychology.
... 1,17,28 Furthermore, the absorption of some of these nutrients is also hampered during ongoing stress, and increased excretion of others occurs. 1 A number of studies have examined the role that some of these nutrients play in mental health, generally, either in various combinations or alone. [28][29][30][31][32][33][34] There is however a lack of evidence to support the use of nutrient supplementation for the management of stress, even though supplementation to ameliorate the symptoms of stress is widespread. 35 The aim of this systematic review is therefore to investigate whether EFAs, B vitamins, Vitamin C, magnesium and zinc are capable of reducing levels of stress experienced by women. ...
Article
REVIEW QUESTION / OBJECTIVE The objective of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of essential fatty acids, B vitamins, Vitamin C, magnesium and zinc, consumed as supplements to the daily diet, for managing stress in women. INCLUSION CRITERIA Types of participants The systematic review will consider studies that include all women over the age of 18 years. Studies that include pregnant women will also be considered. Studies that have included both genders will be considered where it is possible to extract data for female participants. Women taking prescription medication for anxiety or depression will be excluded, as will hospitalized women or women suffering from eating disorders. Types of intervention(s) This review will consider studies that evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation with essential fatty acids, specifically Omega-3; B Vitamins, specifically vitamin B3, B5, B6, B9 (folic acid) and B12; Vitamin C, magnesium and zinc at any dose/frequency for managing stress or anxiety being experienced by women. Supplements delivered in any oral form, including capsules, tablets, caplets, chewables, powders and liquids, at any dosage and for a duration of 14 days or longer will be considered. The supplementation of these nutrients will be investigated, whether used individually or in any combination. This review will not consider interventions that have used a combination of herbal and essential fatty acids, B vitamin, vitamin C, magnesium and zinc supplementation, either alone with the herbal supplement, or in combination with the herbal supplement. Types of comparators Essential fatty acid, B vitamin, Vitamin C, magnesium TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS
... Even though no consensus or operational definition of resilience has been evaluating micronutrients and work-related stress used modest doses of B-complex vitamins with low doses of vitamins C and E, magnesium, calcium, other micronutrients, and herbal sedatives (i.e., Avena sativa and Passiflora incarnata). 6 The use of the supplement resulted in statistically significant reductions in psychological strain. ...
... 8 Furthermore, earlier studies have shown that occupational exposure to aromatic compounds would result in continuous production of reactive oxygen species and free radicals, which in turn causes oxidative stress, immune suppression, damage of DNA, RNA, and proteins by chemical reactions such as oxidation, nitration, and halogenations in petrochemical workers. 9,10 In total, various strategies, including having a proper diet pattern, 11 an antioxidant-rich diet such as vitamins, 12 and the administration of antioxidants 13 have been proposed for the management of mood disorders and job stress among workers. Evidences emerging from the intestinal microbiota of the central nervous system performance have shown that oral administration of probiotics may have beneficial effects on mood and psychological problems. ...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine effects of probiotic yogurt and multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on mental health and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in petrochemical workers. Methods: The present randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 70 petrochemical workers. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 25) or one probiotic capsule daily + 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 25) or 100 g/day conventional yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 20) for 6 weeks. Mental health parameters including general health questionnaire (GHQ) and depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS) scores were measured. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and 6 weeks after the intervention to quantify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Results: After 6 weeks of intervention, a significant improvement of GHQ was observed in the probiotic yogurt (18.0 ± 1.5 vs. 13.5 ± 1.9, P = 0.007) and in the probiotic capsule group (16.9 ± 1.8 vs. 9.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.001), as well as a significant improvement in DASS scores in the probiotic yogurt (23.3 ± 3.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.7, P = 0.02) and the probiotic capsule group (18.9 ± 3.2 vs. 9.4 ± 4.0, P = 0.006). However, there was no significant improvement in the conventional yogurt group (P = 0.05 for GHQ and P = 0.08 for DASS). Discussion: The consumption of probiotic yogurt or a multispecies probiotic capsule had beneficial effects on mental health parameters in petrochemical workers.
... A trial of 60 adults with major depressive disorder showed greater reductions on the Beck Depression Inventory for participants who were randomized to receive a B-complex formula compared with those receiving a placebo (Lewis et al., 2013). In other research, compared with a placebo control group, nonclinical samples who consumed a complex nutrient formula showed improved mood and decreases in anxiety and perceived stress Stough et al., 2011), although not all trials have documented benefit in nonclinical samples (Cockle, Haller, Kimber, Dawe, & Hindmarch, 2000;Haskell et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
We live in a transformational moment for understanding the etiology of mental disorders. The previous leap in understanding occurred 60 years ago, which led us to incorporate psychopharmacology into our curricula to address the chemical basis of neurotransmitter function, especially as explained through the then-popular catecholamine hypothesis. The current revolution is broader, consisting of the rapidly accumulating knowledge of how inflammation, microbiome imbalance (gut dysbiosis), oxidative stress, and impaired mitochondrial output affect brain function. Suitable interventions for fighting inflammation, restoring normal gut function, reducing oxidative stress, and improving mitochondrial metabolism incorporate lifestyle variables, including nutrients and probiotics. This article invites readers to stay abreast of this emerging model of the biological basis of mental illness, given that it has particular relevance for those readers interested in alleviating the suffering of individuals with mental disorders. This overview describes the basis for a new field in mental health: nutritional psychiatry/psychology.
... 479). FV also contain B-vitamins and complex carbohydrates that promote the synthesis of neurotransmitters involved in mood, including dopamine and serotonin (Rao et al., 2008; Rooney et al., 2013; Stough et al., 2011; Wurtman et al., 2003). B-vitamins play a further role in mitochondrial energy function, which could stimulate feelings of vitality and engagement (Depeint et al., 2006). ...
Article
Objectives: Our aim was to determine whether eating fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with other markers of well-being beyond happiness and life satisfaction. Towards this aim, we tested whether FV consumption is associated with greater eudaemonic well-being - a state of flourishing characterized by feelings of engagement, meaning, and purpose in life. We also tested associations with two eudaemonic behaviours - curiosity and creativity. Design: Daily diary study across 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). Methods: A sample of 405 young adults (67% women; mean age 19.9 [SD 1.6] years) completed an Internet daily diary for 13 consecutive days. Each day, participants reported on their consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, and chips, as well as their eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, creativity, positive affect (PA), and negative affect. Between-person associations were analysed on aggregated data. Within-person associations were analysed using multilevel models controlling for weekday and weekend patterns. Results: Fruit and vegetables consumption predicted greater eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, and creativity at the between- and within-person levels. Young adults who ate more FV reported higher average eudaemonic well-being, more intense feelings of curiosity, and greater creativity compared with young adults who ate less FV. On days when young adults ate more FV, they reported greater eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, and creativity compared with days when they ate less FV. FV consumption also predicted higher PA, which mostly did not account for the associations between FV and the other well-being variables. Few unhealthy foods (sweets, chips) were related to well-being except that consumption of sweets was associated with greater curiosity and PA at the within-person level. Lagged data analyses showed no carry-over effects of FV consumption onto next-day well-being (or vice versa). Conclusions: Although these patterns are strictly correlational, this study provides the first evidence that FV consumption may be related to a broader range of well-being states that signal human flourishing in early adulthood. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There is growing evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables (FV) is related to greater happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect. These associations are not entirely explained by demographic or health variables including socio-economic status, exercise, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). Recent experimental and daily diary research suggests that FV consumption may be a causal factor in promoting states of positive well-being. Research has examined the links between FV consumption and hedonic well-being - whether people feel good (vs. bad) and satisfied-but has not addressed links between FV consumption and eudaemonic well-being- whether people feel engaged and experience their lives as meaningful and purposeful. What does this study add? It provides the first evidence that eating FV is related to greater eudaemonic well-being in a naturalistic setting. Eating FV was also related to greater self-reported curiosity and creativity. FV consumption may underlie a broad range of experiences that signal flourishing. Future randomised controlled trials of FV should include measures of eudaemonic well-being as outcome variables.
... The other four studies similarly showed positive effects on fatigue and mental clarity. [272][273][274][275] Subsequent to the meta-analysis, an independent 4-month RDBPCT of a commercial formulation (Swisse Ultivite F1 Formula) in 138 healthy adults (ages 20-50) confirmed the meta-analysis findings of no change in mood measures, but some evidence of improved anxiety and physical fatigue scores, 276,277 including subjects' narrative reports describing an improved sense of well-being. 278 As in the cognition studies, older adults (!50 years old) showed inconsistent results, with mood improvements in only 2 178,269 of 6 studies. ...
Article
Several different vitamins and minerals appear to be effective augmenting agents for mood-modifying drugs, but are not potent monotherapies in themselves for treating psychiatric disorders. In contrast, broad-spectrum micronutrient interventions appear in early trials to be as effective as psychiatric medications with fewer adverse effects for treating mood disorders, ADHD, aggressivity, and misconduct in youth and adults. Broad-spectrum treatments also may improve stress responses, cognition, and sense of well-being in healthy adults, but have been less well studied in youth. Current clinical data justify an extensive expansion of research on micronutrient mechanisms and treatments in psychiatry.
