Article

Anger and Testosterone: Evidence That Situationally-Induced Anger Relates to Situationally-Induced Testosterone

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Abstract

Testosterone has been shown to relate to power, dominance, social status, and aggression. However, no research has related situationally induced changes in testosterone to subjective emotional experience. Based on the fact that anger relates to power, dominance, social status, and aggression, we predicted that testosterone would be uniquely related to the subjective experience of anger. In this study, salivary testosterone and cortisol were measured both prior to and following an anger-inducing event. In line with predictions, anger was associated with increased testosterone but not cortisol. These results provide the first evidence of a subjective emotional experience linked with changes in testosterone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

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... The results of previous studies have shown that high androgen levels are related to anger and aggressive behavior [8,9]. Androgens have been especially related to the continuation of subjective anger and aggressive behaviors [10]. ...
... The knowledge concerning the correlation between androgen levels and anger in literature is very limited. Some previous studies have supported a linear correlation between androgen levels and anger [8][9][10]. A recent study reported a positive correlation between androgen levels and subjective anger [10]. ...
... Some previous studies have supported a linear correlation between androgen levels and anger [8][9][10]. A recent study reported a positive correlation between androgen levels and subjective anger [10]. Another study reported a correlation between high testosterone levels and anger among pre and post-partum women [9]. ...
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anger, impulsiveness, and biochemical parameters (testosterone, insulin, insulin resistance) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Study design We recruited 84 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome according to the Rotterdam diagnostic criteria. Psychiatric interviews were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory were also administered to each participant. Lastly, the women’s biochemical parameters, which included total testosterone, free androgen index, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, insulin and insulin resistance, thyroid functions, and prolactin, were measured. Results A statistically significant correlation was found between participants’ increasing total testosterone levels and total impulsiveness scores, and their increasing free androgen index levels and motor and non-planning-related impulsiveness (r = 0.24, p = 0.027; r = 0.27, p = 0.015; and r = 0.26, p = 0.017, respectively). High insulin and insulin resistance levels were associated with high non-planning-related impulsiveness scores (r = 0.26, p = 0.018; and r = 0.26, p = 0.019). Lastly, high trait anger and anger expression scores were related to high total testosterone and insulin and insulin resistance levels. Conclusion Androgens and glucose dysregulation seemingly affect anger expression as well as the attentional, motor, and non-planning-related impulsiveness of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
... Indeed, several anger-related characteristics are directly or indirectly associated with dominance and power pursuit (Archer and Webb, 2006;Peterson and Harmon-Jones, 2012;Sewards and Sewards, 2002;Shariff and Tracy, 2011). Regardless of social status, people expressing anger are often perceived as more dominant than when they express other emotions or are in neutral state (Archer and Webb, 2006;Hareli et al., 2009;Knutson, 1996;Marsh et al., 2005;Tiedens, 2001;Tiedens et al., 2000). ...
... Anger experience and dominance motivation are both characterized by a reduction of top-down control and an increase in bottom-up pattern systems, i.e., enhancing amygdala function and impairing areas of prefrontal cortex (PFC) responsible for impulse control, such as orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (Beaver et al., 2008;Coccaro et al., 2007;de Almeida et al., 2015). Autonomically, steroid hormones can affect the expression of anger (Carver and Harmon-Jones, 2009;Peterson and Harmon-Jones, 2012;van Honk et al., 1999;Wirth et al., 2007), as well as the occurrence of dominant and competitive behaviors (Mazur and Booth, 1998;Mehta et al., 2008). Even though the effects of dominance and anger are well known to affect human social interaction individually, empirical studies on a possible causal relationship between these variables are still scarce. ...
... Furthermore, physiological characteristics linked to sex also play a key role in the manifestation of agonistic behavior. Androgenic hormone levels (e.g., testosterone) are consistently associated with the expression of anger and dominance motivation (Archer, 2006;de Almeida et al., 2015;Mazur and Booth, 1998;Peterson and Harmon-Jones, 2012;Sewards et al., 2003;van Honk et al., 1999;Wirth et al., 2007), although these results are often not successfully replicated in women (Cashdan, 2003;Schultheiss et al., 2004;). In both female and male samples, physiological levels of testosterone are positively associated with attentional bias to angry facial expressions (Terburg et al., 2012a;van Honk et al., 1999), and exogenous administration of testosterone can enhance cardiac responses to such facial expressions (van Honk et al., 2001). ...
Article
Dominance and high status are directly associated with perception of angry expressions. However, studies that have sought to empirically assess the causal mechanisms between these construct are still relatively scarce. Moreover, several variables can influence and be influenced by both anger and dominance, increasing the complexity of synthesizing the findings related to the association between these agonistic behaviors. We conducted a systematic review in five electronic databases. A total of 207 potentially relevant publications were identified and screened. Of those, 20 articles were found eligible for detailed review, with 26 empirical studies. All reviewed studies reported an association between dominance and anger. Social status and dominance have a direct effect on the perception of anger. In turn, the perception of anger has a consistent effect on attributions of dominance for those who express this emotion. There are mutual effects between dominance and anger, which, if recurring and positively feedback-regulated, at least in perceptual terms, can lead to the establishment and maintenance of dominance hierarchies in social groups.
... In line with this, both Tsal and Csal together with trait and/or state anger have been related to the development and maintenance of aggression (Norlander & Eckhardt, 2005). Hence, hormonal oscillations may be related to anger swings (Herrero, Gadea, Rodriguez-Alarcón, Espert, & Salvador, 2010;Leggett et al., 2015;Liening & Josephs, 2010;Montoya et al., 2012;Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012;von der, Sarkola, Seppa, & Eriksson, 2002), and exogenous T administration have reported to increase anger, hostility, and/or irritability (van Honk & Schutter, 2007). With all this in mind, the aim of this study was to assess whether the testosterone/cortisol (Tsal/Csal) ratio response to acute psychosocial stress could be employed as an indicator of propensity to anger in informal caregivers of offspring with different years of caregiving and level of autonomy of the patient. ...
... Further, we explored if both T/C ratio and anger responses to the mental stress followed the same pattern and were then associated in the case of informal caregivers. As our previous studies revealed that ASD caregivers showed lower Csal levels and higher Tsal levels and anger feelings than caregivers of normative offspring (de Andrés-García et al., 2012;, we would expect that caregivers would show higher levels and magnitude of response of Tsal/Csal ratio than caregivers of normative offspring which in addition could be associated to an increase in anger state feelings and high trait anger and expression (Herrero et al., 2010;Leggett et al., 2015;Liening & Josephs, 2010;Montoya et al., 2012;Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012;von der et al., 2002). ...
... Moreover, ASD parents presented higher average of Tsal levels and lower average of Csal levels than control parents, which could explain the differences in Tsal/Csal ratio. That is, caregivers under stress for long periods present a marked HPG/HPA imbalance, which in turns may facilitate the appearance of anger feelings and a tendency to express their anger (Herrero et al., 2010;Leggett et al., 2015;Liening & Josephs, 2010;Montoya et al., 2012;Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012;van Honk & Schutter, 2007;von der et al., 2002). ...
Article
Caring for an offspring diagnosed with a psychological chronic disorder is used in research as a model of chronic stress. Indeed, it is usually associated with disturbances in the salivary cortisol (Csal) levels of the caregiver. An imbalance between salivary testosterone (Tsal) and Csal levels is a marker of proneness to social aggression. Given this, we aimed to establish whether the salivary testosterone/cortisol (Tsal/Csal) ratio response to acute stress could be employed as a marker of proneness to anger in informal caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum (ASD). Tsal/Csal ratio and anger responses to a set of different cognitive tasks as well as anger trait and expression were compared in these informal caregivers and controls. Caregivers, particularly those of offspring with ASD, had higher Tsal/Csal ratios than controls in response to acute stress, concretely after the stress in the case of fathers ( p = .05) and before stress when analyzing mothers ( p = .05). Moreover, ASD fathers and mothers obtained higher magnitude of the T/C ratio response to stress ( p = .03 and p =.04, respectively), anger state ( p = .02 and p = .02, respectively) and expression scores ( p = .05 and p = .05, respectively) than controls. Finally, high Tsal/Csal ratio levels and response to stress were significantly associated with high anger feelings increases ( p < .01 and p < .001, respectively), trait ( p < .001 and p > .05, respectively) and expression ( p < .05 and p > .05, respectively) in caregivers.
