Selective Renal Parenchymal Clamping in Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy: A Multi-Institutional Experience

Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society (Impact Factor: 1.71). 09/2011; 25(9):1487-91. DOI: 10.1089/end.2010.0667
Source: PubMed


We describe our multi-institutional experience using a laparoscopic clamp to induce selective regional ischemia during robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) without hilar occlusion.
A retrospective review of Institutional Revew Board-approved databases of patients who underwent selective regional clamping during RALPN at four institutions was performed.
In 20 patients who were treated for elective indications, RALPN with parenchymal clamping was successful in 17 (85%). Mean age was 63 years (24-78 y). Median tumor diameter was 2.2 cm (1.1-7.2 cm). Mass location was polar in 13 (76%) and interpolar in 4 (24%). Median R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score was 6 (4-10). Median overall operative time was 190 minutes (129-309 min), while selective clamp time was 26 minutes (19-52 min). Collecting system repair occurred in 8 (47%) patients. No patients needed a blood transfusion. There was no significant difference in preoperative (median 86 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and immediate postoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (median 78 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P=0.33) or with the most recent GFR (median 78 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P=0.54) at a mean follow-up of 6.1 months (1.2-11.9 mos). Final pathology determination revealed renal-cell carcinoma in 71% with no positive margins on frozen or final evaluation. In three additional patients who were undergoing RALPN, bleeding because of incomplete distal clamp compression necessitated subsequent central hilar clamping for the completion of the procedure.
In our preliminary multi-institutional experience, regional ischemia using a laparoscopic parenchymal clamp is feasible during RALPN for hemostasis. Careful preoperative selection of patients is needed to determine ideal patient and tumor characteristics. Further comparison studies are necessary to determine the true utility of this technique.

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    ABSTRACT: To analyze factors impacting postoperative renal function after open partial nephrectomy using both the clampless and clamped warm-ischemic technique. We studied a cohort of patients who underwent clamped partial nephrectomy (n = 164) and clampless partial nephrectomy (n = 64) from March 2002 to March 2009 with ≥12-months follow-up. Clamped partial nephrectomy used hilar occlusion before resection. Clampless partial nephrectomy used focal radio frequency coagulation to facilitate hemostasis before resection, nonischemic dissection/resection with hydro-dissection, or sharp resection after local compression. Demographics, tumor characteristics/RENAL nephrometry scores, perioperative variables, and complications were compared between the two methods. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors predicting de novo estimated glomerular filtration rate <60. Patient characteristics were similar between groups. Mean RENAL score was greater in clamped (6.9) vs clampless (6.4, P = .026); complications (P = .430) and urine leaks (clampless partial nephrectomy 3.1% vs clamped-PN 7.3%, P = .360) were similar. Mean warm ischemia time (min) was 24.5 for clamped partial nephrectomy. De novo estimated glomerular filtration rate <60(%) at last follow up was 13.5 (clamped) vs 3.1 (clampless) (P = .071). Multivariable analysis of the entire cohort revealed increasing body mass index (OR 1.1, P = .042) and RENAL score (OR 1.71, P = .002) as being independently associated with development of postoperative de novo estimated glomerular filtration rate <60. Multivariable analysis of the clamped subgroup demonstrated increasing body mass index (OR 1.12, P = .028), RENAL score (OR 1.56, P = .010), and ischemia time (OR 1.15, P = .042) as independent factors associated with de novo estimated glomerular filtration rate <60. Body mass index and RENAL score were factors predictive of development of de novo estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 after partial nephrectomy, with increasing warm ischemia time also being predictive in clamped partial nephrectomy patients. Further investigation and long-term functional data are requisite.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Urology
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    ABSTRACT: To compare perioperative outcomes after robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) with hilar clamping vs parenchymal clamping. A retrospective, single-institution review of the patients undergoing RALPN with hilar or parenchymal clamping was performed. Associations between perioperative factors and clinicopathologic outcomes were determined using the t test, Fisher's exact test, and multivariate linear regression. In 51 patients undergoing RALPN, 36 (71%) and 15 (29%) were performed with hilar and parenchymal clamping, respectively. Median tumor diameter was 2.8 cm for both groups (range, 1.1-6.1; P = .93). Tumor complexity by nephrometry score was mild (69% vs 80%), moderate (29% vs 20%), and high (2% vs 0%) in the respective groups (P = .65). Operative time was significantly shorter in the parenchymal clamp group (median 245 vs 320 minutes; P <.0001). There was no difference in blood loss and need for transfusion. On multivariate analysis, hilar clamping (P <.01), higher body mass index (P = .01), and higher complexity tumors (P = .02) were significantly associated with longer operative times. The parenchymal clamp group had better preservation of immediate postoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from baseline to postoperative day 2 (median ΔGFR 0 vs -18 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = .02). These differences from baseline did not persist (median ΔGFR -6 vs -7 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = .35) at a median follow-up of 6.6 months. Final pathology determination of malignancy (P = .51) and positive margin rates (P = .26) were similar in both groups. Compared with hilar clamping, selective regional ischemia with the parenchymal clamp for mild-moderately complex tumors is feasible and safe during RALPN. Parenchymal clamping is associated with enhanced immediate preservation of GFR and shorter operative times.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Urology
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    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Canadian Journal of Urology
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