... Basic descriptive knowledge on the type and source of workplace violence will not only help inform theoretical frameworks but also yield the insight needed in order to tailor more effective interventions to prevent such victimizations from occurring. Recently, studies have shown that health-related initiatives, such as fitness and wellness programs (Gebhardt & Crump, 1990), stress management interventions (Limm et al., 2011) and multivitamin supplement administration (Stough et al., 2011), can reduce the experience of workplace stress. As workplace stress is associated with workplace violence, evaluations of programs designed to alleviate workplace stressors would seem important. ...
Article
Since the highly publicized U.S. Postal violence cases in the 1980s, workplace aggression and workplace violence have been the source of much public discussion and concern. Yet, the topic has only recently received sustained empirical attention—most of which has come from the organizational management and business fields. This article provides a review of the empirical research literature on workplace violence in several databases from 2000 to 2012. Our review uncovers that different occupational domains have different experiences with workplace violence, while some occupations are subject to distinct types of violence by unique aggressors. Directions for future theoretical and empirical research are highlighted.
... In the same study, perceived stress was reduced in the active treatment group, which is consistent with the findings of several other trials. For example, multivitamin supplementation reduced scores on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale in an eight-week study (DASS [16]), reduced occupational stress in a 90-day trial [17] and ameliorated negative mood in response to an acute laboratory stressor following a nine-week supplementation regimen [18]. ...
... After 28 days of supplementation, significant reductions in anxiety and perceived stress were reported (Carroll et al., 2000). Similarly, a B-vitamin complex/mineral supplement decreased ratings of stress (Kennedy et al., 2010), and when measured in a work situation, a vitamin B complex supplement was found to decrease reports of 'personal strain' (Stough et al., 2011). In healthy older men, a multivitamin/mineral supplement reduced scores on a stress scale (Harris et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Objectives Although a series of well-designed studies have reported that supplementation with vitamins/minerals and omega-3 fatty acids reduces the incidence of aggressive behavior, to date, the relative contribution and interaction between these nutrients has not been examined. The aim was therefore to consider the relative contribution of supplementation with multivitamins/minerals and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on laboratory-based measures of aggression, impulsivity, and stress. Methods In a double-blind randomized trial, four groups of young adult men without a history of aggressive or impulsive behavior received a placebo (n = 42), multivitamins/minerals (n = 43), DHA (n = 47) or both (n = 41) for 3 months. Results With the Picture-Frustration Task, DHA decreased the display of aggressive behavior. DHA also decreased impulsivity as measured using the GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm that examines the ability to inhibit already initiated behavior. Although a multivitamin and mineral supplement did not influence these measures, it did decrease perceived stress. Conclusions The influence of supplementation on aggression and impulsivity can be conveniently studied in a sample without a history of antisocial behavior, using laboratory-based measures. No evidence was found of a synergistic interaction between vitamins/minerals and DHA.
... In the same study, perceived stress was reduced in the active treatment group, which is consistent with the findings of several other trials. For example, multivitamin supplementation reduced scores on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale in an eight-week study (DASS [16]), reduced occupational stress in a 90-day trial [17] and ameliorated negative mood in response to an acute laboratory stressor following a nine-week supplementation regimen [18]. As well as positive effects following chronic supplementation, some studies have raised the possibility that vitamin administration may improve behavioural outcomes acutely. ...
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Previous work has identified the positive effects of the acute administration of a multivitamin-guaraná preparation during an effortful executive/working memory task. Here, we aimed to differentiate the effects of multivitamins with and without guaraná and to examine the neural substrates of such effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, balanced crossover design, 20 participants (mean age 29 ± 5.54 years) consumed multivitamin preparations with or without guaraná (Berocca® Performance and Boost, respectively) and a placebo. Thirty minutes post-treatment, they underwent neurocognitive assessment, consisting of a 10 min Cognitive Demand Battery, with mood ratings taken immediately before and after the battery. Five additional participants underwent post-treatment fMRI scanning during Rapid Visual Information Processing and Inspection Time activation tasks. The multivitamin with guaraná treatment was associated with significantly enhanced Serial Threes performance and self-rated contentment. fMRI revealed that both multivitamin treatments increased activation in areas associated with working memory and attentional processing, with the effect being greater in the multivitamin with guaraná condition. These data confirm the acute benefits of multivitamins with guaraná on mood and cognitive performance. Furthermore, they demonstrate for the first time increased brain activation from multivitamin preparations both with and without guaraná, as measured using fMRI.
... Data from the literature have shown that high-dose B vitamin supplementation reduces depressive state, stress, anxiety, and tiredness and is important in prevention and maintenance of brain health and cognitive function [18,19,[45][46][47]. It is known that depression and anxiety are a frequent finding among BMS patients [7,8]. ...
Article
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Background: The objective of this study was to determine the most effective treatment option for burning mouth syndrome. Methods: Informative treatment alone, B vitamin injections, oral cavity probiotics, and low-level laser therapy were evaluated and compared. The study included new patients diagnosed with burning mouth syndrome, who were randomly allocated into one of four treatment groups. The primary outcome was improvement in patient's quality of life as determined by a self-perceived Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) quality of life questionnaire before and after therapy. The secondary outcome was determination of mucosal symptom intensity according to visual analog scale (VAS) grading from 0 to 10. Data were submitted to statistical analysis. Results: A total of 62 patients completed the study. Oral cavity probiotics and LLLT scores for OHIP-14 resulted in a statistically significant difference before and after therapy. Standardized effect sizes between OHIP scores before and after treatment were the greatest for patients who had received oral cavity probiotics. Conclusions: Oral cavity probiotics and LLLT were the most effective treatment for improvement in quality of life. Further investigation on a larger group of patients is required.
... However, very little experimental research has examined the clinical efficacy of stress-targeted DSs among women. Of three studies that examined DS use in relation to stress, only one trial examined only women (Haskell et al., 2010;Schlebusch et al., 2000;Stough et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Women's lives are negatively impacted by chronic psychological stress. Dietary supplement use to manage stress is prolific despite inadequate evidence to support supplementation. The researchers used Participatory Action Research to examine the experience of living with stress and the role that diet and/or dietary supplements played in the self-reported ability to manage stress among community dwelling women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit eight women. Focus groups were held across eight consecutive weeks wherein personal experiences of stress and dietary strategies to manage stress were audio-recorded. Verbatim transcripts of sessions, journal notes and email correspondence were analysed, identifying codes, categories and six themes: 'causes and effects of stress;' 'thinking patterns and stress;' 'confusion and skepticism about using dietary strategies to manage stress;' 'the role of relationships in experiencing stress,' '-and managing physical health and stress,' and 'stress-management strategies.' Participants experienced habitual stress responses, skepticism about dietary stress management strategies, and long-reaching physical and psychological effects on key relationships. Health professionals supporting chronically stressed women may find similar perspectives influence the choices of women they provide services to. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Sayur kangkung juga memiliki kandungan vitamin B1 sebanyak 0,17 mg per 250 gramnya (Kementerian Kesehatan, 2018b). Kandungan vitamin B dalam kangkung dapat berperan mensintesis serotonin, monoamina dan katekolamin sehingga mendorong perubahan psikologis untuk perbaikan suasana hati (Stough, et al., 2011). Sayur kangkung memiliki kandungan vitamin C sebanyak 42,5 mg per 250 gramnya (Kementerian Kesehatan, 2018b). ...
Article
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High stress levels in adolescents can cause mental health disorders such as anxiety. Kangkong vegetables has nutrients superior in reducing anxiety, in 250 grams of kangkong vegetables contains carbohydrates (9,7 g), vitamin B1 (0,17 mg), vitamin C (42,5 mg), calcium (167,5 mg), zinc (1 mg), iron (5,7 mg), potassium (625,2 mg), sodium (162,5 mg), flavonoids, alkaloids and steroids for metabolism and increased hormone in the brain such as BDNF, GABA, serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine which reduce anxiety. Swimming has superior as a recreational effort in reducing anxiety, also keeps the body fit and relaxed for metabolism and increased hormones in the brain such as BDNF, GABA, serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine which reduce anxiety. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of kangkong vegetables and swimming in the intensity of anxiety in adolescent. The study uses a quasi-experimental study design pre-post test control group design, involving 61 male students, taken from 3 senior high schools and grouped into 3: control group by giving swimming 2 times / week for 2 weeks (pool depth 120 cm and swimming duration for 60 minutes / exercise) (P0) (n=22), group by giving 250 grams of kangkong vegetables / day for 14 days (divided into 2) (P1) (n=19) and group by giving combination of kangkong vegetables and swimming (P2) (n=20). The results of the study used the ANOVA, the decrease in anxiety intensity in all groups not much different from the value (p=0.593). The conclusion this study is the giving of kangkong vegetables, swimming can reduce the intensity of anxiety in adolescent male.