... There are only two previous Cyberball studies investigating effects on testosterone. One study found that increases of testosterone in both sexes correlated with anger changes (Peterson and Harmon-Jones, 2012) but did not report significant testosterone changes from before to after the task. The other likewise did not find a significant change in testosterone responses in a male sample in either exclusion or inclusion (Geniole et al., 2011). ...
... There is some evidence of cortisol increase in response to real-life exclusion paradigms (Blackhart et al., 2007; Stroud et al., 2002); however, previous Cyberball studies could not find effects on cortisol (Geniole et al., 2011; Zoller et al., 2010; Zwolinski, 2012). There are only two studies (Geniole et al., 2011; Peterson and Harmon-Jones, 2012) examining the impact of Cyberball exclusion on testosterone, yielding no significant changes. Moreover, there is only scarce evidence on the impact of social interaction manipulations on progesterone suggesting an association with affiliative motivation (Brown et al., 2009; Maner et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The experience of social exclusion represents an extremely aversive and threatening situation in daily life. The present study examined the impact of social exclusion compared to inclusion on steroid hormone concentrations as well as on subjective affect ratings. Eighty subjects (40 females) participated in two independent behavioral experiments. They engaged in a computerized ball tossing game in which they ostensibly played with two other players who deliberately excluded or included them, respectively. Hormone samples as well as mood ratings were taken before and after the game. Social exclusion led to a decrease in positive mood ratings and increased anger ratings. In contrast, social inclusion did not affect positive mood ratings, but decreased sadness ratings. Both conditions did not affect cortisol levels. Testosterone significantly decreased after being excluded in both genders, and increased after inclusion, but only in males. Interestingly, progesterone showed an increase after both conditions only in females. Our results suggest that social exclusion does not trigger a classical stress response but gender-specific changes in sex hormone levels. The testosterone decrease after being excluded in both genders, as well as the increase after inclusion in males can be interpreted within the framework of the biosocial status hypothesis. The progesterone increase might reflect a generalized affiliative response during social interaction in females.
... Anger is often regarded as a negative, high arousal emotion that is associated with approach motivational tendencies [40,41,42]. Neurally, anger involves testosterone, substance P (a neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator), the medial hypothalamus, amygdala, and the periaqueductal gray [6,43,44]. The full facial expression of anger involves the muscles of the brow moving inward and downward; the eyes fixed in a hard stare; and the nostrils and wings of the nose expanded [4,5,45]. ...
... Each set included five photographs. The emotional sets were anger (militants burning the American flag) [43,66], disgust (dirty toilets and rotten food), fear (dangerous animals and weapons), anxiety (people taking tests or being questioned by police), sadness (people crying) [67], desire (delicious-looking desserts) [68], and relaxation (beaches). We also created a neutral set, which was made up of pictures of rocks [69]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed.
... However, evoking a first-person rejection experience via Cyberball yielded no changes in salivary progesterone (in both females and males; 20-100 min after exclusion; Gaffey and Wirth, 2014), an increase only in females (20 min after exclusion; Seidel et al., 2013) or an increase moderated by individual and situational factors (mixed sample; 15 min after exclusion; Maner et al., 2010). Similarly, whereas real-life rejection appears to elicit cortisol reactivity (Blackhart et al., 2007; but see Linnen et al., 2012;Stroud et al., 2000), Cyberball increased neither cortisol nor testosterone levels at an immediate or a later stage (Gaffey and Wirth, 2014; 15-25 min after exclusion: Geniole et al., 2011; 15 min after exclusion: Peterson and Harmon-Jones, 2012;Seidel et al., 2013;up to 100 min after exclusion: Zoller et al., 2010;20-25 min after exclusion: Zwolinski, 2012). The absence of strong hormonal reactions to Cyberball has been attributed to its schematic, computer-like appearance, lacking face-to-face contact and the need to prepare for action (Gaffey and Wirth, 2014;Novembre et al., 2015). ...
... Considering the relation between gonadal steroid hormones and social approach motivation (e.g., affiliation or aggression), we hypothesized that the virtually real-life depiction of interaction partners would induce changes in progesterone and testosterone. Conversely, hormonal changes might go hand in hand with changes in subjective affect, as demonstrated for testosterone and anger (Peterson and Harmon-Jones, 2012). Furthermore, endocrine levels influence cortical and subcortical emotion processing, particularly regarding social threat (Radke et al., 2015;van Wingen et al., 2008), so that similar positive associations between sex steroids and neural responses to social exclusion can be anticipated. ...
Article
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Social exclusion is a complex phenomenon, with wide-ranging immediate and delayed effects on well-being, hormone levels, brain activation and motivational behavior. Building upon previous work, the current fMRI study investigated affective, endocrine and neural responses to social exclusion in a more naturalistic Cyberball task in 40 males and 40 females. As expected, social exclusion elicited well-documented affective and neural responses, i.e., increased anger and distress, as well as increased exclusion-related activation of the anterior insula, the posterior-medial frontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cortisol and testosterone decreased over the course of the experiment, whereas progesterone showed no changes. Hormone levels were not correlated with subjective affect, but they were related to exclusion-induced neural responses. Exclusion-related activation in frontal areas was associated with decreases in cortisol and increases in testosterone until recovery. Given that results were largely independent of sex, the current findings have important implications regarding between-sex vs. within-sex variations and the conceptualization of state vs. trait neuroendocrine functions in social neuroscience.
... Emotional motivation was the action tendency associated with a particular emotional state and included two directions: approach and avoidance motivation (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2010b;Liu & Wang, 2014). Some studies have indicated that positive emotion was only associated with approach motivation, which referred to the urge to move towards an object, while negative emotion was associated not only with avoidance motivation (i.e., fear, sad), which referred to the urge to go away from an object, but also with approach motivation (i.e., anger) (e.g., Adams et al., 2006;Harmon-Jones et al., 2013;Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012). Furthermore, a growing number of studies in recent years have demonstrated that emotional motivation could also modulate the attentional selection (Gable & Harmon-Jones, 2008, 2010a, 2010b. ...
... The faces (happy, neutral, and sad) reflect not only the valence dimension but also the motivation direction of the emotion; the different objectbased effects for different emotional valences observed in Experiment 1 may be due to differences in the emotional motivation direction among the facial expressions. Among the seven basic facial expressions, anger and fearful faces relate to approach-and avoidance-motivated negative emotions, respectively (e.g., Adams et al., 2006;Carver & Harmon-Jones, 2009;Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012). Therefore, in Experiment 3, we adapted anger and fearful faces as the stimuli to examine whether the modulating effects observed in Experiment 1 were modulated by motivational direction of emotion by manipulating approachmotivated and avoidance-motivated negative emotion and keeping the same valence and motivational intensity. ...
Article
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Human beings can show preferentially attentional bias to different facial expressions. However, it is unclear whether the modulation of selective attention by facial expressions is based on the face itself (object-based attention) or its location (space-based attention). The current study aimed to test this problem by using faces with different emotional valences in the two-rectangle paradigm across three experiments. We found that there was no significant difference in space-based effect among the positive, neutral, and negative conditions. However, the object-based effect was larger for the negative condition than for the neutral and positive ones, because of its slower reaction times for the invalid different-object trials. The results indicated that the object-based attentional selection was modulated by facial expressions, and that faces expressing negative emotions hamper the disengagement of attention from the whole object (i.e., the face), instead of the certain location. Our study can further add support to the attentional prioritization hypothesis over attentional spreading hypothesis.
... This emotion correlates with strength (Sell et al., 2009;Sell, Hone, & Pound, 2012;Tibubos, Schnell, & Rohrmann, 2013), sense of control (Lerner & Keltner, 2001), assertiveness (Doyle & Biaggio, 1981), and competitiveness (Adam & Brett, 2015;Archer & Webb, 2006). Physiologically, anger at more intense levels has an effect on the secretion of testosterone (Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012;Stanton, Wirth, Waugh, & Schultheiss, 2009). In everyday life, people experience some of the most important consequences of anger in social situations (Deffenbacher, Oetting, Lynch, & Morris, 1996). ...
