Record of PCB congeners, sorbents and potential toxicity in core samples in Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 09/2011; 85(3):542-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.08.018
Source: PubMed


Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) is an active navigational system that serves a heavily industrial area of southern Lake Michigan. We have determined the amount of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), congener distributions, sorbent types and potential for dioxin-like PCB toxicity from two IHSC sediment cores. Vertical distributions of ΣPCBs (sum of 161 individual or coeluting congeners) ranged from 410 to 91000 and 1800 to 41000 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.) for cores 1 and 2, respectively. Core 1 showed its highest accumulation rate for the year ∼1979 and exhibits a strong Aroclor 1248 signal in sediments accumulating over the last 60 years. It appears that from the late 1930s until the beginning of the 1980s there was a large and constant input of PCBs into this system. This pattern differs from lake cores from the Great Lakes region which commonly exhibit a rapid increase, a peak, followed by a sharp decrease in the PCB accumulation rates. Core 2 also has a strong Aroclor 1248 signal in the top layers, but deeper layers show evidence of mixtures of Aroclors and/or weathering processes. High levels of black carbon as a fraction of total organic carbon were found in both cores (median ∼30%), which reflect the long history of local combustion sources. No strong relationship was found between ΣPCB concentration and sorbents. Both cores contain dioxin-like PCBs that are highest in concentration below the surface. The high levels of PCBs in the deep sediments are of concern because of plans to dredge this system.

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Available from: Keri C Hornbuckle
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    • "The soil was spiked with a mixture of PCB 52, PCB 77 and PCB 153 (99% pure) (Accustandard Inc., New Haven, CT) at the concentration of 500 ng/g each. This level of PCB contamination has been reported in soils and sediments previously (Martinez and Hornbuckle, 2011; Van Metre and Mahler, 2005). In this study we investigated the possibility of using switchgrass to clean up PCB contamination that is below the dredging requirement (50 ppm) but still poses a potential risk to human and environmental health. "
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    • "Research efforts have historically focused on the toxicity of dioxin-like PCBs; however, emerging evidence suggests that non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs with multiple ortho chlorine substitutions are particularly stable and predominate over dioxinlike congeners in environmental samples (Hwang et al., 2006; Kostyniak et al., 2005; Martinez and Hornbuckle, 2011) and in human tissues (DeCaprio et al., 2005; Marek et al., 2013; Megson et al., 2013; Schantz et al., 2010). NDL PCBs have been shown to interfere with normal neurodevelopment in vivo (Kenet et al., 2007; Schantz et al., 1997; Winneke, 2011; Yang et al., 2009) and to modulate neuronal connectivity via effects C The Author 2014. "
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    ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with multiple ortho chlorine substitutions sensitize ryanodine receptors (RyR), and this activity promotes Ca(2+)-dependent dendritic growth in cultured neurons. Many ortho-substituted congeners display axial chirality and we previously reported that the chiral congener PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) atropselectively sensitizes RyRs. Here, we test the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers differentially alter dendritic growth and other parameters of neuronal connectivity influenced by RyR activity. (-)-PCB 136, which potently sensitizes RyRs, enhances dendritic growth in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, whereas (+)-PCB 136, which lacks RyR activity, has no effect on dendritic growth. The dendrite promoting activity of (-)-PCB 136 is observed at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 nM, and is blocked by pharmacologic RyR antagonism. Neither atropisomer alters axonal growth or cell viability. Quantification of PCB 136 atropisomers in hippocampal cultures indicates that atropselective effects r on dendritic growth are not due to differential partitioning of atropisomers into cultured cells. Imaging of hippocampal neurons loaded with Ca(2+)-sensitive dye demonstrates that (-)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. Similarly, (-)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the activity of hippocampal neurons plated on microelectrode arrays. These data support the hypothesis that atropselective effects on RyR activity translate into atropselective effects of PCB 136 atropisomers on neuronal connectivity, and suggest that the variable atropisomeric enrichment of chiral PCBs observed in the human population may be a significant determinant of individual susceptibility for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes following PCB exposure.
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