Geographic remoteness and risk of advanced colorectal cancer at diagnosis in Queensland: A multilevel study

Viertel Centre for Research in Cancer Control, Cancer Council Queensland, Spring Hill, Brisbane, QLD 4004, Australia.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.84). 09/2011; 105(7):1039-41. DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2011.356
Source: PubMed


We examine the relationships between geographic remoteness, area disadvantage and risk of advanced colorectal cancer.
Multilevel models were used to assess the area- and individual-level contributions to the risk of advanced disease among people aged 20-79 years diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Queensland, Australia between 1997 and 2007 (n=18,561).
Multilevel analysis showed that colorectal cancer patients living in inner regional (OR=1.09, 1.01-1.19) and outer regional (OR=1.11, 1.01-1.22) areas were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with advanced cancer than those in major cities (P=0.045) after adjusting for individual-level variables. The best-fitting final model did not include area disadvantage. Stratified analysis suggested this remoteness effect was limited to people diagnosed with colon cancer (P=0.048) and not significant for rectal cancer patients (P=0.873).
Given the relationship between stage and survival outcomes, it is imperative that the reasons for these rurality inequities in advanced disease be identified and addressed.

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    • "d Period-stratified models adjusted for sex, age, cancer site, residential remoteness, SEIFA quintile and country of birth. Australian studies [9,24], we found this association for colorectal cancer, and it was more pronounced in 2000–2009. This may reflect the increased and variable use of faecal occult blood test (FOBT) testing and endoscopy across socio-economic groups in recent years. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Past studies generally indicate that socio-demographic disadvantage is associated with lower cancer survival but evidence of an association with stage of cancer at diagnosis has been less consistent. This study examines the associations between distant summary stage and remoteness, socio-economic status and country of birth in New South Wales for invasive cancers overall and by cancer site. Methods: The population-based New South Wales Central Cancer Registry was used to obtain data on all cases diagnosed in 1980-2009 (n=699,382). Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for odds of distant summary stage at diagnosis. Results: A higher likelihood of being diagnosed with distant cancer was detected for those living in the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas compared with the least disadvantaged areas (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.24-1.30) and for those born in other English and non-English speaking countries compared with Australian-born (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.12 and OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.14, respectively) after adjusting for age, sex, diagnostic period, remoteness, socio-economic status and country of birth. Cases living in inner (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.88-0.91) and outer regional (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.89-0.94) areas were less likely to be diagnosed with distant stage than cases living in major cities. Odds of distant stage increased over time for those living in socio-economically disadvantaged areas. In cancer site-specific analyses, living in socio-economically disadvantaged areas was generally a stronger predictor of distant stage than remoteness or country of birth. Conclusion: Our results highlight the importance of lower socio-economic status as a predictor of distant stage at diagnosis. Socio-demographic disadvantage patterns varied for specific cancers, but in general, policy actions are recommended that emphasize earlier detection of cancers in people from lower socio-economic areas.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "Studies from other western countries have provided only limited and inconsistent findings (Coughlin et al., 2006; Clegg et al., 2009; Donnelly and Gavin, 2011). However, numerous studies have suggested that disadvantaged individuals and/or those living far from a reference cancer centre or in remote areas could have poorer access to CRC screening and to specialized healthcare, or could be more prone to an advanced stage at diagnosis leading to a worse prognosis (Dejardin et al., 2005; Blais et al., 2006; Parikh-Patel et al., 2006; Dejardin et al., 2008; Von Wagner et al., 2009; Jambon et al., 2010; Lejeune et al., 2010; Baade et al., 2011; Hines et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of area deprivation and primary care facilities on colorectal adenoma detection and on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence in a French well-defined population before mass screening implementation. The study population included all patients aged 20 years or more living in Côte d'Or (France) with either colorectal adenoma or invasive CRC first diagnosed between 1995 and 2002 and who were identified from the Burgundy Digestive Cancer Registry and the Côte d'Or Polyp Registry. Area deprivation was assessed using the European deprivation index on the basis of the smallest French area available (Ilots Regroupés pour l'Information Statistique). Healthcare access was assessed using medical density of general practitioners (GPs) and road distance to the nearest GP and gastroenterologist. Bayesian regression analyses were used to estimate influential covariates on adenoma detection and CRC incidence rates. The results were expressed as relative risks (RRs) with their 95% credibility interval. In total, 5399 patients were diagnosed with at least one colorectal adenoma and 2125 with invasive incident CRC during the study period. Remoteness from GP [RR=0.71 (0.61-0.83)] and area deprivation [RR=0.98 (0.96-1.00)] independently reduced the probability of adenoma detection. CRC incidence was only slightly affected by GP medical density [RR=1.05 (1.01-1.08)] without any area deprivation effect [RR=0.99 (0.96-1.02)]. Distance to gastroenterologist had no impact on the rates of adenoma detection or CRC incidence. This study highlighted the prominent role of access to GPs in the detection of both colorectal adenomas and overall cancers. Deprivation had an impact only on adenoma detection.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
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    • "This seems consistent with findings that increasing remoteness of residence and area-based social disadvantage are independently associated with lower colorectal cancer survival [37]. The reasons for this are unclear, however, evidence that patients living outside major cities have a higher risk of advanced colorectal cancer at diagnosis[38] and also that survival decreases with increasing distance to the patient’s closest radiotherapy treatment facility [39] suggest that differential access to diagnostic and treatment services are possible factors. Hence, these patients may experience greater disease burden as a result of poorer access to optimal medical treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background This longitudinal study describes the five year trajectories of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and life satisfaction in long term colorectal cancer survivors. Patients and methods A population-based sample of 1966 colorectal cancer survivors were surveyed at six time points from five months to five years post-diagnosis. Predictor variables were: socio-demographic variables, optimism; cancer threat appraisal; perceived social support. Quality of life was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (HR-QOL); and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Growth mixture models were applied to identify trajectory classes and their predictors. Results Distinct adjustment trajectories were identified for HR-QOL and life satisfaction. Lower optimism, poorer social support, a more negative cognitive appraisal, and younger age were associated with poorer life satisfaction, while survivors with less than 8 years of education had higher life satisfaction. This pattern was similar for overall HR-QOL except that educational level was not a significant predictor and later stage disease and female gender emerged as related to poorer outcomes. One in five survivors reported poorer constant HR-QOL (19.2%) and a small group had poor life satisfaction (7.2%); 26.2% reported constant high HR-QOL and 48.8% had high constant life satisfaction. Socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness of residence uniquely predicted poorer outcomes in the colorectal cancer specific HR-QOL sub domain. Conclusion Although HR-QOL and subjective cognitive QOL share similar antecedents their trajectory patterns suggested they are distinct adjustment outcomes; with life satisfaction emerging as temporally stable phenomenon. Unique patterns of risk support suggest the need to account for heterogeneity in adjustment in longitudinal QOL studies with cancer survivors.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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