Distinguishing the proapoptotic and antiresorptive functions of risedronate in murine osteoclasts: Role of the Akt pathway and the ERK/Bim axis
University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Arthritis & Rheumatology
(Impact Factor: 7.76).
12/2011; 63(12):3908-17. DOI: 10.1002/art.30646
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates are one of the most successful therapeutics for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the functional mechanism of one of the typical nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, risedronate.
Osteoclasts generated from murine bone marrow macrophages were treated with risedronate in vitro, and its effects on apoptosis and bone-resorbing activity were examined. The mechanism of action of risedronate was examined by gene induction of constitutively active Akt-1 and constitutively active MEK-1, and by gene deletion of Bim. Bim(-/-) mice, in which osteoclasts were resistant to apoptosis, were treated with risedronate and analyzed radiographically, biochemically, and histologically.
Risedronate induced osteoclast apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway with an increased expression of Bim, and the proapoptotic effect of risedronate was suppressed by Bim deletion and constitutively active MEK-1 introduction. In contrast, the risedronate-induced suppression of bone resorption was completely reversed by inducing constitutively active Akt-1, but not by Bim deletion or constitutively active MEK-1 introduction. These results suggested that apoptosis and bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts were regulated through the ERK/Bim axis and the Akt pathway, respectively, both of which were suppressed by risedronate. Although osteoclast apoptosis in response to risedronate administration was suppressed in the Bim(-/-) mice, risedronate treatment increased bone mineral density in Bim(-/-) mice at a level equivalent to that in wild-type mice.
Our findings indicate that the antiresorptive effect of risedronate in vivo is mainly mediated by the suppression of the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts and not by the induction of osteoclast apoptosis.
Available from: Jaw-Wen Chen
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ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are a class of pharmacologic compounds that are commonly used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis and malignant osteolytic processes. Studies have shown that bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a significant role in postnatal neovascularization. Whether the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate zoledronate inhibits ischemia-induced neovascularization by modulating EPC functions remains unclear.
Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced in wild-type mice after 2 weeks of treatment with vehicle or zoledronate (low-dose: 30 μg/kg; high-dose: 100 μg/kg). Doppler perfusion imaging demonstrated that the ischemic limb/normal side blood perfusion ratio was significantly lower in wild-type mice treated with low-dose zoledronate and in mice treated with high-dose zoledronate than in controls 4 weeks after ischemic surgery (control vs. low-dose vs. high-dose: 87±7% vs. *61±18% vs. **49±17%, *p<0.01, **p<0.005 compared to control). Capillary densities were also significantly lower in mice treated with low-dose zoledronate and in mice treated with high-dose zoledronate than in control mice. Flow cytometry analysis showed impaired mobilization of EPC-like cells (Sca-1(+)/Flk-1(+)) after surgical induction of ischemia in mice treated with zoledronate but normal levels of mobilization in mice treated with vehicle. In addition, ischemic tissue from mice that received zoledronate treatment exhibited significantly lower levels of the active form of MMP-9, lower levels of VEGF, and lower levels of phosphorylated eNOS and phosphorylated Akt than ischemic tissue from mice that received vehicle. Results of the in vitro studies showed that incubation with zoledronate inhibited the viability, migration, and tube-forming capacities of EPC.
Zoledronate inhibited ischemia-induced neovascularization by impairing EPC mobilization and angiogenic functions. These findings suggest that administration of zoledronate should be withheld in patients with ischemic events such as acute limb ischemia.
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ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts, highly differentiated bone-resorbing cells of hematopoietic origin, have two conflicting tendencies: a lower capacity to survive and a higher capacity to execute energy-consuming activities like bone resorption. Here, we report that mature mitochondria-rich osteoclasts have lower levels of intracellular ATP, which compared to their precursors, is associated with RANKL-induced Bcl-xL downregulation. Severe ATP depletion, caused by disrupting mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) gene, leads to increased bone-resorbing activity despite accelerated apoptosis. Although AMPK activation by ATP depletion is not involved in the regulation of osteoclast function, the release of ATP from intracellular stores negatively regulates bone-resorbing activity through an autocrine/paracrine feedback loop by altering cytoskeletal structures. Furthermore, osteoclasts derived from aged mice exhibit reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and intracellular ATP levels with increased bone-resorbing activity, implicating the possible involvement of age-related mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoporosis. Thus, our study provides evidence for a mechanism underlying the control of cellular functions by reciprocal changes in intracellular and extracellular ATP, which regulate the negative correlation between osteoclast survival and bone resorption.
Available from: jci.org
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ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are bone resorbing, multinucleate cells that differentiate from mononuclear macrophage/monocyte-lineage hematopoietic precursor cells. Although previous studies have revealed important molecular signals, how the bone resorptive functions of such cells are controlled in vivo remains less well characterized. Here, we visualized fluorescently labeled mature osteoclasts in intact mouse bone tissues using intravital multiphoton microscopy. Within this mature population, we observed cells with distinct motility behaviors and function, with the relative proportion of static - bone resorptive (R) to moving - nonresorptive (N) varying in accordance with the pathophysiological conditions of the bone. We also found that rapid application of the osteoclast-activation factor RANKL converted many N osteoclasts to R, suggesting a novel point of action in RANKL-mediated control of mature osteoclast function. Furthermore, we showed that Th17 cells, a subset of RANKL-expressing CD4+ T cells, could induce rapid N-to-R conversion of mature osteoclasts via cell-cell contact. These findings provide new insights into the activities of mature osteoclasts in situ and identify actions of RANKL-expressing Th17 cells in inflammatory bone destruction.
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