... This is not an uncommon result, with studies of multivitamin supplementation for improving psychological wellbeing yielding mixed findings. Stough et al. [43] completed a 90-day RCT of Blackmores' Executive B Stress Formula Ò , reporting a positive effect for depression-dejection but not state anxiety. It is notable that these results were for a mixed gender sample. ...
Article
Background: Multivitamins are a popular supplement taken to promote physical and mental health. During periods of stress, they may have a protective role for health and wellbeing, although the current evidence of their efficacy is mixed. Objective: To determine whether multivitamin supplementation impacts psychological and inflammatory markers of women who are experiencing psychological distress. Design, setting, participants and interventions: An 8-week randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess changes in both psychological state and pro-inflammatory markers of patients receiving multivitamins or placebo. The sample comprised women who reported elevated psychological distress in the previous 4 weeks. Main outcome measures: Psychological state was assessed using Spielberger's State-Trait Personality Inventory to assess anxiety, curiosity, depression and anger. Pro-inflammatory markers comprised interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and TNF-β. Results: Improvements across time were observed for all psychological measures and cytokines, except IL-5, but were independent of the active intervention. Only TNF-β demonstrated a significant differential change between groups over the course of the intervention, in favour of multivitamin supplementation (active group mean rank decreased from 11.1 to 7.1; placebo group mean rank decreased from 8.9 to 7.8). Conclusion: The results suggest that administration of multivitamins was not effective in improving psychological state. However, some evidence supported the positive impact of multivitamin supplementation on pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles of women currently experiencing stress.
... Stress is a factor that can be a barrier to weight loss, in that individuals find diets to be stressful and many people eat in order to cope with stressful situations [60,61]. Results from animal studies [60] and clinical trials in humans [62][63][64][65][66][67][68] have demonstrated that supplementation with a combination of vitamins and minerals can decrease stress levels and improve mood. Whether or not an improvement of micronutrient status may help to reduce the stress associated with weight-loss diets remains to be elucidated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent throughout the world and can adversely affect the nutritional status of individuals. Studies have shown that many people with obesity have inadequate intake of iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, folate and vitamins A and B12, likely as a result of poor diet quality. Nutritional inadequacies or deficiencies may also occur due to altered pharmacokinetics in the individual with obesity and due to interactions in those with overweight or obesity with various pharmaceuticals. However, it has been demonstrated that the adult population in the United States as a whole is deficient in certain micronutrients as a result of the availability and overconsumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient processed foods. Poor nutrition may contribute to the development of certain chronic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, which is already more prevalent in those with obesity. Clinicians need to be aware of these gaps, particularly in those individuals with obesity who are undergoing bariatric surgery or taking pharmaceutical products long term to facilitate weight loss. Patients with overweight or obesity likely struggle to achieve a balanced diet and may benefit from consultation with a dietitian. Along with providing recommendations for healthy eating and exercise, supplementation with specific micronutrients or multivitamins should be considered for individuals at the highest risk for or with established deficiencies. Further research is needed to understand the factors underlying nutritional inadequacies in individuals with overweight or obesity, as well as the outcomes of treatment strategies employed to address them.
... B vitamins are known to play a prominent role in methylation, neurotransmitter synthesis, energy production, glucose metabolism, and inflammation reduction (Kennedy, 2016). Furthermore, there is now research, including randomized placebo-controlled trials, in settings such as workplaces and among healthy community volunteers, which has consistently shown that increasing B vitamin intake improves resilience as shown by greater reductions in reported stress in the B vitamin groups compared with placebo groups (Schlebusch et al., 2000;Stough et al., 2011;White et al., 2015). Two meta-analyses have confirmed the stress-reduction benefits of B vitamins (compared with placebo); reported between-group effect sizes (ESs) range from 0.23 to 0.35 (Long & Benton, 2013;Young et al., 2019). ...
... В том же исследовании уровень ощутимого стресса сократился в группе активного лечения, что согласуется с данными нескольких других исследований. Например, прием поливитаминных добавок снижал оценку по шкале депрессии, тревожности и стресса в 8-недельном исследовании DASS (Depression, Anxiety and Stress) [106], уменьшал профессиональный стресс в 90-дневном исследовании [107] и улучшал плохое настроение в ответ на острые лабораторные факторы, вызывающие стресс, через 9 нед приема добавок [108]. ...
... Further, Mg supplementation can reduce anxiety-related symptomology in anxiety vulnerable populations (e.g. premenstrual syndrome) [9]; particularly when administered with additional ingredients such a B vitamins which are also depleted by stress and associated with stress alleviation [10,11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Magnesium (Mg), green tea and rhodiola extracts have, in isolation, been shown to possess stress and anxiety relieving effects. Green tea and rhodiola have been shown to modulate EEG oscillatory brain activity associated with relaxation and stress perception. The combined capacity of these ingredients to confer protective effects under conditions of acute stress has yet to be examined. We tested the hypothesis that a combination of Mg (with B vitamins) + green tea + rhodiola would acutely moderate the effects of stress exposure. Methods: A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, parallel group design was employed (Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT03262376; 25/0817). One hundred moderately stressed adults received oral supplementation of either (i) Mg + B vitamins + green tea + rhodiola; (ii) Mg + B vitamins + rhodiola; (iii) Mg + B vitamins + green tea; or (iv) placebo. After supplementation participants were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test. The effects of the study treatments on electroencephalogram (EEG) resting state alpha and theta, subjective state/mood, blood pressure, heart rate variability and salivary cortisol responses after acute stress exposure were assessed. Results: The combined treatment significantly increased EEG resting state theta (p < .02) - considered indicative of a relaxed, alert state, attenuated subjective stress, anxiety and mood disturbance, and heightened subjective and autonomic arousal (p < .05). Conclusions: Mg, B vitamins, rhodiola and green tea extracts are a promising combination of ingredients that may enhance coping capacity and offer protection from the negative effects of stress exposure.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03262376.
... 8 Furthermore, earlier studies have shown that occupational exposure to aromatic compounds would result in continuous production of reactive oxygen species and free radicals, which in turn causes oxidative stress, immune suppression, damage of DNA, RNA, and proteins by chemical reactions such as oxidation, nitration, and halogenations in petrochemical workers. 9,10 In total, various strategies, including having a proper diet pattern, 11 an antioxidant-rich diet such as vitamins, 12 and the administration of antioxidants 13 have been proposed for the management of mood disorders and job stress among workers. Evidences emerging from the intestinal microbiota of the central nervous system performance have shown that oral administration of probiotics may have beneficial effects on mood and psychological problems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Studies have shown that probiotics may decrease anxiety symptoms, but to our knowledge so far no trial has investigated the effects of probiotics in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of probiotics as adjunctive therapy on anxiety severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with GAD. Methods: Forty-eight drug-free patients with a diagnosis of GAD based on DSM-V criteria were randomly assigned to two groups to receive daily either one capsule of probiotics or placebo in addition to 25 mg sertraline for 8 weeks. Probiotic capsules contained 18*10⁹ CFU Bifidobacterium longom, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria. Results: Intention to treat analysis was performed in 39 Patients who completed at least 4 weeks of the intervention. After 8 weeks, the score of Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety (HAM-A) decreased more in the probiotics + sertraline (PS) group (p = 0.003). Although the reduction of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was also more in the PS group, it was not significantly different from that of the sertraline alone(S) group. Moreover, despite the greater reduction of State-Anxiety Inventory score in the PS group, the score of Trait-Anxiety Inventory was not statistically different between the two groups at week 8. With regard to QOL, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the change of the score of QOL domains. Conclusions: Probiotics + sertraline combination was superior to sertraline alone in decreasing anxiety symptoms after 8 weeks in patients with GAD, although it did not affect QOL.
... Three of these found positive effects of supplementation by decreasing subjective stress. An additional three studies found benefits of B vitamin supplementation on stress using the BSI and PSQ [38,43,51]. In total, six of the 10 studies measuring stress found a benefit of supplementation. ...
Article
Full-text available
A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to examine and quantify the effects of B vitamin supplementation on mood in both healthy and ‘at-risk’ populations. A systematic search identified all available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of daily supplementation with ≥3 B group vitamins with an intervention period of at least four weeks. Random effects models for a standardized mean difference were used to test for overall effect. Heterogeneity was tested using the I2 statistic. Eighteen articles (16 trials, 2015 participants) were included, of which 12 were eligible for meta-analysis. Eleven of the 18 articles reported a positive effect for B vitamins over a placebo for overall mood or a facet of mood. Of the eight studies in ‘at-risk’ cohorts, five found a significant benefit to mood. Regarding individual facets of mood, B vitamin supplementation benefited stress (n = 958, SMD = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.45, p = 0.03). A benefit to depressive symptoms did not reach significance (n = 568, SMD = 0.15, 95% CI = −0.01, 0.32, p = 0.07), and there was no effect on anxiety (n = 562, SMD = 0.03, 95% CI = −0.13, 0.20, p = 0.71). The review provides evidence for the benefit of B vitamin supplementation in healthy and at-risk populations for stress, but not for depressive symptoms or anxiety. B vitamin supplementation may particularly benefit populations who are at risk due to (1) poor nutrient status or (2) poor mood status.
