Medical Schools in the United States, 2010-2011

Division of Undergraduate Medical Education, American Medical Association, 515 N State St, Chicago, IL 60654, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 09/2011; 306(9):1007-14. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.1220
Source: PubMed
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    • "Given that only 18 Fortune 500 companies were run by women as of 2012 (Hoare 2012), a version of WAGES for use by human resources training is sorely needed. Furthermore, with women comprising only about 29 % of all physicians (Physician Statistics 2012), yet comprising just under half of all medical students (Barzansky and Etzel 2011), WAGES could help with understanding the biases that continue to exist in medical education and academic medicine. Future work will be aimed at developing WAGES for use in these contexts. "
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    ABSTRACT: Interventions aimed at raising awareness of gender inequity in the workplace provide information about sexism, which can elicit reactance or fail to promote self-efficacy. We examined the effectiveness of experiential learning using the Workshop Activity for Gender Equity Simulation – Academic version (WAGES-Academic) to deliver gender inequity information. To assess whether the way gender inequity information is presented matters, we compared WAGES-Academic to an Information Only condition (knowledge without experiential learning) and a Group Activity control condition. We predicted that only the information presented in an experiential learning format (i.e., WAGES-Academic) would be retained because this information does not provoke reactance and instills self-efficacy. Participants (n = 241; U.S. college students from a large mid-Atlantic state university) filled out a gender equity knowledge test at baseline, after the intervention, and then 7–11 days later (to assess knowledge retention). In addition, we measured feelings of reactance and self-efficacy after the intervention. Results revealed that participants in the WAGES condition retained more knowledge than the other conditions. Furthermore, the effect of WAGES vs. Information Only on knowledge was mediated by WAGES producing less reactance and greater feelings of self-efficacy. Results suggest that experiential learning is a powerful intervention to deliver knowledge about gender equity in a non-threatening, lasting way.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Sex Roles
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    • "Students have an average of 21 h per week in direct instruction over 38 weeks in the preclinical years (Barzansky & Etzel 2011). In the clinical years, students spend 38–47 weeks per year in direct instruction (Barzansky & Etzel 2011). The style of instruction in the preclinical years is often lecture and case-based learning, with laboratory experiences ( particularly with the use of cadavers). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article was written to provide a brief history of the medical educational system in the USA, the current educational structure, and the current topics and challenges facing USA medical educators today. The USA is fortunate to have a robust educational system, with over 150 medical schools, thousands of graduate medical education programs, well-accepted standardized examinations throughout training, and many educational research programs. All levels of medical education, from curriculum reform in medical schools and the integration of competencies in graduate medical education, to the maintenance of certification in continuing medical education, have undergone rapid changes since the turn of the millennium. The intent of the changes has been to involve the patient sooner in the educational process, use better educational strategies, link educational processes more closely with educational outcomes, and focus on other skills besides knowledge. However, with the litany of changes have come increased regulation without (as of yet) clear evidence as to which of the changes will result in better physicians. In addition, the USA governmental debt crisis threatens the current educational structure. The next wave of changes in the USA medical system needs to focus on what particular educational strategies result in the best physicians and how to fund the system over the long term.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Medical Teacher
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    ABSTRACT: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), a tool to objectively and fairly assess medical students' clinical competences, has become widely used in medical education worldwide. However, most medical schools in Taiwan have just begun to adopt this assessment method. In 2003, Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU) established the first standardized patient (SP) program in Taiwan and applied SPs with an OSCE. This study reports the process of the implementation of an OSCE at KMU, which includes collecting information, visiting leading clinical skills centers, consulting medical educators from other countries, holding international conferences, establishing an OSCE committee, writing cases, training SPs, administrating the OSCE, and receiving feedback from medical students. Most students were satisfied with the assessment and appreciated the learning experience. Based on the experience in 2003, the OSCE committee decided to incorporate the OSCE into the medical curriculum as a measure to assess medical students' clinical competences. In addition to assessing medical students' clinical competence, the OSCE can also be applied to other professional health education, such as dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy. We are currently sharing our experience with other colleges at KMU.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
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