Prevalence, Severity, and Treatment of Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (CA-MRSA) Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in 10 Medical Clinics in Texas: A South Texas Ambulatory Research Network (STARNet) Study

College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA.
The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.98). 09/2011; 24(5):543-50. DOI: 10.3122/jabfm.2011.05.110073
Source: PubMed


Quantify the prevalence, measure the severity, and describe treatment patterns in patients who present to medical clinics in Texas with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI).
Ten primary care clinics participated in this prospective, community-based study. Clinicians consented patients and collected clinical information, pictures, and wound swabs; data were processed centrally. MRSASelect™ was used for identification. Susceptibilities were determined via Etest®.
Overall, 73 of 119 (61%) patients presenting with SSTIs meeting eligibility requirements had CA-MRSA. Among these, 49% were male, 79% were Hispanic, and 30% had diabetes. Half (56%) of the lesions were ≥ 5 cm in diameter. Most patients had abscesses (82%) and many reported pain scores of ≥ 7 of 10 (67%). Many presented with erythema (85%) or drainage (56%). Most received incision and drainage plus an antibiotic (64%). Antibiotic monotherapy was frequently prescribed: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) (78%), clindamycin (4%), doxycycline (2%), and mupirocin (2%). The rest received TMP-SMX in combination with other antibiotics. TMP-SMX was frequently administered as one double-strength tablet twice daily. Isolates were 93% susceptible to clindamycin and 100% susceptible to TMP-SMX, doxycycline, vancomycin, and linezolid.
We report a predominance of CA-MRSA SSTIs, favorable antibiotic susceptibilities, and frequent use of TMP-SMX in primary care clinics.

Download full-text


Available from: Christopher Raymond Frei
  • Source
    • "In the present study, S. aureus was the most frequent pathogen isolated from skin and soft tissue pyogenic lesions. This result was already expected and agrees with the results of other studies.13-16 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus has a notable ability to acquire resistance to antibiotics, and methicillin resistance represents a growing public health problem. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has also become important outside the hospital environment, particularly in the United States. In Brazil, since 2005, cases of community skin infections caused by MRSA have been reported, but resistance studies involving outpatients are scarce. To know the resistance profile of S. aureus involved in skin and soft tissue infections of patients seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Prospective study involving 30 patients with skin and soft tissue infections, seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic from May until November 2011. To evaluate the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotics, the disk diffusion method and oxacillin screening agar were used. From a total of 30 samples of skin lesions, 19 (63%) had positive culture for S. aureus. The following resistance patterns of S. aureus were observed: penicillin, 95%; tetracycline, 32%; erythromycin, 21%; gentamicin, 16%; cefoxitin, 11%; oxacillin, 11%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 11%; chloramphenicol, 11%; clindamycin, 5% ; and ciprofloxacin, 0%. One of the identified MRSA was obtained from a patient without risk factors for its acquisition, and was resistant, beyond to the beta-lactams, only to tetracycline. With regard to the resistance patterns of S. aureus, resistances to tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were the highest. It was documented, for the first time in Pernambuco, a case of skin infection caused by community-associated MRSA.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bacterial skin and soft tissues infections (SSTI) often determine acute disease and frequent emergency recovering, and they are one of the most common causes of infection among groups of different ages. Given the variable presentation of SSTI, a thorough assessment of their incidence and prevalence is difficult. The presence of patient-related (local or systemic) or environmental risk factors, along with the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens, can promote SSTI. These infections may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features and different severity, and can be classified according to various criteria. Many bacterial species can cause SSTI, but Gram-positive bacteria are the most frequently isolated, with a predominance of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The diagnosis of SSTI requires an extended clinical history, a thorough physical examination and a high index of suspicion. Early diagnosis is particularly important in complicated infections, which often require laboratory studies, diagnostic imaging and surgical exploration. SSTI management should conform to the epidemiology, the aetiology, the severity and the depth of the infection. Topical, oral or systemic antimicrobial therapy and drainage or debridement could be necessary, along with treatment of a significant underlying disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, the pathogenesis and the classification of bacterial SSTI, describes their associated risk factors and their clinical presentations. The authors provide a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach to SSTI in respect of antibiotic resistance and currently available antimicrobial agents.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes threatening infection-related mortality worldwide. Currently, spread of multi-drug resistance (MDR) MRSA limits therapeutic options and requires new approaches to “druggable” target discovery, as well as development of novel MRSA-active antibiotics. RNA polymerase primary σ70 (encoded by gene rpoD) is a highly conserved prokaryotic factor essential for transcription initiation in exponentially growing cells of diverse S. aureus, implying potential for antisense inhibition.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · PLoS ONE
Show more