... The motivational aspect of anger is often discussed in adaptive terms (Archer, 2009;Hutcherson & Gross, 2011;Sell et al., 2009). Thus, the cognitive appraisal model of emotions postulates that anger could play a motivational role in the achievement of blocked goals (Carver & Harmon-Jones, 2009;Frijda, 1986;Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012). Similarly, despite being a negative emotion, anger increasesin the person who feels itbehavioral tendencies of approach to the triggering stimulus (Carver & Harmon-Jones, 2009;Harmon-Jones & Sigelman, 2001). ...
Article
Anger may have evolved to orchestrate social bargaining behaviors, which ultimately can lead to establishment of dominance hierarchies. Although the relationship between anger and dominance has strong empirical support, most studies have focused on visual cues of dominance. Across two experiments, we tested the hypothesis that anger increases dominance-seeking and agonistic behaviors in those who feel it. In the first experiment (n = 82), we induced anger through a hostile mock debate and measured corrugator electromyographic activity, testosterone and cortisol levels, status-seeking tendency, and aggression using behavioral tasks. Compared with the control group, the anger group showed higher levels of aggression and status seeking, with the moderator effect of anger intensity. In the second experiment (n = 162), anger, fear, sadness, and neutral state were induced by film clips, after which dominance-related behavioral tendencies were assessed. The anger group showed higher dominance scores, differing significantly from the fear, sadness, and/or control groups. These findings reinforce the notion that feelings of anger can cause an increase in status-seeking and agonistic behaviors, leading to possible action tendencies for the establishment of dominance hierarchies.
... It is established that besides the masculinization/defeminizing role of testosterone during sexual differentiation, this hormone is also critical for the modulation of behavioral and physiological responses to anger [125,126]. Men demonstrating higher dominance express high levels of testosterone. In male primates, dominance is associated with higher testosterone levels and a decrease in stress response, indicating that dominant males find dominance signals less stressful and are more primed to engage in a dominance challenge [127,128]. ...
Article
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Convergent data from rodents and human studies have led to the development of models describing the neural mechanisms of fear extinction. Key components of the now well-characterized fear extinction network include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortical regions. These models are fueling novel hypotheses that are currently being tested with much refined experimental tools to examine the interactions within this network. Lagging far behind, however, is the examination of sex differences in this network and how sex hormones influence the functional activity and reactivity of these brain regions in the context of fear inhibition. Indeed, there is a large body of literature suggesting that sex hormones, such as estrogen, do modulate neural plasticity within the fear extinction network, especially in the hippocampus. After a brief overview of the fear extinction network, we summarize what is currently known about sex differences in fear extinction and the influence of gonadal hormones on the fear extinction network. We then go on to propose possible mechanisms by which sex hormones, such as estrogen, may influence neural plasticity within the fear extinction network. We end with a discussion of how knowledge to be gained from developing this line of research may have significant ramifications towards the etiology, epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders.
... Evolutionary theory suggests that aggression is an expression of males' desire for status and dominance as this facilitates acquiring mates (Griskevicius et al., 2009). Biological theories posit that such gender differences may stem from hormonal variation, such as males' higher level of testosterone, a hormone that has been linked to feelings of power, anger, dominance, and aggression (Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012). ...
Article
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Efforts to identify and understand gender differences have a long history that has sparked lively debate and generated much public interest. Although understanding gender differences is pivotal to consumer researchers and marketers, investigations into this issue by such individuals have been few in number, often weak in theory, and rather limited in progress made. This paper strives to reinvigorate such inquiry. We begin by describing four major theories of gender differences (socio-cultural, evolutionary, hormone-brain, and the selectivity hypothesis) and then assess relevant research from 2000-2013 in marketing, psychology, and biomedicine. From this, five conclusions emerge: Males are more self-oriented, while females are more other-oriented; females are more cautious responders; females are more responsive to negative data; males process data more selectively and females more comprehensively; and females are more sensitive to differentiating conditions and factors. We conclude by identifying several areas of opportunity for advancing our understanding of gender differences.
... Likewise, early or atypical pre-natal exposure to androgenic steroids can also have an impact on the development of aggressive behaviour [130,[135][136][137][138], particularly in girls [5]. Experimental studies have shown that supraphysiological levels of testosterone increase the manifestation of aggression [139][140][141][142], while correlation studies associate testosterone with greater impulsiveness [143,144], greater responsiveness of neural circuits related to social aggression [145] and anger [146][147][148][149]. However, these results are not evenly found in all studies [117,150]. ...
Article
Aggression is a key component for social behaviour and can have an adaptive value or deleterious consequences. Here, we review the role of sex-related differences in aggressive behaviour in both human and nonhuman primates. First, we address aggression in primates, which varies deeply between species, both in intensity and in display, ranging from animals that are very aggressive, such as chimpanzees, to the nonaggressive bonobos. Aggression also influences the hierarchical structure of gorillas and chimpanzees, and is used as the main tool for dealing with other groups. With regard to human aggression, it can be considered a relevant adaptation for survival or can have negative impacts on social interaction for both sexes. Gender plays a critical role in aggressive and competitive behaviours, which are determined by a cascade of physiological changes, including GABAergic and serotonergic systems, and sex neurosteroids. The understanding of the neurobiological bases and behavioural determinants of different types of aggression is fundamental for minimising these negative impacts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... An alternative explanation for our findings might be found in the approach/avoidance framework. While fear has been associated with avoidance behaviors, anger is an approach motivated affect (Adams et al., 2006;Peterson and Harmon-Jones, 2012). Therefore, exposure to emotional context of fear might induce avoidance behaviors and then increase the likelihood of making risky decisions. ...
Article
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Emotions strongly influence our decisions, particularly those made under risk. A classic example of the effect of emotion on decision making under risk is the " framing effect, " which involves predictable shifts in preferences when the same problem is formulated in different ways. According to dual process theories, this bias could stem from an affective heuristic belonging to an intuitive type of reasoning. In this study, we examined whether specific incidental negative emotions (i.e., fear and anger) influence framing susceptibility and risk-taking identically. In each trial, participants received an initial amount of money, and pictures of angry or fearful faces were presented to them. Finally, participants chose between a sure option and a gamble option of equally expected value in a gain or loss frame. Risk-taking was modulated by emotional context: fear and anger influenced risk-taking specifically in the gain frame and had opposite effects. Fear increased risk-averse choices, whereas anger decreased risk-averse choices, leading to a suppression of the framing effect. These results confirm that emotions play a key role in framing susceptibility.
... [60] Increased anger induction was associated with increased testosterone levels. [61] In addition, testosterone is thought to be protective against anxiety and depression, [25,28] and females with current depressive or anxiety disorders showed lower salivary testosterone levels than did controls. [27] A meta-analysis indicated that testosterone therapy has a significant positive effect on depressed patients and the elderly, [26] but we did not see any significant association between testosterone and anxiety or depression. ...
Article
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Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine the levels of psychosocial (stress, moods, and loneliness) and salivary biomarker responses (cortisol, alpha-amylase, C-reactive protein, Interleukin-1β, estradiol, and testosterone) and their associations in senior nursing students. Because of diversity in student characteristics, we also examined group differences by age, prior degree status, and curricular tracks. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 77 graduating baccalaureate nursing students completed questionnaires and provided a saliva sample via passive drool during fall semester, 2013. All data were collected between 8:00 am and noon. Biomarker levels were assessed with enzyme-linked immunoassays, and biological data were transformed prior to data analyses as needed. Results: On average, psychosocial and biological responses seem to be within normal ranges. One third of students, however, showed moderately high or high levels of stress. Stress was significantly and inversely correlated with estradiol, r = -.25, p < .04, and alpha amylase, r = -.31, p < .007. Anger and confusion were significantly and positively correlated with testosterone, r = .24 to .27, p < .05. Despite the diversity, there were no significant psychosocial or biological differences between groups. Conclusions: Although average psychosocial and biological responses seem unremarkable, a subset of students showed relatively high levels of stress. Several psychosocial factors were significantly correlated with biological responses, suggesting biobehavioral interactions to influence the health. Regular stress assessment and campus resources may facilitate early stress management to minimize potential long-term adverse health outcomes.