... In our study, homocysteine was decreased in the group that took the natural vitamin B complex, possibly because of the range of dispersion in the group taking synthetic B vitamins at the beginning of the study. This is remarkable with respect to the comparatively low vitamin B concentrations as compared to other studies [13,49]. The mere fact that the study subjects were healthy should imply an adequate antioxidant supply. ...
Article
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The vitamin B complex comprises 8 different water-soluble constituents that humans must sequester from the diet. This pilot study compared natural versus synthetic vitamin B complexes for their bioavailability, accumulation, and their impact on antioxidants, homocysteine levels, and oxidative stress. We conducted a double-blind randomized clinical trial with thirty healthy participants. They were randomly assigned to group N (natural) and group S (synthetic). Vitamin B was ingested daily for 6 weeks in the range of about 2.5 times above the recommended daily allowance. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 1.5 h, 4 h, 7 h (diurnal), 6 w (discontinuation of supplements), and 8 w (washout). Blood levels of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9), cobalamin (B12), homocysteine, total antioxidants, peroxidase activity, polyphenols, and total peroxides were determined. Compared to initial values, serum levels of each B vitamin increased at the end of the supplementation period: i.e., B1 (+23% N; +27% S), B2 (+14% N; +13% S), B6 (+101% N; +101% S), B9 (+86% N; +153% S), and B12 (+16% N) (p < 0.05). Homocysteine (-13% N) decreased, while peroxidase activity (+41% S) and antioxidant capacity increased (+26% N). Short-term effects were already observed after 1.5 h for B9 (+238% N; +246% S) and after 4 h for vitamin B2 (+7% N; +8% S), B6 (+59% N; +51% S), and peroxidase activity (+58% N; +58% S). During the washout period, serum levels of B vitamins decreased except for thiamine and peroxidase activity, which increased further. This clinical pilot study revealed comparable bioavailability for both natural and synthetic B vitamins but did not show statistically noticeable differences between groups despite some favourable tendencies within the natural vitamin group, i.e., sustained effects for cobalamin and endogenous peroxidase activity and a decrease in homocysteine and oxidative stress levels.
... Vitamins are a group of indispensable compounds for the development and normal growth of the human body. In particular, water-soluble vitamins belong to the B-group play specific and vital functions in metabolism, and their lack can cause metabolic disorder and diseases (anemia, headache, diarrhea, etc.) [24]. In order to overcome these health problems, some of these are included in energy and sport drinks to enhance their vital biological role as coenzymes and to increase mental alertness, concentration, and even mood. ...
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A bio-metal-organic framework (bio-MOF) derived from the amino acid L-serine has been prepared in bulk form and evaluated as sorbent for the molecular recognition and extraction of B-vitamins. The functional pores of bio-MOF exhibit high amounts of hydroxyl groups jointly directing other supramolecular host-guest interactions thus providing the recognition of B-vitamins in fruit juices and energy drinks. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal the specific B-vitamin binding sites and the existence of multiple hydrogen bonds between these target molecules and the framework. It offered unique snapshots to accomplish an efficient capture of these solutes in complex aqueous matrices. Four B-vitamins (thiamin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and pyridoxine) were investigated. They were eluted from the sorbent with phosphate buffer at pH 7 and analyzed by HPLC with UV detection. The sorbent was compared with commercial C18 cartridges. Following the procedure, acceptable reproducibility (RSD values < 14%) was achieved, and the detection limits were in the range 0.4 to 1.4 ng mL−1. The method was applied to the analysis of energy drink and juice samples and the recoveries were between 75 and 123% in spiked beverage samples. A bio-MOF as SPE sorbent was prepared and applied to the extraction of B-vitamins in fruit juices and energy drinks.
... B vitamins are known to play a prominent role in methylation, neurotransmitter synthesis, energy production, glucose metabolism, and inflammation reduction (Kennedy, 2016). Furthermore, there is now research, including randomized placebo-controlled trials, in settings such as workplaces and among healthy community volunteers, which has consistently shown that increasing B vitamin intake improves resilience as shown by greater reductions in reported stress in the B vitamin groups compared with placebo groups (Schlebusch et al., 2000;Stough et al., 2011;White et al., 2015). Two meta-analyses have confirmed the stress-reduction benefits of B vitamins (compared with placebo); reported between-group effect sizes (ESs) range from 0.23 to 0.35 (Long & Benton, 2013;Young et al., 2019). ...
Article
Natural (e.g., earthquake, flood, wildfires) and human-made (e.g., terrorism, civil strife) disasters are inevitable, can cause extensive disruption, and produce chronic and disabling psychological injuries leading to formal diagnoses (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]). Following natural disasters of earthquake (Christchurch, Aotearoa/New Zealand, 2010–11) and flood (Calgary, Canada, 2013), controlled research showed statistically and clinically significant reductions in psychological distress for survivors who consumed minerals and vitamins (micronutrients) in the following months. Following a mass shooting in Christchurch (March 15, 2019), where a gunman entered mosques during Friday prayers and killed and injured many people, micronutrients were offered to survivors as a clinical service based on translational science principles and adapted to be culturally appropriate. In this first translational science study in the area of nutrition and disasters, clinical results were reported for 24 clients who completed the Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), and the Modified-Clinical Global Impression (M-CGI-I). The findings clearly replicated prior controlled research. The IES-R Cohen’s d ESs were 1.1 (earthquake), 1.2 (flood), and 1.13 (massacre). Effect sizes (ESs) for the DASS subscales were also consistently positive across all three events. The M-CGI-I identified 58% of the survivors as “responders” (i.e., self-reported as “much” to “very much” improved), in line with those reported in the earthquake (42%) and flood (57%) randomized controlled trials, and PTSD risk reduced from 75% to 17%. Given ease of use and large ESs, this evidence supports the routine use of micronutrients by disaster survivors as part of governmental response.
... Human diet has a direct effect on brain development and functionality, with studies pointing toward the efficacy of vitamin and mineral supplementation in preventing and alleviating nervous system diseases (Reynolds 2006;Smithells et al. 1976). In healthy humans, multivitamin supplementation has been shown to improve cognitive performance and reduce negative mood states, including depression, anxiety, and stress (Haskell et al. 2008;Stough et al. 2011;White et al. 2015). In the clinic, folate fortification during early pregnancy is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube and other congenital malformations in developing fetuses (Devakumar et al. 2016;van Gool et al. 2018). ...
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RationaleB vitamins play essential roles in brain development and functionality; however, the effects of their deficiency during early life on mental health are not thoroughly understood.Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a maternal deficiency of vitamin B6, B9 (folate), and B12 on behavioral changes in adult offspring.Methods Female C57BL/6 J mice were put on a diet lacking vitamin B6, B9, B12, or the above three vitamins from pregnancy to weaning. The growth and developmental characteristics of both the pregnant mothers and offspring were collected. In the adult offspring, the serum levels of neuroactive substances were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The level of BDNF and dimethylated lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me2) was detected by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, their depressive-like behaviors, anxiety-like behaviors, and sociability were recorded using sucrose preference, a forced swim, social interaction, tail suspension, and open field tests.ResultsThe maternal deficiency of the three B vitamins delayed offspring development. Compared to the controls, all of the groups showed decreased serum levels of 5-HT and neuropeptide Y. In the groups with deficiency of B9 or the three B vitamins, there were significant changes in sociability and social novelty preference. In groups with deficiencies in B9, B12, or all three B vitamins, the expression levels of BDNF and H3K9me2 in the hippocampus were significantly decreased.Conclusions Maternal deficiencies of the major B vitamins caused changes in social behaviors in adult mice accompanied with epigenetic alterations in the brain and changes in the serum levels of neuroactive substances.
... In consideration of the body of evidence available products containing B-group vitamins as the predominant active components were considered appropriate and scored with 2 points. [19][20][21] Data was evaluated to provide descriptive statistics regarding consent, questioning, counselling, and product suggestion. A second analysis was undertaken to assess the relationship between the quality of the pharmacist-SP interaction as determined by the Total CARE Score, and the appropriateness of the product, as measured by the Product Efficacy Score. ...
