Long-term outcomes in breast cancer patients undergoing immediate 2-stage expander/implant reconstruction and postmastectomy radiation

ArticleinCancer 118(9):2552-9 · May 2012with13 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26521 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Breast reconstruction with tissue expander (TE)/permanent implant (PI) followed by postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) is an increasingly popular treatment for breast cancer patients. The long-term rates of permanent implant removal or replacement (PIRR) and clinical outcomes in patients treated with a uniform reconstructive surgery and radiation regimen were evaluated. Between 1996 and 2006, 1639 patients with stage II-III breast cancer received modified radical mastectomy (MRM) at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. A total of 751 received TE placement at the time of mastectomy. Of these, 151 patients went on to receive chemotherapy and exchange of the TE for a permanent implant, followed by PMRT. Clinical outcomes and PIRR-free rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox regression model was used to examine patient, disease, and treatment characteristics associated with PIRR. Median follow-up was 86 months (range, 11-161 months). The 7-year PIRR-free rate was 71% (38 PIRRs in 35 patients). The 7-year rate of PI replacement was 17.1% (21), and removal was 13.3% (17). Reasons for PIRR included infection (15); implant extrusion, shift, leak, or rupture (4); patient request (1), or multifactorial (17). On univariate analysis, no factor was significantly associated with PIRR. Two patients experienced local recurrence in the chest wall, both after 7 years. The 7-year distant metastasis-free survival rate was 81% and overall survival 93%. Favorable 7-year PIRR rates and clinical outcomes were achieved in a sizable cohort of patients treated with homogeneous sequencing, radiation, and reconstructive surgery and lengthy follow-up. Factors predictive for high risk of PIRR were not identifiable in this population.
    • "The current study, however, emphasized long-term survival in 492 patients with a mean follow-up period of 86.5 months. In 2012, Ho and colleagues described 151 patients treated at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with immediate 2-stage tissue expander and implant reconstruction, CT and PMRT [7]. The 7-year distant DFS was 81%, and the 7-year OS rate was 93%. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) between breast cancer patients with and without immediate transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction. Methods: The study included 492 patients with stage II or III breast cancer who underwent modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and chemotherapy followed by PMRT between 1997 and 2011. Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were calculated, and the log-rank test was used to evaluate the differences between overall and disease-free survival rates in the 2 groups. Results: Among 492 patients, 213 patients had immediate TRAM flap reconstruction. The mean follow-up was 7.2 years (range, 11-191 months). The 5-year and 10-year disease free survival rates were 81% and 76% for the TRAM flap group and 78% and 73% for the non-flap group. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 89% and 73% for the TRAM flap group and 83% and 74% for the non-flap group. Conclusions: There exists no statistically significant difference in the rates of local recurrence, distant metastasis, disease-free and overall survival when comparing immediate TRAM flap reconstruction with no reconstruction. Our results suggest that immediate TRAM flap reconstruction does not compromise long term clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients requiring PMRT.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016
    • "The LD flap is a reliable flap that allows the mobilization of a large amount of muscle, subcutaneous fat, and skin. However, the LD flap is associated with donor-site seromas and hematomas,7,8 and reports have cited an overall complication rate of up to 30.4% and implant failure rate of 5.4%.8 Furthermore, by using the traditional method of LD flap interpolation, the entire muscle is sacrificed. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Use of the thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap in combination with alloplastic devices has been proven to be a safe method of breast reconstruction. However, preoperative irradiation increases the complication rate and thus some consider preoperative radiotherapy a relative contraindication to alloplastic alone reconstruction. We evaluated the long-term outcomes of patients with preoperative radiotherapy who had delayed alloplastic reconstruction with a TDAP flap. Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed to identify patients who had received a Latissimus Dorsi (LD), a Muscle Sparing Latissimus Dorsi (MSLD), or a TDAP flap plus a tissue expander or implant between 2005 and 2012. Information regarding patients’ primary diagnosis, radiation history, prior breast reconstructions, and complications was collected and analyzed. Results: Sixteen patients who had a total of 16 breast reconstructions with an LD (6) or TDAP/MSLD1 flap (10). Demographic data, device type, co-morbidities and complications were analyzed. The rate of capsular contracture and size asymmetry were higher in the LD group, but there was no difference noted for major complications. Minor complications were also similar between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Patients who underwent irradiation before TDAP flap did not have a higher complication rate when compared with patients who had a full LD flap following radiation. By integrating well-vascularized, nonradiated tissue of a TDAP flap in reconstruction, overall complication rate may be minimized and the results are comparable to the generally accepted method of utilizing the entire latissimus dorsi muscle.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014
    • "Sixteen studies reported data on complications classified as major. 8,9,13,15161719 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess outcomes data on complications associated with implant-based breast reconstruction performed before or after chest wall radiation to assist in guiding the decision-making process for reconstruction of the irradiated breast. Studies from a PubMed search that met predetermined inclusion criteria were identified and included. Complications of interest were low- and high-grade capsular contractures, minor and major complications, reconstruction failure rates, and reconstruction completion rates. Pooled complication rates were calculated. A total of 26 articles were included in the study after screening 1,006 publications, with 14 studies presenting data on prereconstruction radiation and 23 studies presenting data on postreconstruction radiation. Complication rates evaluated in patients exposed to radiation before or after implant reconstruction were not significantly different. Reconstruction failure rates were similar at 19 and 20 % for pre- and postreconstruction radiation patients, respectively. Completion rates were similar at 83 and 80 % for pre- and postreconstruction radiation patients, respectively. Review of the current literature suggests similar overall success and failure rates with radiotherapy provided both before and after reconstruction. Failure rates in both groups of patients are clinically significant when considering implant reconstruction in the setting of radiation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013
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