... They found that T fluctuations mediated the outcome of the competition and subsequent aggressive behavior in males but not females. One study showed that increased T levels after being merely excluded in a game of throwing balls was associated with anger but not with other emotions like fear and sadness (Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012). ...
Article
Altered levels of cortisol and testosterone have previously been associated with anti-social personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy, but there is some conflicting evidence as to how characteristic these findings are. To test the hypothesis that diurnal fluctuations in cortisol and/or testosterone will differentiate ASPD and psychopathy among male forensic psychiatric inpatients and distinguish both groups from healthy men not in treatment. One hundred and sixty-six men participated: 81 patients with ASPD, 42 of whom had a Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) score of 26 or more and 39 with a score of 25 or less, 51 forensic hospital employees and 34 general population men. None in the latter two groups had abnormal personality traits. For each person, diurnal cortisol and testosterone saliva samples were collected. Both patient groups and the forensic hospital employees showed significantly higher diurnal testosterone levels than the general population, community-based men. The community men showed significantly lower values in their diurnal cortisol variation than the ASPD and psychopathy groups but, in this, were similar to the forensic employee group. Neither cortisol nor testosterone levels differentiated the higher from lower Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scorers. We replicated findings of diurnal testosterone deficiencies among men with psychopathy and ASPD, but we were unable to differentiate patients groups from each other or from the hospital employees on cortisol measures. This suggests a case for more research with more diverse comparison groups and more differentiation of personality traits before drawing definitive conclusions about distinctive hormonal patterns among men with psychopathy, as external environmental variables may prove more influential than previously suspected. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Previous studies also found that female victims reported more internalizing symptoms (including depression, anxiety, withdrawal, committing suicide, eating disorders), whereas male victims reported more externalizing symptoms (including violence, retaliation, aggression and oppositional disorders) (Leadbeater et al. 1999). Biological theory also suggests that gender differences in response to victimization stem from hormonal variations, with males having higher level of testosterone and thus more likely to be involved in crime or violence when incited (Peterson & Harmon-Jones 2012). These results are consistent with Wong et al. (2014) findings that males were more likely to bully others online than females when they experienced cyberbullying victimization. ...
Conference Paper
Internet provides youths with a new breeding ground for misbehavior. Cyberbullying is one of the most prevalent online misbehavior that has recently received public attention due to its potentially devastating consequences. Drawing on I3 theory, we develop a research model to investigate the driving and mitigating forces of cyberbullying perpetration. We further examine the moderating role of gender on the effect of forces on cyberbullying perpetration. An online survey of 211 university students was conducted to empirically validate the research model. Results show that both cyberbullying victimization and perceived online disinhibition can increase individual’s tendency to perpetrate cyberbullying, whereas subjective norm as the inhibiting force represses the propensity to cyberbully others. Furthermore, the power of the factors influencing cyberbullying perpetration is different between male and female students. The effects of instigating and inhibiting forces are stronger for female students than for male students, while the effect of impelling force is stronger for male students than for female students. We expect that this study will not only provide a theoretical explanation of cyberbullying perpetration but also offer valuable insights to related parties in their effort to tackle cyberbullying perpetration among university students.
... They found that T fluctuations mediated the outcome of the competition and subsequent aggressive behavior in males but not females. One study showed that increased T levels after being merely excluded in a game of throwing balls was associated with anger but not with other emotions like fear and sadness (Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012). ...
Article
Testosterone, a steroid hormone, affects the ability of the prefrontal cortex to regulate the limbic system and therefore has been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors such as facing status challenges, aggression and dominance. Here we use a team-based status game to examine factors that determine the postgame testosterone (T) levels of participants who were on the winning or losing team in a status game. We focused on functional polymorphisms in 2 candidate genes, namely DRD4 and COMT because these genes are densely expressed in the prefrontal cortex and thus affect peoples' self-regulation ability. Being on the winning team does not automatically lead to higher postgame T levels. Postgame T levels were affected by pregame T level and genetic makeup of the DRD4 gene variants for male and COMT gene variants for female participants, respectively. These findings remain robust when we controlled for contextual variables related to game play. Such insights, based on genetic markers, might motivate researchers in neuro-economics to look closer at neuro-biological mechanisms, specifically the prefrontal-limbic connectivity that modifies when people engage in status games.
... In humans, greater testosterone levels have been found to predict aggressive attitudes, with castration reducing their endorsement (Van Goozen, Cohen-Kettenis, Gooren, Frijda, & Van De Poll, 1995). Moreover, situationally increased testosterone levels in response to a laboratory anger induction predict increased selfreported anger to the induction (Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012). Additional evidence for the role of testosterone in shaping anger and aggressive behavior in humans comes from a program of research associating testosterone levels with observer-rated violence and aggressive antisocial behavior in male and female prison populations (Dabbs, Carr, Frady, & Riad, 1995;Dabbs & Hargrove, 1997;Dabbs & Morris, 1990). ...
... What could be the biological mechanism by which a rise in anger relates to a drop in cortisol? Previous research suggests that feelings of anger lead to increases in testosterone (Peterson and Harmon-Jones, 2011). Because research suggests inhibitory relationships between testosterone and cortisol (Herrero et al., 2010;van Honk et al., 2004) both at a psychological and physiological level (Salvador, 2012), it is possible that reduced cortisol in response to anger might be explained by increases in testosterone (under some conditions; cf., Mehta and Josephs, 2010), which unfortunately was not assessed here. ...
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Cortisol has been found to increase in response to social evaluative threat. However, little is known about the cortisol response to induced anger. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the cortisol response to anger induction and its effects on performance and explicit memory. A variant of the Montreal Stress Imaging Task (MIST; Dedovic et al., 2005) was used to induce anger in 17 male and 17 female students. Consistent with previous observations, a significant decrease in cortisol was found from pre to post manipulation which was inversely related to increases in subjective anger. Moreover, whereas anger increase was related to impairments in performance, cortisol reduction was inversely related to cognitive performance and explicit memory (recall and recognition of persons' features in a social memory task). The adaptive value of an increase in cortisol in response to fear or uncontrollability and of a decrease in cortisol in response to anger will be discussed.
... One study found an association between testosterone levels and anger. Specifically, testosterone levels increased in response to an anger-inducing event (Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012). Other research has found that androgen administration resulted in greater anger proneness in female-to-male transsexuals (Van Goozen, Frijda & Van de Poll 1994), albeit another study did not find a correlation between testosterone levels and state-level anger intensity in female-to-male transsexuals after a 3, 12, and 36 months follow-up periods (Defreyne et al., 2019). ...
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Researchers have called for a greater use of neuroscientific methods to advance theories in ethical behavior. Our research takes a neuroscientific approach to investigating unethical behavior by examining the roles of testosterone and intrasexual competition. We propose that unethical behavioral intentions will be greater for high-testosterone individuals in response to highly intrasexually competitive situations as a means of enhancing status. In an experiment, we measure baseline testosterone and assign participants to an intrasexually competitive or control condition. We demonstrate that in men, but not in women, testosterone is positively associated with unethical behavioral intentions in response to an intrasexual competition prime. Furthermore, using textual analysis, we find that testosterone is positively associated with the usage of anger-related words in response to an intrasexual competition prime among men. In turn, anger-related words are positively associated with unethical behavior, suggesting that anger may play a role in motivating high-testosterone men to behave unethically. Overall, our findings contribute to the literature by suggesting that testosterone and competition lead to greater unethical behavior in men, and that anger plays a role in promoting unethical behavior.
... However, Eisenegger et al. (2010) exposed a female sample to the same paradigm (UG) which on the contrary showed higher offers after a single dose of .5 mg TE sublingually (findings corrected for belief effects). Extending previous findings on a positive correlation between increased anger and TE levels (Peterson and Harmon-Jones, 2012) and supporting the aforementioned investigations, the current results indicate a potentiating influence of TE on emotional reactions. Moreover, the TE effect is supported within a non-social setting for the first time. ...