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Background: Community pharmacists are often the first health professional approached to provide treatment for health issues, including the important mental health challenge, stress. Over-the-counter products for stress almost always are complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) and in Australia no protocol exists for their recommendation and sale in community pharmacies. Objective: To assess the quality and relevance of community pharmacists' information gathering (questioning), counselling and product selection when interacting with customers requesting a CAM product for stress and consequently determine whether Australian pharmacy practice indicates the need for guidelines similar to those provided for 'pharmacy only' (S2) and 'pharmacist only' (S3) medicines. Methods: A covert simulated patient was used to investigate the response of pharmacists to a request for a natural product for stress. The SPs documented the details of the pharmacist-simulated patient interaction immediately on leaving the pharmacy and then re-entered the pharmacy to debrief the pharmacist. The quality of the interaction was scored as a Total CARE (check, assess, respond, explain) Score, based on anticipated questions and counselling advice. The appropriateness of the product was scored as a Product Efficacy Score, based on evidence-based literature. Results: Data from 100 pharmacies was provided. Information gathering illustrated by the questioning components Check and Assess (C and A) of the total CARE score by pharmacists was poor. The number of questions asked ranged from zero (13 pharmacists) to 7 (four pharmacists), the average being 3.1 (SD 1.9). Provision of advice was generally better (a description of the suggested product was offered by 87 pharmacists) but was lacking in other areas (duration of use and side effects were explained by only 41 and 16 pharmacists respectively). The most common product suggested was B-group vitamins (57 pharmacists) followed by a proprietary flower essence product (19 pharmacists). A two-step cluster analysis revealed two sub-groups of pharmacists: one cluster (74 pharmacists) with a high Total CARE score provided an appropriate product. The other cluster (20 pharmacists) had a low total CARE score and provided an inappropriate product. Conclusions: The pharmacy visits revealed major shortcomings in questioning, counselling and product recommendation. There is a need to develop guidelines for pharmacists to make evidence-based decisions in recommending complementary and alternative medicine.
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A number of randomised controlled trials have indicated that multivitamin/mineral supplementation for a period of 4 weeks or greater can enhance mood and cognition. To date, no studies have investigated whether a single multivitamin dose can benefit mental function in older adults. This study investigated the acute effects of a single multivitamin and mineral and herbal (MVMH) supplement versus placebo on self ratings of mood and the performance of an effortful computerised cognitive battery in a sample of 76 healthy women aged 50-75 years. Mood was assessed using the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS), state trait anxiety inventory-state anxiety scale and visual analogue scales (VAS). Mood was rated at 1 h post supplementation and again after the competition of the cognitive assessments at 2 h post supplementation. It was demonstrated that the MVMH supplement improved overall DASS mood ratings; however, the most prominent effects appeared to be a reduction in ratings of perceived mental stress. These findings were confirmed using visual analogue scales, with these measures also demonstrating MVMH-related increased ratings of calmness. There were no benefits of the MVMH to mood ratings of depression and performance was not enhanced on the cognitive battery. Supplementation with a single multivitamin, mineral and herbal supplement reduces stress several hours after intake in healthy older people.
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Background: Workplace stress in Australia and other western countries has been steadily increasing over the past decade. It can be observed not only in terms of increased compensation claims but also costs due to absenteeism, loss of productivity at work and reduced psychological and physiological health and well-being. Given the cost and pervasive effects of stress in the modern workforce, time efficient and cost-effective interventions capable of reducing occupational stress (or strain) and burnout are urgently required for the improved well-being of stressed employees. One intervention gaining scientific traction is supplementation with nutritional interventions, particularly the B group vitamins. Methods: This study was developed to examine the effects of B group vitamins on workplace stress and mood variables with a sample of full-time employed older adults who subjectively report feeling stressed. The study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups clinical trial where 200 (N = 100/group) participants will be randomized to receive Blackmores® Executive B Stress Formula or placebo daily for a period of 6 months. Participants will be tested at baseline and 6 months post-randomization on workplace stress, cognitive, personality and mood measures, cardiovascular (brachial and aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as arterial stiffness), biochemical (assays to measure inflammation and safety) as well as genetic assessments (to assess stress processing) and neuroimaging measures (to investigate in vivo mechanisms of action of B vitamins). In addition to this pre- and post- supplementation testing, participants will also complete a battery of self-report questionnaires online to assess their stress and mood once a month for the duration of the study. The primary aim of the study is to investigate the effects of B vitamin supplementation on work related stress. The secondary aims are to explore the mechanisms underpinning any changes in mood or workplace stress due to the B vitamin intervention by examining relationships between cognitive, biological, neuroimaging and cardiovascular variables over 6 months. A subset of 40 participants (N = 20/group) will undergo neuroimaging at baseline and at 6 months using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in order to further explore in vivo mechanisms of action of B vitamins. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR):ACTRN12613000294752.
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Although there is evidence that omega-3 fatty acids (FA), vitamins and minerals may be involved in the regulation of mood, to date the evidence is limited. An aim of this study was to explore the effects of either vitamins and minerals or DHA on non-clinical mood and mild psychiatric symptoms. A second aim was to examine the effects of a combination of these nutrients with the expectation that there would be a synergistic action. This double-blind trial randomly assigned 173 healthy young adult males for 12 weeks to one of four experimental groups – vitamins and minerals + placebo; DHA + placebo; vitamins and minerals + DHA; and placebo + placebo. DHA significantly enhanced energy and there was also a trend for vitamins and minerals when administered alone to have a positive effect. The vitamins and minerals group felt significantly more clearheaded. Notably, the combination of vitamins, minerals and DHA exerted a negative effect on energy levels and clearheadedness. With regards to mild psychiatric symptoms, although there were no significant differences between groups, there was a trend for vitamins and minerals to have a beneficial effect on overall psychological functioning. Again, a combination of vitamins, minerals and DHA was less effective than either supplement alone. In summary, although either DHA or vitamins and minerals may have a beneficial effect on mood in young healthy males, the present study found no evidence for a synergistic action between these nutrients. In contrast a combination of these nutrients may be detrimental to some aspects of mood.
Chapter
An integrative assessment and diagnosis of each individual is fundamental to identifying root causes for an appropriate intervention. The NIBLETS assessment was developed as a way to assess factors that are affecting nutrient metabolism. The NIBLETS model is named for its seven components: Nutrient deficiencies/insufficiencies, Inflammation/immunity, Biochemical individuality (genetic/epigenetic influences on chronic disease), Lifestyle factors, Energy, Toxic load, and Stress and sleep. Further descriptions of each NIBLETS component are provided in this textbook. This chapter specifically focuses on NIBLETS and the nutrition assessment. IFMNT skills start with the medical condition or symptoms, and then an assessment is completed using the NIBLETS differential. The evidence gathered is the baseline to consider corrective interventions where nutritional injuries/altered nutrition status have been identified. In order to intervene at the root cause of any condition, the status of the building blocks must first be thoroughly evaluated. Nutrients are the foundation for the body’s metabolic processes that ultimately determine one’s health. Assessing nutritional status through an integrative look at nutrient sufficiency, immunity, biochemical individuality, lifestyle, energy balance, sleep, and stress provides a more complete picture of what interventions need to be made to meet nutritional demands and push a patient toward health and away from disease.
Chapter
This chapter will present evidence from human clinical trials regarding the efficacy of nutritional supplements which have emerged in recent years as viable treatments for anxiety disorders. B vitamins Magnesium Lysine and Arginine Myo-Inositol N-Acetyl-cysteine
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Healthy eating adds to health and thereby contributes to a longer life, but will it also add to a happier life? Some people do not like healthy food, and since we spend a considerable amount of our life eating, healthy eating could make their life less enjoyable. Is there such a trade-off between healthy eating and happiness? Or instead a trade-on, healthy eating adding to happiness? Or do the positive and negative effects balance? If there is an effect of healthy eating on happiness, is that effect similar for everybody? If not, what kind of people profit from healthy eating happiness wise and what kind of people do not? If healthy eating does add to happiness, does it add linearly or is there some optimum for healthy ingredients in one’s diet? I considered the results published in 20 research reports on the relation between nutrition and happiness, which together yielded 47 findings. I reviewed these findings, using a new technique. The findings were entered in an online ‘findings archive’, the World Database of Happiness, each described in a standardized format on a separate ‘findings page’ with a unique internet address. In this paper, I use links to these finding pages and this allows us to summarize the main trends in the findings in a few tabular schemes. Together, the findings provide strong evidence of a causal effect of healthy eating on happiness. Surprisingly, this effect is not fully mediated by better health. This pattern seems to be universal, the available studies show only minor variations across people, times and places. More than three portions of fruits and vegetables per day goes with the most happiness, how many more for what kind of persons is not yet established.
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Yeast based spreads (YBS) such as marmite and vegemite, made from leftover brewer’s yeast extract are one of the world’s richest source of B vitamins. We evaluated symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress scores (DASS) in participants who consume or do not consume YBS. 520 participants completed a survey consisting of 70–94 questions relating to the consumption of YBS, dietary and lifestyle habits and mood symptoms of DASS. Parametric analysis co-varying for gender, diet, supplement use, soy milk and alcohol consumption and history of psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety were utilized to analyse the results. A significant improvement was noted in anxiety and stress but not depressive symptoms in those consuming YBS. Furthermore, those who consumed vitamin B12 fortified YBS showed even greater improvement in stress symptomology. Vitamin B supplementation appears to be an important additive supplementary source to improved stress and anxiety in the general adult population.
