Modeling Preharvest and Harvest Interventions for Escherichia coli O157 Contamination of Beef Cattle Carcasses

ArticleinJournal of food protection 74(9):1422-33 · September 2011with7 Reads
DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-10-516 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Field studies evaluating the effects of multiple concurrent preharvest interventions for Escherichia coli O157 are logistically and economically challenging; however, modeling techniques may provide useful information on these effects while also identifying crucial information gaps that can guide future research. We constructed a risk assessment model with data obtained from a systematic search of scientific literature. Parameter distributions were incorporated into a stochastic Monte Carlo modeling framework to examine the impacts of different combinations of preharvest and harvest interventions for E. coli O157 on the risk of beef carcass contamination. We estimated the risk of E. coli O157 carcass contamination conditional on preharvest fecal prevalence estimates, inclusion of feed additive(s) in the diet, vaccination for E. coli O157, transport and lairage effects, hide intervention(s), and carcass intervention(s). Prevalence parameters for E. coli O157 were assumed to encompass potential effects of concentration; therefore, concentration effects were not specifically evaluated in this study. Sensitivity analyses revealed that fecal prevalence, fecal-to-hide transfer, hide-to-carcass transfer, and carcass intervention efficacy significantly affected the risk of carcass contamination (correlation coefficients of 0.37, 0.56, 0.58, and −0.29, respectively). The results indicated that combinations of preharvest interventions may be particularly important for supplementing harvest interventions during periods of higher variability in fecal shedding prevalence (i.e., summer). Further assessments of the relationships among fecal prevalence and concentration, hide contamination, and subsequent carcass contamination are needed to further define risks and intervention impacts for E. coli O157 contamination of beef.
    • "The prevalence of Salmonella in this commercial feedlot cattle population (in feces and sub-iliac LN) was extremely high, and no evidence for a vaccine effect was observed. The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the SRP vaccine in a feedlot population with a high Salmonella burden, because a high level of pathogen burden has been useful in demonstrating the efficacy of preharvest interventions, and it provides the greatest potential food safety benefits (Dodd et al., 2011b; Cull et al., 2012). However, an LN prevalence of more than 80% across 24 pens and more than 2000 animals was higher than expected. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of a Salmonella vaccine for reducing fecal shedding of Salmonella during the finishing period and lymph node (LN) carriage at harvest was investigated in commercial feedlot cattle. The study was designed as a pen-level randomized complete block with two treatment groups, a Salmonella Newport siderophore receptor and porin proteins-based vaccine (VAC) and a nonvaccinated control (CON). Cattle were randomly allocated into 24 pens within 12 blocks based on the time of allocation. Twenty to 25 fecal pats were collected from each of the study pen floors once a month from June to August 2013. During harvest, a minimum of 25 sub-iliac LN were collected from carcasses within each study pen. Fecal and pulverized LN samples were cultured for Salmonella quantification and detection. Mixed models were used to analyze the effect of vaccination on fecal shedding and LN carriage of Salmonella. Montevideo and Anatum were the predominant Salmonella serotypes among fecal samples and LNs; no Newport isolates were recovered. Vaccination was not significantly associated (p = 0.57) with the prevalence of Salmonella in feces over time; the mean within-pen prevalence was 62.3% and 66.0% among VAC and CON, respectively. Sampling month was significantly associated (p < 0.01) with fecal prevalence; mean prevalence was 71.4% for June, 48.6% for July, and 70.8% for August. Across all pens, the cumulative prevalence of Salmonella in LN was 86.4%. Vaccination resulted in no significant reduction in LN prevalence (p = 0.52); mean prevalence was 85.7% for VAC and 87.4% for CON groups. Although vaccinated cattle had numerically fewer Salmonella LN and fecal positives, there were no statistically significant vaccine effects. Potential reasons for the lack of vaccine efficacy could include an overwhelming Salmonella exposure, a lack of cross-protection against non-Newport serotypes, and insufficient duration of immunity relative to harvest.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2016