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Animal studies suggest a causal link between testosterone and aggression. However, in human research the exact role of this hormone is still unclear, having been linked to dominance and approach behavior rather than to aggression per se. In a social context, the induction of aggression might be confounded with dominance or status changes, which potentially influence the association between aggression and testosterone. The objective of the current study was to investigate the influence of testosterone on non-social aggression in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment including 90 healthy male participants. To this end, we developed an innovative paradigm in which participants were provoked by a malfunctioning joystick restraining them from a promised reward. As measures for aggression throughout the task the joystick amplitude was recorded and anger was assessed via emotional self-ratings. Participants reacted to the provocation with a significant shift to more negative emotions and increased implicit aggressive behavior, reflected in the force exerted to pull the joystick following provocation. Importantly, the study demonstrated first evidence for a modulating influence of testosterone on non-social aggression in males: Self-rated anger was significantly elevated in the testosterone group compared to the placebo group as a function of provocation. Testosterone administration did not significantly influence the implicit aggressive response. These findings demonstrate a potentiating effect of testosterone on provocation-related anger in a non-social context. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of disentangling different components of aggression and characterizing different influencing factors when inferring on hormonal effects.
... An alternative interpretation of the uniqueness of anger focuses on the motivation , Eisenberger, & Taylor, 2010;Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012). ...
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Previous research has revealed that incidental emotions of different valence (positive/negative/neutral) produce distinct impacts on risk decision-making. This study went on to compare the effects of different emotions of which the valence are identical. We focused on anger and fear, both of which are negative emotions but differ in motivational and appraisal dimensions. Participants finished a forced-choice gambling task, during which incidental emotions (anger/fear/happy) were elicited by facial stimuli selected from the Chinese Facial Affective Picture System. Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded in the experiment, which showed that anger and fear were different in their influence on behavioral risk preference and the relationship between outcome processing and subsequent risk decisions. Regarding the behavioral results, risk preference in the anger condition was higher than the fear condition, but lower than the happy condition. Regarding the ERP results elicited by outcome feedback (gain/loss), in the fear condition, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) was positively correlated with risk preference; in the anger condition, the gain-related P3 component was positively correlated with risk preference; in the happy condition, both the FRN and the loss-related P3 was negatively correlated with risk preference. The current findings provide novel insight into distinguishing the effect of different incidental emotions on risk preference.
... Thus, asking "why" should broaden cognitive scope by directing attention to increasingly more general details, and asking "how" should narrow cognitive scope by directing attention to increasingly more specific details. Next, participants played a game of Cyberball in which they were excluded as in Peterson and Harmon-Jones (2012). Then, they completed a second cognitive scope task, the Anderson Word Accessibility task, and the DEQ to assess their discrete emotions during the Cyberball task. ...
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Past theory and research have suggested that motivationally intense affective states narrow cognitive scope. Research has also suggested manipulations that broaden cognitive scope reduce responses to appetitive positive affective stimuli and disgusting stimuli, thus suggesting that cognitive broadening reduces motivational intensity. This led to the hypothesis that cognitive broadening would reduce the approach-motivated negative emotion of anger. Seven studies assessed the effect of cognitive broadening on reported trait anger, state anger, attitudes toward anger, attributions of anger to ambiguous pictures, and accessibility of aggressive words. Results from individual studies found mixed support for these predictions. A meta-analysis, however, suggested a small but significant effect on trait anger/aggression and attitudes toward anger across studies. These results may indicate that cognitive scope, as manipulated in these studies, has a small effect on anger-related responses. Discussion speculates on potential explanations of these findings, and their importance for informing future research.
... Elsewhere, fathers with lower T were observed to be more sensitive, affectionate, and emotionally synchronized in interactions their young children (Gordon, Pratt, Bergunde, Zagoory-Sharon, & Feldman, 2017;Weisman, Zagoory-Sharon, & Feldman, 2014), which hints at the social tendencies that could be beneficial in other nurturing relationships ( van Anders, 2013;van Anders et al., 2011). Meanwhile, in addition to scoring lower for empathy and prosociality (Chen et al., 2018;Harris et al., 1996), men with elevated T exhibit greater propensities toward situational anger and egocentric psychological orientations such as narcissism (Peterson & Harmon-Jones, 2012;Pfattheicher, 2016;Wagels et al., 2018;Welker, Lozoya, Campbell, Neumann, & Carré, 2014), although some of the negative interpersonal correlates of elevated T are also moderated by other physiological and psychological dynamics (Welker et al., 2014;Welker et al., 2017). In total, based on these bodies of literature and the framework we have outlined, we suggest that when men with higher T have heightened emotional social support they plausibly could have greater difficulty functioning in such nurturant relationships, with those social and mental challenges counteracting some benefits that otherwise accrue with greater support. ...
Article
Objectives Social support positively affects health through pathways such as shaping intrapersonal emotional and psychological well‐being. Lower testosterone often interrelates with psychological and behavioral orientations that are beneficial to participation in emotionally supportive relationships. Yet, little research has considered the ways in which testosterone may contribute to health outcomes related to emotional support. Methods We draw on testosterone, social support data, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)‐relevant indicators (inflammatory markers; blood pressure [BP]) from older men (n = 366) enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a US nationally representative study. We test whether men's testosterone moderates associations between emotional social support and markers related to CVD risk. Results For men with relatively lower testosterone, higher levels of social support predicted lower white blood cell (WBC) counts, consistent with reduced inflammation. In contrast, men with higher testosterone exhibited elevated WBC counts with greater support. In a diverging pattern, men with lower testosterone had higher systolic and diastolic BP with higher support, whereas the slopes for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, were comparatively flatter for men with higher levels of testosterone. Conclusions We suggest that our findings are theoretically consistent with the idea that testosterone helps shape intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences and perceptions of men's emotional support networks, thereby affecting the health implications of that support. The somewhat divergent results for WBC count vs BP highlight the need for inclusion of other neuroendocrine markers alongside testosterone as well as refined measures of perceived and received support.
... For example, a man might have persistent high blood pressure and levels of testosterone. If he undergoes frequent bouts of anger, which are characterized by additional surges of testosterone, his risk of heart disease increases (American Physiological Society 2018; Peterson and Harmon-Jones 2012). Again, Adolphs and Anderson are not interested in determining the moral value of anger-the contribution it makes to human flourishing and to the common good. ...
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This essay takes a fresh approach to a traditional Western philosophical account of anger, according to which anger is best defined as a desire for payback, namely, a desire to make an offender pay a price, in the currency of unwanted pain, for the pain he caused someone else. The essay focuses more specifically on the work of Thomas Aquinas, whose account of anger is often thought to center on a desire for ‘just vengeance.’ It analyzes and extends aspects of Aquinas’s account that have previously been treated too narrowly. It distinguishes three forms of anger, each of which has important features in common, which justify characterizing it as anger. Only one of these forms involves a desire to make an offender suffer for what he did. Even as this essay argues for articulating different forms of anger, it emphasizes the fluidity of anger’s forms, features, and relationships to other emotions. It briefly engages philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives while working principally in the domain of religious ethics and moral psychology.
... Moreover, experimentally shortened sleep duration, i.e., total and partial sleep deprivation, actually reduces anger/hostility mood states in adult evening chronotypes (Selvi, et al. 2007). The question arises here about the role of testosterone, which is known to be associated with both anger (Peterson and Harmon-Jones 2012) and eveningness in males (Jankowski 2019). Furthermore, sleep loss leads to a decrease in anger in evening chronotypes (Selvi et al. 2007) and is associated with lower testosterone in males (Jankowski 2019). ...
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There is growing interest in personality profiles associated with morningness-eveningness to foster an understanding of the behaviours and mental states of chronotypes. This study aimed to analyse the domains of emotionality, activity and sociability (EAS) temperament in relation to morningness-eveningness in adolescents. A sample of 539 school pupils aged 13-19 years completed the EAS Temperament Survey, the Composite Scale of Morningness and the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Amongst the five EAS domains (emotionality-distress, emotionality-fearfulness, emotionality-anger, activity and sociability), greater emotionality-anger was related to eveningness, while greater emotionality-distress was related to lower social jet lag. The results suggest that evening chronotypes can be temperamentally inclined to anger. The possible mechanisms of this association are discussed.