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Decades of research have reported only weak associations between the intakes of specific foods or drinks and weight gain and obesity. Randomized controlled dietary intervention trials have only shown very modest effects of changes in nutrient intake and diet composition on body weight in obese subjects. This review summarizes the scientific evidence on the role mental stress (either in or not in association with impaired sleep) may play in poor sleep, enhanced appetite, cravings and decreased motivation for physical activity. All these factors contribute to weight gain and obesity, possibly via decreasing the efficacy of weight loss interventions. We also review evidence for the role that lifestyle and stress management may play in achieving weight loss in stress-vulnerable individuals with overweight.
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The authors investigated empirical research into occupational stress interventions conducted in Australia within the past 10 years. They focused on evidence published and the quality of the evidence base. All intervention studies were conducted in the public sector. Only 1 study reached the gold standard in evidence-based research. Most interventions were individually focused, despite the preponderance of research identifying risky work environment stressors. Results suggest a paucity of published information regarding what works with occupational stress interventions in Australia and an urgent need for further research in the area, particularly focusing on the private sector, rural workers, and scientific evaluation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In recent years, the Australian university sector has undergone large-scale organizational change, including restructuring, downsizing and government funding cuts. At the same time, research from across the globe reports an alarming increase in the occupational stress experienced by university staff. We report on the first phase of a longitudinal investigation of occupational stress. A total of 22 focus groups were conducted with a representative sample of 178 academic and general staff from 15 Australian universities. The groups focused on understanding staff's experience of occupational stress, and perceptions of the sources, consequences and moderators of stress. Both general and academic staff reported a dramatic increase in stress during the previous 5 years. As a group, academic staff reported higher levels of stress than general staff. Five major sources of stress were identified including: insufficient funding and resources; work overload; poor management practice; job insecurity; and insufficient recognition and reward. The majority of groups reported that job-related stress was having a deleterious impact on their professional work and personal welfare. Aspects of the work environment (support from co-workers and management, recognition and achievement, high morale, flexible working conditions), and personal coping strategies (stress management techniques, work/non-work balance, tight role boundaries and lowering standards), were reported to help staff cope with stress. The findings provide a timely insight into the experience of stress within universities. Copyright: 2001 Taylor & Francis Ltd
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This article presents results from a study of occupational stress in Australian university staff. The authors report data on psychological strain and job satisfaction from nearly 9,000 respondents at 17 universities. Academic staff were generally worse off than general staff, and staff in newer universities were worse off than those in older universities. At the aggregate level, selfreport measures of psychological well-being were highly correlated with objective measures of university well-being (investment income, student–staff ratios, and recent cuts in staffing levels and in government operating grants). The authors conclude that the financial difficulties imposed on Australian universities in recent years are having serious consequences for the psychological well-being of their staff, particularly academic staff (faculty). Copyright 2003 by the Educational Publishing Foundation
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A significant proportion of the general population report supplementing their diet with one or more vitamins or minerals, with common reasons for doing so being to combat stress and fatigue and to improve mental functioning. Few studies have assessed the relationship between supplementation with vitamins/minerals and psychological functioning in healthy cohorts of non-elderly adults. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial assessed the cognitive and mood effects of a high-dose B-complex vitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca(R)) in 215 males aged 30 to 55 years, who were in full-time employment. Participants attended the laboratory prior to and on the last day of a 33-day treatment period where they completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Cognitive performance and task-related modulation of mood/fatigue were assessed with the 60 min cognitive demand battery. On the final day, participants also completed the Stroop task for 40 min whilst engaged in inclined treadmill walking and subsequent executive function was assessed. Vitamin/mineral supplementation led to significant improvements in ratings on the PSS, GHQ-12 and the 'vigour' subscale of the POMS. The vitamin/mineral group also performed better on the Serial 3s subtractions task and rated themselves as less 'mentally tired' both pre- and post-completion of the cognitive demand battery. Healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation. Specifically, supplementation led to improved ratings of stress, mental health and vigour and improved cognitive performance during intense mental processing.
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This study examined the association between long working hours and cognitive function in middle age. Data were collected in 1997–1999 (baseline) and 2002–2004 (follow-up) from a prospective study of 2,214 British civil servants who were in full-time employment at baseline and had data on cognitive tests and covariates. A battery of cognitive tests (short-term memory, Alice Heim 4-I, Mill Hill vocabulary, phonemic fluency, and semantic fluency) were measured at baseline and at follow-up. Compared with working 40 hours per week at most, working more than 55 hours per week was associated with lower scores in the vocabulary test at both baseline and follow-up. Long working hours also predicted decline in performance on the reasoning test (Alice Heim 4-I). Similar results were obtained by using working hours as a continuous variable; the associations between working hours and cognitive function were robust to adjustments for several potential confounding factors including age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, income, physical diseases, psychosocial factors, sleep disturbances, and health risk behaviors. This study shows that long working hours may have a negative effect on cognitive performance in middle age.
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To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the baseline examination (1985-8) and twice during follow up a self report questionnaire provided information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of the work environment were obtained from personnel managers at baseline. Mean length of follow up was 5.3 years. London based office staff in 20 civil service departments. 10,308 civil servants aged 35-55 were examined-6895 men (67%) and 3413 women (33%). New cases of angina (Rose questionnaire), severe pain across the chest, diagnosed ischaemic heart disease, and any coronary event. Men and women with low job control, either self reported or independently assessed, had a higher risk of newly reported coronary heart disease during follow up. Job control assessed on two occasions three years apart, although intercorrelated, had cumulative effects on newly reported disease. Subjects with low job control on both occasions had an odds ratio for any subsequent coronary event of 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.34 to 2.77) compared with subjects with high job control at both occasions. This association could not be explained by employment grade, negative affectivity, or classic coronary risk factors. Job demands and social support at work were not related to the risk of coronary heart disease. Low control in the work environment is associated with an increased risk of future coronary heart disease among men and women employed in government offices. The cumulative effect of low job control assessed on two occasions indicates that giving employees more variety in tasks and a stronger say in decisions about work may decrease the risk of coronary heart disease.
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Twelve healthy volunteers received oral placebo, 250 mg of caffeine, and 500 mg of caffeine in a randomized, double-blind, single-dose crossover study. Caffeine kinetics were nonlinear, with clearance significantly reduced and elimination half-life prolonged at the 500-mg compared to the 250-mg dose. The lower dose of caffeine produced more favorable subjective effects than the higher dose (elation, peacefulness, pleasantness), whereas unpleasant effects (tension, nervousness, anxiety, excitement, irritability, nausea, palpitations, restlessness) following the 500-mg dose exceeded those of the 250-mg dose. The lower dose of caffeine enhanced performance on the digit symbol substitution test and a tapping speed test compared to placebo; high-dose caffeine produced less performance enhancement than the lower dose. The plasma concentration versus response relationship revealed concentration-dependent increases in anxiety and improvements in cognitive and motor performance at low to intermediate concentrations. Both caffeine doses reduced electroencephalographic amplitude over the 4 Hz to 30 Hz spectrum, as well as in the alpha (8-11 Hz) and beta (12-30 Hz) ranges; however, effects were not dose-dependent. While favorable subjective and performance-enhancing stimulant effects occur at low to intermediate caffeine doses, the unfavorable subjective and somatic effects, as well as performance disruption, from high doses of caffeine may intrinsically limit the doses of caffeine used in the general population.
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To assess the effects of a multivitamin-mineral combination (Berocca Calmag) treatment on stress in a large sample of South Africans. This was a multiple-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled, double-centre study. Patients were drawn from two centres with high stress levels (Durban and Johannesburg), each study recruiting the same number of patients (150) from 1,000 adults with predetermined high stress levels. Dropouts from the study were replaced. Study medication safety was evaluated by recording adverse events. On day 1 (baseline) patients were subjected to an individual in-depth assessment that included a biographical questionnaire, four psychological scales, and collateral information from close relatives. On day 30 (end of the study period) or at the latest 7 days after the last planned medication intake, the assessment was repeated for purposes of pre- and post-response comparison. Thirty-three patients dropped out and were replaced, leaving 300 patients who completed the study--151 in group 1 (multivitamin-mineral combination), and 149 in group 2 (placebo). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding demographics and baseline stress scores at study entry. Both groups improved between baseline and the end of treatment as assessed. The degree of improvement was statistically significant and greatest in group 1 for all psychometric instruments, with this beneficial effect increasing over the course of the day. Subgroup analyses for age (18-44 and 45-65 years), gender and ethnicity showed no general effect on the overall study outcome. The multivitamin-mineral combination tested is well tolerated and can be used as part of a treatment programme for stress-related symptoms at the recommended dose.
