Morey, M., Castro-Feijoo, L., Barreiro, J., Cabanas, P., Pombo, M., Gil, M. et al. Genetic diagnosis of X-linked dominant Hypophosphatemic Rickets in a cohort study: tubular reabsorption of phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D serum levels are associated with PHEX mutation type. BMC Med. Genet. 12, 116

Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
BMC Medical Genetics (Impact Factor: 2.08). 09/2011; 12(1):116. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-116
Source: PubMed


Genetic Hypophosphatemic Rickets (HR) is a group of diseases characterized by renal phosphate wasting with inappropriately low or normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) serum levels. The most common form of HR is X-linked dominant HR (XLHR) which is caused by inactivating mutations in the PHEX gene. The purpose of this study was to perform genetic diagnosis in a cohort of patients with clinical diagnosis of HR, to perform genotype-phenotype correlations of those patients and to compare our data with other HR cohort studies.
Forty three affected individuals from 36 non related families were analyzed. For the genetic analysis, the PHEX gene was sequenced in all of the patients and in 13 cases the study was complemented by mRNA sequencing and Multiple Ligation Probe Assay. For the genotype-phenotype correlation study, the clinical and biochemical phenotype of the patients was compared with the type of mutation, which was grouped into clearly deleterious or likely causative, using the Mann-Whitney and Fisher's exact test.
Mutations in the PHEX gene were identified in all the patients thus confirming an XLHR. Thirty four different mutations were found distributed throughout the gene with higher density at the 3' end. The majority of the mutations were novel (69.4%), most of them resulted in a truncated PHEX protein (83.3%) and were family specific (88.9%). Tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP) and 1,25(OH)2D serum levels were significantly lower in patients carrying clearly deleterious mutations than in patients carrying likely causative ones (61.39 ± 19.76 vs. 80.14 ± 8.80%, p = 0.028 and 40.93 ± 30.73 vs. 78.46 ± 36.27 pg/ml, p = 0.013).
PHEX gene mutations were found in all the HR cases analyzed, which was in contrast with other cohort studies. Patients with clearly deleterious PHEX mutations had lower TRP and 1,25(OH)2D levels suggesting that the PHEX type of mutation might predict the XLHR phenotype severity.

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    • "In a recent study, patients with clearly deleterious (that resulted in premature stop codons, which included nonsense mutations, insertion or deletion and splice site mutations) PHEX mutations had lower tubular reabsorption of phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D levels than those with plausible causative mutations (which included missense mutations and an in-frame three-nucleotide deletion). This finding suggested that the type of PHEX mutation might predict the XLH phenotype.[16] In addition to the mineralization defect induced by hypophosphatemia, an intrinsic osteoblast defect also contributes to the bone disease and does not appear to respond to conventional treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hypophosphatemic rickets is a disorder of bone mineralization caused due to defects (inherited/acquired) in the renal handling of phosphorus. This group includes varied conditions, X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets being the most common inheritable form of rickets. The other common forms are autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets and tumor-induced osteomalacia. Although these conditions exhibit different etiologies, increased phosphatonins form a common link among them. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is the most widely studied phosphatonin. Genetic studies tend to show that the phosphorus homeostasis depends on a complex osteo-renal axis, whose mechanisms have been poorly understood so far. Newer disorders are being added as the mechanisms in this axis get discovered. This review focuses on the clinical, biochemical, genetic features and management of hypophosphatemic disorders leading to defective mineralization.
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    ABSTRACT: X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) caused by mutations in the PHEX gene is considered to be the most frequent cause of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-related congenital hypophosphatemic rickets. In previous studies, mutations in the PHEX gene were detected in 60-70% of patients with clinical diagnoses of XLHR. This leads to the question whether current screening methods for mutations in the PHEX gene are inadequate or whether there is a substantial number of patients with other genetic causes of hypophosphatemic rickets. We conducted a genetic analysis of patients with FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets to clarify their etiology and evaluate the prevalence of XLHR among this group. We studied 27 patients with familial and sporadic congenital hypophosphatemic rickets in whom serum FGF23 was above 30 pg/ml using an assay for the full-length protein. Exons and exon-intron junctions of genomic DNA of causative genes for FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets were sequenced. PHEX mRNA from peripheral blood was analyzed in some patients. Direct sequencing of genomic DNA identified 11 novel and four known mutations in the PHEX gene. Additionally, there was a large PHEX gene deletion in one case and abnormal PHEX mRNA splicing in another. In summary, 26 patients (96%) had XLHR and one patient had autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets 2. XLHR is by far the most prevalent cause of FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets. We propose that analysis of PHEX mRNA from peripheral blood would be appropriate for the first screening step in determining the etiology of FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · European Journal of Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify the underlying genetic mutation in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR). Genomic DNA was analysed for mutations in PHEX, FGF23 and CLCN5 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC). Bi-directional sequencing was performed in samples with deviating chromatographic profiles. DMP1 and SLC34A3 were sequenced, only. In addition, a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was performed to detect larger deletions/duplications in PHEX or FGF23. Familial cases accounted for 12 probands while 12 cases were sporadic. In 20 probands, mutations were detected in PHEX of which 12 were novel, and one novel frameshift mutation was found in DMP1. Three PHEX mutations were identified by the MLPA analysis only; that is, two large deletions and one duplication. No mutations were identified in FGF23, SLC34A3 or CLCN5. By the methods used, a disease causing mutation was identified in 83% of the familial and 92% of the sporadic cases, thereby in 88% of the tested probands. Genetic analysis performed in HR patients by PCR, dHPLC, sequencing and in addition by MLPA analysis revealed a high identification rate of gene mutations causing HR, including 12 novel PHEX and one novel DMP1 mutation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Human Genetics
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