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This is a theoretical study aiming at proposing a computation model for memory and emotion, using ideas inspired by neuroscience research into neural-endocrine systems interaction. Human robot interaction (HRI) ideally requires the robot to be able to detect emotional changes and understand the emotional implications of these changes. The model proposed here will allow a robot to create its own emotional memory, and to use that memory to predict future emotional states based on past experiences. This model would be able to monitor the emotional state of a person, to identify if that individual is in a state of flow, providing positive support and at times praise that may be needed. Further evaluation and validation are proposed including a study case.
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Cambridge Core - Psychology Research Methods and Statistics - Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology - edited by Harry T. Reis
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It is well documented that testosterone concentrations change rapidly within reproductively relevant contexts (e.g., competition, mate-seeking). It has been argued that such rapid changes in testosterone may serve to adaptively fine-tune ongoing and/or future social behaviour according to one's social environment. In this paper, we review human correlational and experimental evidence suggesting that testosterone fluctuates rapidly in response to competition and mate-seeking cues, and that such acute changes may serve to modulate ongoing and/or future social behaviours (e.g., risk-taking, competitiveness, mate-seeking, and aggression). Some methodological details, which limit interpretation of some of this human work, are also discussed. We conclude with a new integrative model of testosterone secretion and behaviour, the Fitness Model of Testosterone Dynamics. Although we focus primarily on human aggression in this review, but we also highlight research on risk-taking, competitiveness, and mate-seeking behaviour.
Chapter
Um das Wesen der Aggression vollständig zu verstehen, ist es notwendig, nicht nur rein psychologische Studien und Modelle zu berücksichtigen, sondern auch interdisziplinäre Betrachtungsweisen über physische Aggressionsursachen zu integrieren: Insbesondere Studien und Erkenntnisse aus der Hirnanatomie, der Biochemie, der Endokrinologie und der Genetik können Indizien für oder gegen bestimmte Aggressionsmodelle liefern.
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Objective: To analyze the available data on the anti-anger effects of herbal medicines (HMs) as well as their underlying mechanisms in rat models. Methods: From 6 electronic databases [PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), and Research Information Sharing Service (RISS)], relevant animal experiments were searched by using "anger," "rats," and "animal" as search keywords. The last search was conducted on November 22, 2019, and all experiments involving rat models of anger and treatment using HMs published until the date of the search were considered. Results: A total of 24 studies with 16 kinds of HMs were included. Most studies have used the "tail irritating method" and "social isolation and resident intruder" method to establish anger models. According to the included studies, the therapeutic mechanisms of HMs for anger regulation and important herbs by their frequency and/or preclinical evidence mainly incladed regulation of hemorheology (Bupleuri Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, and Glycyrrhizae Radix), regulation of sex hormones (Bupleuri Radix, Cyperi Rhizoma, and Paeoniae Radix Alba), regulation of neurotransmitters (Cyperi Rhizoma), regulation of anger-related genes (Bupleuri Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix, and Paeoniae Radix Alba), and other effects. Overall, Liver (Gan) qi-smoothing herbs including Bupleuri Radix and Cyperi Rhizoma were the most frequently used. Conclusions: This review found the frequent methods to establish an anger model, and major mechanisms of anti-anger effects of HMs. Interestingly, some Liver qi-smoothing herbs have been frequently used to investigate the anti-anger effects of HM. These findings provide insight into the role and relevance of HMs in the field of anger management.
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A critique is presented of the meta-analysis of testosterone and aggression by Book, Starzyk, and Quinsey [Aggression and Violent Behaviour 6 (2001) 579], and the results of a reanalysis of their data are reported. We identified the following problems with their analysis: Secondary, rather than primary, sources were used in the initial literature review; 15 studies were included that should have been omitted; there were no decision rules for calculating effect sizes, leading to inaccuracies in most of these; the statistical test used to compare categories was of low power; the coding of study characteristics was inaccurate. A reanalysis that corrected these problems produced a lower mean weighted correlation (r=.08 instead of the reported r=.14). The conclusions from our categorical comparisons were different from those of Book et al.: Neither of their positive findings (a decline with age; lower correlations in morning than afternoon samples) were confirmed. We found significant differences for sex, age, offender status, and source of hormone measure, all of which are different from those in the original analysis.
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Three vignette studies examined stereotypes of the emotions associated with high- and low-status group members. In Study 1a, Ss (mean age 24 yrs) believed that in negative situations, high-status people feel more angry than sad or guilty and that low-status people feel more sad and guilty than angry. Study 1b showed that in response to positive outcomes, high-status people are expected to feel more pride and low-status people are expected to feel more appreciation. In study 2, Ss (aged 18–74 yrs) inferred status from emotions. Angry and proud people are thought of as high status, whereas sad, guilty, and appreciative people are considered low status. The authors argue that these emotion stereotypes are due to differences in the inferred abilities of people in high and low positions. These perceptions lead to expectations about agency appraisals and emotions related to agency appraisals. In Study 3, the authors found support for this process by manipulating perceptions of skill in 42 Ss (mean age 23 yrs) and finding the same differences in emotion expectations. Implications for future research in internal emotional processes are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research on human aggression has progressed to a point at which a unifying framework is needed. Major domain-limited theories of aggression include cognitive neoassociation, social learning, social interaction, script, and excitation transfer theories. Using the general aggression model (GAM), this review posits cognition, affect, and arousal to mediate the effects of situational and personological variables on aggression. The review also organizes recent theories of the development and persistence of aggressive personality. Personality is conceptualized as a set of stable knowledge structures that individuals use to interpret events in their social world and to guide their behavior. In addition to organizing what is already known about human aggression, this review, using the GAM framework, also serves the heuristic function of suggesting what research is needed to fill in theoretical gaps and can be used to create and test interventions for reducing aggression.
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Ostracism arouses negative affect. However, little is known about variables that influence the intensity of these negative affective responses. Two studies fill this void by incorporating work on approach- and withdrawal-related emotional states and their associated cortical activations. Study 1 found that following ostracism anger related directly to relative left frontal cortical activation. Study 2 used unilateral hand contractions to manipulate frontal cortical activity prior to an ostracizing event. Right-hand contractions, compared to left-hand contractions, caused greater relative left frontal cortical activation during the hand contractions as well as ostracism. Also, right-hand contractions caused more self-reported anger in response to being ostracized. Within-condition correlations revealed patterns of associations between ostracism-induced frontal asymmetry and emotive responses to ostracism consistent with Study 1. Taken together, these results suggest that asymmetrical frontal cortical activity is related to angry responses to ostracism, with greater relative left frontal cortical activity being associated with increased anger.
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Emotional expressions influence social judgments of personality traits. The goal of the present research was to show that it is of interest to assess the impact of neutral expressions in this context. In 2 studies using different methodologies, the authors found that participants perceived men who expressed neutral and angry emotions as higher in dominance when compared with men expressing sadness or shame. Study 1 showed that this is also true for men expressing happiness. In contrast, women expressing either anger or happiness were perceived as higher in dominance than were women showing a neutral expression who were rated as less dominant. However, sadness expressions by both men and women clearly decreased the extent to which they were perceived as dominant, and a trend in this direction emerged for shame expressions by men in Study 2. Thus, neutral expressions seem to be perceived as a sign of dominance in men but not in women. The present findings extend our understanding of the way different emotional expressions affect perceived dominance and the signal function of neutral expressions-which in the past have often been ignored.
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The authors review a range of evidence concerning the motivational underpinnings of anger as an affect, with particular reference to the relationship between anger and anxiety or fear. The evidence supports the view that anger relates to an appetitive or approach motivational system, whereas anxiety relates to an aversive or avoidance motivational system. This evidence appears to have 2 implications. One implication concerns the nature of anterior cortical asymmetry effects. The evidence suggests that such asymmetry reflects direction of motivational engagement (approach vs. withdrawal) rather than affective valence. The other implication concerns the idea that affects form a purely positive dimension and a purely negative dimension, which reflect the operation of appetitive and aversive motivational systems, respectively. The evidence reviewed does not support that view. The evidence is, however, consistent with a discrete-emotions view (which does not rely on dimensionality) and with an alternative dimensional approach.