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The consumption of polyphenols is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Avenanthramides (AV), alkaloids occurring only in oats, may have anti-atherosclerotic activity, but there is no information concerning their bioavailability and bioactivity in humans. We characterized the pharmacokinetics and antioxidant action of avenanthramide A, B, and C in healthy older adults in a randomized, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover trial with 1-wk washout periods. Six free-living subjects (3 mol/L, 3 F; 60.8 +/- 3.6 y) consumed 360 mL skim milk alone (placebo) or containing 0.5 or 1 g avenanthramide-enriched mixture (AEM) extracted from oats. Plasma samples were collected over a 10-h period. Concentrations of AV-A, AV-B, and AV-C in the AEM were 154, 109, and 111 micromol/g, respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations of AV (free + conjugated) after consumption of 0.5 and 1 g AEM were 112.9 and 374.6 nmol/L for AV-A, 13.2 and 96.0 nmol/L for AV-B, and 41.4 and 89.0 nmol/L for AV-C, respectively. Times to reach the C(max) for both doses were 2.30, 1.75, and 2.15 h for AV-A, AV-B, and AV-C and half times for elimination were 1.75, 3.75, and 3.00 h, respectively. The elimination kinetics of plasma AV appeared to follow first-order kinetics. The bioavailability of AV-A was 4-fold larger than that of AV-B at the 0.5 g AEM dose. After consumption of 1 g AEM, plasma reduced glutathione was elevated by 21% at 15 min (P < or = 0.005) and by 14% at 10 h (P < or = 0.05). Thus, oat AV are bioavailable and increase antioxidant capacity in healthy older adults.
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This paper reports on a study of manager perceptions of the cost to employers of on-the-job employee illness, sometimes termed 'presenteeism,' for various types of jobs. Using methods developed previously, the authors analyzed data from a survey of more than 800 US managers to determine the characteristics of various jobs and the relationship of those characteristics to the manager's view of the cost to the firm of absenteeism and presenteeism. Jobs with characteristics that suggest unusually high cost (relative to wages) were similar in terms of their 'absenteeism multipliers' and their 'presenteeism multipliers.' Jobs with high values of team production, high requirements for timely output, and high difficulties of substitution for absent or impaired workers had significantly higher indicators of cost for both absenteeism and presenteeism, although substitution was somewhat less important for presenteeism.
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In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like compounds (choline). Recent investigations with multi-ingredient formulas are especially promising. However, without a reasonable conceptual framework for understanding mechanisms by which micronutrients might influence mood, the published literature is too readily dismissed. Consequently, 4 explanatory models are presented, suggesting that mood symptoms may be expressions of inborn errors of metabolism, manifestations of deficient methylation reactions, alterations of gene expression by nutrient deficiency, and/or long-latency deficiency diseases. These models provide possible explanations for why micronutrient supplementation could ameliorate some mental symptoms.
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To determine the biological and behavioural factors linking work stress with coronary heart disease (CHD). A total of 10 308 London-based male and female civil servants aged 35-55 at phase 1 (1985-88) of the Whitehall II study were studied. Exposures included work stress (assessed at phases 1 and 2), and outcomes included behavioural risk factors (phase 3), the metabolic syndrome (phase 3), heart rate variability, morning rise in cortisol (phase 7), and incident CHD (phases 2-7) on the basis of CHD death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or definite angina. Chronic work stress was associated with CHD and this association was stronger among participants aged under 50 (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.17-2.42). There were similar associations between work stress and low physical activity, poor diet, the metabolic syndrome, its components, and lower heart rate variability. Cross-sectionally, work stress was associated with a higher morning rise in cortisol. Around 32% of the effect of work stress on CHD was attributable to its effect on health behaviours and the metabolic syndrome. Work stress may be an important determinant of CHD among working-age populations, which is mediated through indirect effects on health behaviours and direct effects on neuroendocrine stress pathways.
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Forty-seven 6-yr-old children, under a double-blind procedure, took either a placebo or a tablet containing a range of vitamins and minerals. Before taking the tablets, and after 6 wk in one school and 8 wk in another, the children took four sub-scales of the British Ability Scale, a delayed-reaction time task, and their behaviour was ethologically described when performing a difficult task. The intelligence score of those taking the active tablets increased by 7.6 points whereas the placebo was associated with a decline of 1.7 points. An examination of the sub-scales showed that the changes were primarily of non-verbal rather than verbal measures. When faced with a difficult task they were more likely to concentrate having taken the active supplement. There was a significant relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in the diet and the improvement in intelligence scores when taking the vitamin/mineral supplement.
Article
Stress is the naturally occurring mind-body response to demanding and/or emergency situations, either of a chronic or episodic nature. Properly monitored and managed, the stress response contributes to a state of optimum health and well being. When improperly managed, the stress response may lead to a variety of medical, psychological and behavioral health problems. These problems range from cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, violence, and family conflict to insomnia, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and ulcers. However, there are several stressful activities, including aerobic exercise, weight training, and flexibility training, which contribute to a number of health benefits. There are some individual differences in personality dimensions, sex, etc., which moderate the stress-health relationship.
Article
Previous work suggests that secretory immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA) reactivity is inversely related to the perceived demands of the stressor. The Defined Intensity Stressor Simulation (DISS) comprises eight stressor modules, and allows for the manipulation of stress either through increasing the number of modules, or increasing the workload of the modules. The current study assessed the effect of increasing the workload of four modules upon S-IgA reactivity and perceived demands. Participants (N = 14) attended three sessions on consecutive days where they provided a timed saliva sample immediately before and after 5 min on the DISS at low, medium and high workload. Following each session participants recorded their perceptions of the task with regard to workload and levels of stress and arousal. Perceived workload and stress, but not arousal, increased in accordance with increases in workload, however, differential S-IgA reactivity was observed. Low workload resulted in a slight increase in S-IgA secretion; medium workload elicited significant up-regulation, while down-regulation of S-IgA occurred following high workload. As DISS is analogous to a variety of working environments it is suggested that the observed S-IgA reactivity is indicative of how individuals react to multi-tasking environments when faced with increases in objective or perceived workload demands. As S-IgA levels are related to protection from illness, down-regulation of S-IgA in those who perceive greater demands may lead to greater vulnerability to ill-health. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study attempted a hierarchical integration of several dispositional determinants of test anxiety (TA) [Sarason, I.G. (1984). Stress, anxiety and cognitive interference: Reactions to tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 929–938.], namely the Big Five personality traits [Costa, P.T. Jr., & McCrae, R.R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI): Professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.], core self-evaluations (CSE) [Judge, T.A., Erez, A., Bono, J.E., & Thoreson, C.J. (2003). The Core Self-Evaluation Scale: Development of a measure. Personnel psychology, 56, 303–331.], and self-assessed intelligence (SAI) [Furnham, A. (2001). Self-estimates of intelligence: Culture and gender difference in self and other estimates of both general (g) and multiple intelligences. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 1381–1405.] in a sample of 388 US and UK university students. Structural equation models showed that TA was largely a function of Neuroticism, and that CSE and SAI do not contribute to the prediction of TA over established personality traits. Furthermore, the relationship between CSE and TA was fully accounted for by personality traits, whereas SAI was not a significant predictor of TA. The results undermine the notion that self-beliefs affect TA and suggest that wider dispositions play a salient role determining individual differences in TA. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed, particularly in regards to educational settings.
Article
A significant minority of the population consume multi-vitamins/minerals for their putative health benefits, including potentially beneficial effects on cognitive performance, fatigue and mood. The current study investigated the effect of supplementation with a multi-vitamin/mineral on fatigue and cognitive function in healthy females. In this placebo-controlled, double blind, randomized, parallel groups trial the effect of a multi-vitamin/mineral (Supradyn) was assessed in 216 females aged 25-50 years. Participants attended the laboratory before and 9 weeks after commencing treatment. During both visits cognitive function and the modulation of task related mood/fatigue were assessed in two discrete 20-min assessment periods during which participants completed a four-module version of the Multi-Tasking Framework. Those in the vitamin/mineral group exhibited an attenuation of the negative effects of extended task completion on mood/fatigue. Multi-tasking performance for this group was also improved in terms of accuracy across all tasks, and on two of the individual tasks (Mathematical Processing and Stroop) in terms of both faster and more accurate responses. Analysis of a subsection (N = 102) demonstrated significant reductions in homocysteine levels following the vitamins/mineral supplement. These findings suggest that healthy members of the general population may benefit from augmented levels of vitamins/minerals via direct dietary supplementation.
Article
Vascular disease and its risk factors have been associated with the age-related hearing loss. We examined the association of elevated plasma homocysteine and its determinants with hearing levels. Pure-tone air conduction thresholds in 728 individuals with sensorineural hearing loss were not associated with homocysteine, erythrocyte folate and Vitamin B6. Low concentrations of serum folate and Vitamin B12 were associated with better hearing. When folate status was below the median, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT homozygotes had similar hearing levels to subjects with a C allele. However, when folate status was above the median, MTHFR 677TT homozygotes had on an average 5 dB (p = 0.037) and 2.6 dB (p = 0.021) lower PTA-high and PTA-low hearing thresholds, respectively, than the subjects with a 677C allele. The relationship between serum folate and hearing thresholds appeared to be dependent on MTHFR 677 genotype (CC, r = 0.13, p = 0.034; TT, r = -0.10, p = 0.291). This supports the hypothesis that a greater one-carbon moiety commitment to de novo synthesis of nucleotides and an increase in formyl-folate derivatives relative to methyl-folate derivatives is protective for hearing.
