Small Bowel Obstruction as a Presenting Sign of Granulocytic Sarcoma

Department of General Surgery, Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya, Israel.
The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ (Impact Factor: 0.9). 08/2011; 13(8):507-9.
Source: PubMed
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    • "The World Health Organization (WHO) has further classified granulocytic sarcomas into 3 main types based on the degree of maturation of the tumor: blastic (myeloblasts), immature (myeloblasts and promyelocytes), and differentiated (promyelocytes and more mature myeloid cells) [17]. These tumors are often associated with AML, CML, myeloproliferative, and myelodysplastic disorders either at the initial diagnosis, or at relapse of those diseases [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloid Sarcoma (MS), a rare extra hematopoietic carcinoma composed of blast cells, is located primarily in extramedullary sites such as skin, soft tissue, lymph nodes, and bone. MS usually presents in the setting of coexisting acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myeloproliferative disorders. Gastrointestinal involvement (GI) is extremely rare from nonspecific abdominal symptoms to obstruction. Eight cases of myeloid sarcoma involving the duodenum including the current case have been reported, overall mean age being 40 years (range 17-71) and M : F ratio 7 : 1. The prognosis of patients with de novo MS cases has been reported to be better than those who have a coexisting leukemia. MS is a rare extramedullary tumor, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue mass involving the duodenum, especially if there is a coexisting hematological disorder. De novo cases often progress to AML, and current therapy involves Daunorubicin- and Cytarabine-based chemotherapy. The wide cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity of MS implies a potential role for more targeted MS therapies, which may offer a curative strategy.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloid sarcomas (MS) involve extramedullary blast proliferation from one or more myeloid lineages that replace the original tissue architecture, and these neoplasias are called granulocytic sarcomas, chloromas or extramedullary myeloid tumors. Such tumors develop in lymphoid organs, bones (e.g., skulls and orbits), skin, soft tissue, various mucosae, organs, and the central nervous system. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is rare, while the occurrence of myeloid sarcomas in patients without leukemia is even rare. Here, we report a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with epigastric pain and progressive jaundice. An upper GI endoscopy had shown extensive multifocal hyperemic fold thickening and the spread of nodular lesions in the body of the stomach. Biopsies from the gastric lesions indicated myeloid sarcoma of the stomach. However, concurrent peripheral blood and bone marrow examinations showed no evidence of acute myeloid leukemia. For diagnosis, the immunohistochemical markers must be checked when evaluating a suspected myeloid sarcoma case. Accurate MS diagnosis determines the appropriate therapy and prognosis.
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