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Because of the difficulties surrounding the evocation of jealousy, past research has relied on reactions to hypothetical scenarios and recall of past experiences of jealousy. Both methodologies have limitations, however. The present research was designed to develop a method of evoking jealousy in the laboratory that would be well controlled, ethically permissible, and psychologically meaningful. Study 1 demonstrated that jealousy could be evoked in a modified version of K. D. Williams' (2007) Cyberball ostracism paradigm in which the rejecting person was computer-generated. Study 2, the first to examine neural activity during the active experience of jealousy, tested whether experienced jealousy was associated with greater relative left or right frontal cortical activation. The findings revealed that the experience of jealousy was correlated with greater relative left frontal cortical activation toward the "sexually" desired partner. This pattern of activation suggests that jealousy is associated with approach motivation. Taken together, the present studies developed a laboratory paradigm for the study of jealousy that should help foster research on one of the most social of emotions.
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Three experiments examined how norms characteristic of a "culture of honor" manifest themselves in the cognitions, emotions, behaviors, and physiological reactions of southern White males. Participants were University of Michigan students who grew up in the North or South. In 3 experiments they were insulted by a confederate who bumped into the participant and called him an "asshole". Compared with northerners--who were relatively unaffected by the insult--southerners were (a) more likely to think their masculine reputation was threatened, (b) more upset (as shown by a rise in cortisol levels), (c) more physiologically primed for aggression (as shown by a rise in testosterone levels), (d) more cognitively primed for aggression, and (e) more likely to engage in aggressive and dominant behavior. Findings highlight the insult-aggression cycle in cultures of honor, in which insults diminish a man's reputation and he tries to restore his status by aggressive or violent behavior.
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Three experiments investigated the hypothesis that power increases an action orientation in the power holder, even in contexts where power is not directly experienced. In Experiment 1, participants who possessed structural power in a group task were more likely to take a card in a simulated game of blackjack than those who lacked power. In Experiment 2, participants primed with high power were more likely to act against an annoying stimulus (a fan) in the environment, suggesting that the experience of power leads to the performance of goal-directed behavior. In Experiment 3, priming high power led to action in a social dilemma regardless of whether that action had prosocial or antisocial consequences. The effects of priming power are discussed in relation to the broader literature on conceptual and mind-set priming.
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Theoretical models concerning selective attention to emotional stimuli predict heightened vigilance to angry faces in people with heightened trait anxiety or greater activity of the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS). Recent evidence from electroencephalographic lateralization and affect studies and from studies assessing attentional biases to angry faces suggest, however, that heightened anger and activity of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) should predict vigilant responding to angry faces. Social anxiety should predict avoidance of angry faces. Results from a masked emotional Stroop task verified these hypotheses, but an unmasked emotional Stroop provided no reliable relations. This dissociation confirms earlier claims that masked emotional Stroop performance is impervious to conscious control over the cognitive-emotional processes, as measured by the Stroop task.
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Two studies examined interactions of implicit power motivation and experimentally varied victory or defeat in a contest on implicit learning of a visuomotor sequence associated with the contest outcome and changes in testosterone and self-reported affect. In men and women, power motivation predicted enhanced learning (sequence-execution accuracy) after a victory and impaired learning after a defeat. In men, power motivation predicted testosterone increases among winners and decreases among losers, and testosterone decreases mediated the negative effect of power motivation on learning in losers. In women, power motivation predicted postcontest testosterone increases, particularly among losers. In both men and women, self-reported affective states were influenced only by contest outcome and were unrelated to participants' testosterone changes or implicit learning.
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Research on testosterone-behavior relationships in humans is assessed in relation to a version of the challenge hypothesis, originally proposed to account for testosterone-aggression associations in monogamous birds. Predictions were that that testosterone would rise at puberty to moderate levels, which supported reproductive physiology and behavior. Sexual arousal and challenges involving young males would raise testosterone levels further. In turn, this would facilitate direct competitive behavior, including aggression. When males are required to care for offspring, testosterone levels will decrease. Testosterone levels will also be associated with different behavioral profiles among men, associated with life history strategies involving emphasis on either mating or parental effort. Most of these predictions were supported by the review of current research, although most studies were not designed to specifically test the challenge hypothesis.
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This study examined the relation of anger and sadness to heart rate and cortisol in 4-month-old infants' (n = 56) response to a goal blockage. The blockage occurred during a contingency learning procedure where infants' response no longer produced a learned interesting event. Anger and sadness were the major emotional expressions to the blockage. The two emotional expressions were differentially related to heart rate and cortisol. Anger was related to increased heart rate, but not cortisol, whereas sadness was related to increased cortisol, but not heart rate. Along with other work, the present results support the view that infant anger in response to goal blockage involves autonomic as opposed to adrenocortical activation as a consequence of an expectation of control over the event. In contrast, sadness in response to goal blockage involves adrenocortical as opposed to autonomic activation stemming from the absence of an expectation of control.
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The classic conception of stress involves undifferentiated negative affect and corresponding biological reactivity. The present study hypothesized a new conception, disaggregating stress into emotion-specific, contrasting patterns of biological response. Specifically, it hypothesized contrasting patterns for indignation (comprised of anger and disgust) versus fear. Moreover, it hypothesized that facial expressions of these emotions would signal corresponding biological stress responses. Ninety-two adults engaged in annoyingly difficult stress-challenge tasks, during which cardiovascular responses, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses (i.e., cortisol), emotional expressions (i.e., facial muscle movements), and subjective emotional experience were assessed. Pronounced individual differences emerged in specific emotional responses to the stressors. Analyses of facial expressions revealed that the more fear individuals displayed in response to the stressors, the higher their cardiovascular and cortisol responses to stress. By contrast, the more indignation individuals displayed in response to the same stressors the lower their cortisol levels and cardiovascular responses. Facial expressions of emotion signal biological responses to stress. Fear expressions signal elevated cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity; indignation signals attenuated cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity, patterns that implicate individual differences in stress appraisals. Rather than conceptualizing stress as generalized negative affect, studies can be informed by this emotion-specific approach to stress responses.
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The authors sought to examine whether rumination about psychologically painful, though nontraumatic, interpersonal transgressions is associated with increased salivary cortisol. They measured salivary cortisol, rumination about a transgression, fear and anger regarding the transgressor, perceived painfulness of the transgression, and positive and negative mood in 115 undergraduates who had experienced an interpersonal transgression during the previous 7 days. They obtained measurements on as many as 5 occasions separated by approximately 14 days each. On occasions when participants reported that they had been ruminating to a degree that was greater than was typical for them, they had higher levels of salivary cortisol than was typical for them. The rumination- cortisol association appeared to be mediated by fear of the transgressor. Rumination about even moderately painful but nontraumatic life events and associated emotions are related to biological changes that may subserve social goals such as avoiding social threats. Items from the rumination scale are appended.