Article
Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid whose metabolism stands at the intersection of two pathways: remethylation, which requires folic acid and vitamin B12 coenzymes; and transsulfuration, which requires pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, the vitamin B6 coenzyme. Data from a number of laboratories suggest that mild elevations of homocysteine in plasma are a risk factor for occlusive vascular disease. In the Framingham studies, we have shown that plasma homocysteine concentration is inversely related to the intake and plasma levels of folate and vitamin B6 as well as vitamin B12 plasma levels. Almost two-thirds of the prevalence of high homocysteine is attributable to low vitamin status or intake. Elevated homocysteine concentrations in plasma are a risk factor for prevalence of extracranial carotid-artery stenosis > or = 25% in both men and women. Prospectively elevated plasma homocysteine is associated with increased total and cardiovascular mortality, increased incidence of stroke, increased incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease, increased incidence of bone fracture, and higher prevalence of chronic heart failure. It was also shown that elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for preeclampsia and maybe neural tube defects (NTD). This multitude of relationships between elevated plasma homocysteine and diseases that afflict the elderly, pregnant women, and the embryo points to the existence ofa common denominator which may be responsible for these diseases. Whether this denominator is homocysteine itself or homocysteine is merely a marker, remains to be determined.
Article
Folate and vitamin B12 are required both in the methylation of homocysteine to methionine and in the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine. S-adenosylmethionine is involved in numerous methylation reactions involving proteins, phospholipids, DNA, and neurotransmitter metabolism. Both folate and vitamin B12 deficiency may cause similar neurologic and psychiatric disturbances including depression, dementia, and a demyelinating myelopathy. A current theory proposes that a defect in methylation processes is central to the biochemical basis of the neuropsychiatry of these vitamin deficiencies. Folate deficiency may specifically affect central monoamine metabolism and aggravate depressive disorders. In addition, the neurotoxic effects of homocysteine may also play a role in the neurologic and psychiatric disturbances that are associated with folate and vitamin B12 deficiency.
Article
Previous research has demonstrated that a theoretical model including measures of life stressors, social support, and coping style significantly predicts psychological distress. This study tested plasma pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency status as a predictor of overall psychological distress and specific mood states in this model, controlling for HIV-1 serostatus. Subjects included HIV-1+ (N = 76) and HIV-1- (N = 58) recently bereaved homosexual men. At baseline, subjects completed a battery of psychosocial questionnaires, together with a physical examination and venipuncture. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) provided measures of overall psychological distress as well as specific mood states. Pyridoxine deficiency status (a categorical measure of deficient vs. adequate status) was determined with a bioassay of erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase activity. Pyridoxine deficiency was a significant predictor of increased overall psychological distress in this model, controlling for life stressors, social support, coping style, and HIV-1 serostatus. In post hoc analyses of specific mood state effects, pyridoxine deficiency status was significantly associated with increases in depressed, fatigued, and confused mood levels, but not with those of anxiety, anger, or vigor. These findings suggest that adequate pyridoxine status may be necessary to avert psychological distress in the setting of bereavement. Inasmuch as pyridoxine is a cofactor for 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase--an enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of serotonin--serotonin level in the brain is implicated as the mediating factor.
Article
This investigation estimates the impact of ten modifiable health risk behaviors and measures and their impact on health care expenditures, controlling for other measured risk and demographic factors. Retrospective two-stage multivariate analyses, including logistic and linear regression models, were used to follow up 46,026 employees from six large health care purchasers for up to 3 years after they completed an initial health risk appraisal. These participants contributed 113,963 person-years of experience. Results show that employees at high risk for poor health outcomes had significantly higher expenditures than did subjects at lower risk in seven of ten risk categories: those who reported themselves as depressed (70% higher expenditures), at high stress (46%), with high blood glucose levels (35%), at extremely high or low body weight (21%), former (20%) and current (14%) tobacco users, with high blood pressure (12%), and with sedentary lifestyle (10%). These same risk factors were found to be associated with a higher likelihood of having extremely high (outlier) expenditures. Employees with multiple risk profiles for specific disease outcomes had higher expenditures than did those without these profiles for the following diseases: heart disease (228% higher expenditures), psychosocial problems (147%), and stroke (85%). Compared with prior studies, the results provide more precise estimates of the incremental medical expenditures associated with common modifiable risk factors after we controlled for multiple risk conditions and demographic confounders. The authors conclude that common modifiable health risks are associated with short-term increases in the likelihood of incurring health expenditures and in the magnitude of those expenditures.
Article
Homocysteine is an amino acid that has been strongly associated with vascular disease. Plasma homocysteine concentrations are known to vary with dietary patterns and to decrease with exogenous estrogen use, but no other behavioral factors have been examined as potential modifiers of this risk factor. Because psychological stress has also been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute psychological stress induces elevations in plasma homocysteine concentrations. A secondary aim was to test potential differences in response between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Thirty-four healthy women, one-half of whom were naturally postmenopausal with no hormone replacement, participated in this study. The psychological stressors included standard mental arithmetic and speech stressors. Blood samples were taken prior to, during, and after the stressors, and heart rate and blood pressure were also monitored. Results indicated significant elevations in plasma homocysteine during acute psychological stress, with a return to baseline concentrations during recovery. The pattern of findings for blood pressure and heart rate was similar, suggesting that the rise in homocysteine concentrations may have been sympathetically-mediated. No effects of menopausal status or endogenous estrogens were found. The findings provide preliminary evidence that plasma homocysteine may be an important factor in the relationship between psychological stress and risk for heart disease.
Article
Pyridoxine nutritional status has a significant and selective modulatory impact on central production of both serotonin and GABA - neurotransmitters which control depression, pain perception, and anxiety - owing to the fact that the decarboxylases which produce these neurotransmitters have a relatively low affinity for pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). Pyridoxine deficiency leads to increased sympathetic outflow and hypertension in rodents, possibly reflecting decreased central production of these neurotransmitters; conversely, supplemental pyridoxine lowers blood pressure in many animal models of hypertension, and there is preliminary evidence for antihypertensive activity in humans as well. Additionally, physiological levels of PLP interact with glucocorticoid receptors to down-regulate their activity. Thus, high-dose pyridoxine, by amplifying tissue levels of PLP, may be expected to have a favorable impact on certain dysphoric mental states, while diminishing sympathetic output and acting peripherally to blunt the physiological impact of corticosteroids. In light of growing evidence that chronic dysphoria, particularly when accompanied by hopelessness or cynicism, has a major negative impact on morbidity and mortality from a wide range of disorders, high intakes of pyridoxine may have the potential to improve prognosis in many individuals. With respect to cardiovascular health, reduction of homocysteine levels should contribute to this benefit. These predictions are consistent with recent epidemiology correlating plasma PLP levels with risk for vascular events and overall survival.
Article
Vitamin and mineral supplements may be associated with improved psychological status. The present study tested the effects of a multivitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca) on psychological well-being. In a double-blind randomised-control trial, 80 healthy male volunteers were assigned to either Berocca or placebo. Questionnaires measuring psychological state were completed and a blood sample taken to determine plasma zinc concentration on day 1 (pre-treatment) and again on day 28 (post-treatment), following 28 days of treatments, which were administered at a dosage of one tablet daily. At the end of the study, the acceptability of the treatment and participants' awareness of treatment condition were assessed, as was habitual dietary behaviour. Relative to placebo, treatment with Berocca was associated with consistent and statistically significant reductions in anxiety and perceived stress. Participants in the Berocca group also tended to rate themselves as less tired and better able to concentrate following treatment. In addition, participants registered more somatic symptoms following placebo than following Berocca. These effects cannot be attributed to differences in the acceptability of the two treatments or to participants guessing what treatment they received. These findings demonstrate that Berocca significantly reduces anxiety and perceived stress.
Article
The behavioral effects of acute administration of two flavonoids, apigenin and chrysin, contained in Matricaria chamomilla and in Passiflora incarnata, respectively, were studied in rats. The data demonstrate that in our experimental conditions, the two flavonoids were equally able to reduce locomotor activity when injected in rats at a minimal effective dose of 25 mg/kg. However, while chrysin exhibited a clear anxiolytic effect when injected at the dose of 1 mg/kg, apigenin failed to exert this activity. The sedative effect of these flavonoids cannot be ascribed to an interaction with GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, since it was not counteracted by the benzodiazepine antagonist Flumazenil. To the contrary, the anxiolytic effect of chrysin, which was blocked by the injection of Flumazenil, could be linked to an activation of the GABA(A) receptor unit.