    • "Preharvest prevalence of cattle shedding E. coli O157 in faeces or on their hides is associated with carcass contamination (Loneragan and Brashears, 2005). Although interventions to reduce carcass contamination during processing are critical to reducing human exposure to E. coli O157, pre-harvest interventions to reduce faecal prevalence and faecal to hide transfer were also important when multiple interventions were assessed in a risk assessment model (Dodd et al., 2011). Risk assessment and prediction models suggest that a reduction in cattle shedding of E. coli O157 during the pre-harvest stage will reduce the burden of human E. coli O157 illnesses (Rotariu et al., 2012; Matthews et al., 2013; Smith et al., 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human illness due to infections with Escherichia coli O157 is a serious health concern. Infection occurs through direct contact with infected animals or their faeces, through contaminated food or water and/or through person-to-person transmission. A reduction in faecal E. coli O157 shedding in cattle might reduce the burden of human infections. We used systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of direct-fed microbials (DFM), compared with placebo or no treatment, fed during the pre-harvest stage of production in reducing faecal E. coli O157 shedding in beef cattle during field trials. Four electronic databases, Nebraska Beef Reports and review article reference lists were searched. A total of 16 publications assessing faecal shedding at the end of the trial and/or throughout the trial period were included. The majority of publicly disseminated trials evaluated the prevalence of E. coli O157 faecal shedding; only two evaluated the concentration of organisms in faeces. The prevalence of faecal E. coli O157 shedding in cattle is significantly reduced by DFM treatments (summary effect size for all DFM – OR = 0.46; CI = 0.36–0.60). The DFM combination Lactobacillus acidophilus (NP51) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii (NP24) was more efficacious in reducing the prevalence of faecal E. coli O157 shedding at the time of harvest and throughout the trial period compared with the group of other DFM, although this difference was not statistically significant. Furthermore, we found that the combination [NP51 and NP24] treatment was more efficacious in reducing the prevalence of faecal E. coli O157 shedding at the time of harvest and throughout the trial period when fed at the dose of 109 CFU/animal/day than any lesser amount, although this difference was not statistically significant. Feeding beef cattle DFM during the pre-harvest stage of production reduces the prevalence of E. coli O157 faecal shedding and might effectively reduce human infections.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
    • "An important finding of this study is that two doses of the SRP ® vaccine applied in a commercial feedlot reduced E. coli O157:H7 shedding by more than 50% and reduced high shedders by more than 75%. These results from a cattle population with relatively high levels of E. coli O157:H7 have important practical implications since efficacy of pre-harvest interventions is most important when prevalence is high [13]. Another important finding is that the commercial DFM (Bovamine ® ) had no effect on E. coli O157:H7 fecal shedding. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our primary objective was to determine the efficacy of a siderophore receptor and porin proteins-based vaccine (VAC) and a Lactobacillus acidophilus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) against fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercial feedlot cattle fed a corn grain-based diet with 25% distiller's grains. Cattle projected to be on a finishing diet during the summer were randomly allocated into 40 study pens within ten blocks based on allocation dates. Blocks were complete; each of the four pens within a block was randomly assigned one treatment: control, VAC, DFM, or VAC+DFM. The DFM was fed (10(6)CFU/animal/day of Lactobacillus) throughout the study periods (84-88 days) and cattle were vaccinated at enrollment and again three weeks later. Fresh fecal samples (30/pen) from pen floors were collected weekly for four consecutive weeks (study days 52-77). Two concurrent culture procedures were used to enable estimates of E. coli O157:H7 shedding prevalence and prevalence of high shedders. From 4800 total samples, 1522 (31.7%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7 and 169 (3.5%) were considered high shedders. Pen-level linear mixed models were used for data analyses. There were no significant interactions among treatments and time of sampling. However, vaccinated pens had lower (P<0.01) overall prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 (model-adjusted mean ±SEM=17.4±3.95%) and lower (P<0.01) prevalence of high shedders (0.95±0.26%) than unvaccinated pens (37.0±6.32% and 4.19±0.81%, respectively). There was no evidence of a DFM effect on either measure of E. coli O157:H7 shedding. Results indicate that a two-dose regimen of the vaccine significantly reduces fecal prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 (vaccine efficacy of 53.0%) and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 high shedders (vaccine efficacy of 77.3%) in commercial feedlot cattle reared in the summer on a finishing diet with 25% distiller's grains.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012
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