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A review and analysis is presented of recently published research studies (through 1976) that examine the relationship between hormones and aggression in vertebrates (and, very briefly, invertebrates). For the purposes of the survey, "aggression" is broadly defined. Studies of parahormones and hormone-resembling peptide fragments, as well as natural and synthetic hormones, are covered. The classification system used by the author to group the many and diverse studies in this field is described in detail. General conclusions are that (a) hormones do not produce but can influence aggression, (b) perinatal manipulation of sex steroids can influence adult aggression, (c) endocrine manipulation can have both direct and indirect effects on fighting and threat behavior, (d) fighting can influence endocrine function, and (e) hormone/aggression studies are intrinsically complex, and unexpected sources of variability of results are common. (33 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper examines the relation of the four subscales (physical, verbal, anger and hostility) of the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) to act-based aggression questionnaires (involving same-sex or partners as opponents, and direct or indirect aggression) and evolutionarily based predictors of aggression, using an online student sample. All aggression measures were moderately correlated with one another. The BPAQ physical and verbal scales were most closely related to act-based measures of direct aggression to a same-sex other and the hostility scale to indirect aggression to a same-sex other. The evolutionary variables were less closely related to the BPAQ than were the act-based measures. Dominance and sexual jealousy were predictors of BPAQ physical, verbal and anger, and impulsiveness was a significant predictor of anger. Aggr. Behav. 32:1–10, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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We hypothesized that increasing or decreasing levels of control in an ostracized individual could moderate aggressive responding to ostracism. Participants were either ostracized or included in a spontaneous game of toss, and then exposed to a series of blasts of aversive noise, the onsets over which they had either control or no control. Aggression was defined as the amount of hot sauce participants allocated to a stranger, knowing the stranger did not like hot foods, but would have to consume the entire sample. Ostracized participants without control allocated more than four times as much sauce as any other group; ostracized participants who experienced restored control were no more aggressive than either of the groups who were included. Aggressive responding to ostracism may depend on the degree to which control needs are threatened in the target, and is discussed in terms of Williams’s (2001) needs threat model of ostracism.
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In this article, we examined the role of anger in the link between social exclusion and antisocial behavior. We compared the effects of anger to another negative emotion, sadness. In Study 1, social exclusion was associated with feelings of anger, and anger was associated with antisocial behavior. In contrast, sadness was not associated with antisocial behavior. In Study 2, feelings of anger were manipulated by excluding participants for either a fair or unfair reason. Unfairly excluded participants were more angry and were more likely to engage in antisocial behavior than fairly excluded participants. Implications for the study of emotions in the context of social exclusion are discussed.
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Ostracism is such a widely used and powerful tactic that the authors tested whether people would be affected by it even under remote and artificial circumstances. In Study 1, 1,486 participants from 62 countries accessed the authors' on-line experiment on the Internet. They were asked to use mental visualization while playing a virtual tossing game with two others (who were actually computer generated and controlled). Despite the minimal nature of their experience, the more participants were ostracized, the more they reported feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging. In Study 2, ostracized participants were more likely to conform on a subsequent task. The results are discussed in terms of supporting K. D. Williams's (1997) need threat theory of ostracism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). (from the journal abstract)
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Both biosociological and psychological models, as well as animal research, suggest that testosterone has a key role in social interactions. Evidence from animal studies in rodents shows that testosterone causes aggressive behaviour towards conspecifics. Folk wisdom generalizes and adapts these findings to humans, suggesting that testosterone induces antisocial, egoistic, or even aggressive human behaviours. However, many researchers have questioned this folk hypothesis, arguing that testosterone is primarily involved in status-related behaviours in challenging social interactions, but causal evidence that discriminates between these views is sparse. Here we show that the sublingual administration of a single dose of testosterone in women causes a substantial increase in fair bargaining behaviour, thereby reducing bargaining conflicts and increasing the efficiency of social interactions. However, subjects who believed that they received testosterone-regardless of whether they actually received it or not-behaved much more unfairly than those who believed that they were treated with placebo. Thus, the folk hypothesis seems to generate a strong negative association between subjects' beliefs and the fairness of their offers, even though testosterone administration actually causes a substantial increase in the frequency of fair bargaining offers in our experiment.
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Free testosterone was measured in the saliva of 89 male prison inmates. Inmates with higher testosterone concentrations had more often been convicted of violent crimes. The relationship was most striking at the extremes of the testosterone distribution, where 9 out of 11 inmates with the lowest testosterone concentrations had committed nonviolent crimes, and 10 out of 11 inmates with the highest testosterone concentrations had committed violent crimes. Among the inmates convicted of nonviolent crimes, those higher in testosterone received longer times to serve before parole and longer punishments for disciplinary infractions in prison. In the housing unit where peer ratings were most reliable, inmates rated as tougher by their peers were higher in testosterone.
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Assessment of ovarian activity based on saliva samples has proven particularly useful in studies of women in well-developed countries and is potentially of even greater value in women of lower socioeconomic status in Third World countries. Assay techniques suitable for measuring low concentrations of steroids in saliva have become available only recently, so data derived from salivary sampling regimens are far less extensive than those based on plasma or urinary sampling procedures. Collecting saliva is an attractive alternative to the more conventional procedures because of the ease of frequent collection and freedom from religious and social constraints. Simple, direct assays for salivary progesterone have been established, but those for estradiol require considerably more research before becoming useful in routine practice. Predicting ovulation with data derived from saliva sampling awaits the development of more suitable assays for salivary estradiol.
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An experiment was designed to investigate the relation among salivary testosterone, mood, and selective attention to threat. The participant group consisted of 32 nonclinical subjects (16 men and 16 women). Individuals completed the Profile Of Mood States (POMS) and performed a pictorial emotional Stroop task measuring selective attention to angry faces. Anticipating a time lag between testosterone (as measured in saliva) and cognitive emotional behavior, multiple time-coursed saliva samples were taken preceding the assessment of questionnaire and task for every subject. In both sexes, salivary testosterone was significantly related to mood (i.e., anger and tension) and selective attention to angry faces when saliva samples were taken 6 h before questionnaire and task assessment. Research on the relation between testosterone and human behavior might benefit by taking into account time lags between the behavioral manifestations and the continuously changing levels of testosterone.
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This study tested the hypothesis that implicit power motivation moderates individuals' testosterone responses to the anticipated success in and actual outcome of a dominance contest. Salivary testosterone levels were assessed in 42 male students at the beginning of the study, after they had imagined a success in an ensuing power contest, and immediately after the contest had taken place. Contest outcome (winning or losing against a competitor on a speed-based task) was varied experimentally. Participants' power motive was assessed with a picture-story exercise, in which an assertive, personalized (p Power) component was distinguished from an altruistic, socialized (s Power) component. In contrast to all other participants, individuals high only in p Power (a) had elevated testosterone after imagining a success in a subsequent dominance contest and (b) continued to have high testosterone levels after actually winning, but not after losing, the contest.
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Four studies examined status conferral (decisions about who should be granted status). The studies show that people confer more status to targets who express anger than to targets who express sadness. In the 1st study, participants supported President Clinton more when they viewed him expressing anger about the Monica Lewinsky scandal than when they saw him expressing sadness about the scandal. This effect was replicated with an unknown politician in Study 2. The 3rd study showed that status conferral in a company was correlated with peers' ratings of the workers' anger. In the final study, participants assigned a higher status position and a higher salary to a job candidate who described himself as angry as opposed to sad. Furthermore, Studies 2-4 showed that anger expressions created the impression that the expresser was competent and that these perceptions mediated the relationship between emotional expressions and status conferral.
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This article examines how power influences behavior. Elevated power is associated with increased rewards and freedom and thereby activates approach-related tendencies. Reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment, and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related tendencies. The authors derive predictions from recent theorizing about approach and inhibition and review relevant evidence. Specifically, power is associated with (a) positive affect, (b) attention to rewards, (c) automatic information processing, and (d) disinhibited behavior. In contrast, reduced power is associated with (a) negative affect; (b) attention to threat, punishment, others' interests, and those features of the self that are relevant to others' goals; (c) controlled information processing; and (d) inhibited social behavior. The potential moderators and consequences of these power-related behavioral patterns are discussed.
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In this review, I examine the social psychological research on ostracism, social exclusion, and rejection. Being ignored, excluded, and/or rejected signals a threat for which reflexive detection in the form of pain and distress is adaptive for survival. Brief ostracism episodes result in sadness and anger and threaten fundamental needs. Individuals then act to fortify or replenish their thwarted need or needs. Behavioral consequences appear to be split into two general categories: attempts to fortify relational needs (belonging, self-esteem, shared understanding, and trust), which lead generally to prosocial thoughts and behaviors, or attempts to fortify efficacy/existence needs of control and recognition that may be dealt with most efficiently through antisocial thoughts and behaviors. Available research on chronic exposure to ostracism appears to deplete coping resources, resulting in depression and helplessness.
Social power, influence, and aggression
  • J T Tedeschi
Tedeschi, J. T. (2001). Social power, influence, and aggression. In J. P.