Restrictive Physiology is Associated With Poor Outcomes in Children With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Lillie Frank Abercrombie Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.Pediatric Cardiology (Impact Factor: 1.31). 09/2011; 33(1):141-9. DOI: 10.1007/s00246-011-0106-6
Pediatric patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and restrictive physiology (RP) with poor outcomes have been identified, but data on their course are limited. Our goal was to delineate the clinical features and course of children with HCM and RP. An institutional review of 119 patients identified between 1985 and 2010 with the diagnosis of HCM was performed. The diagnosis of RP was based on >1 echocardiogram along with at least one of the following: left atrial enlargement without evidence of left ventricle dilation, E/E' ratio ≥ 10, and E/A ratio ≥ 3. Outcomes analysis was performed using Cox or Poisson regression when appropriate. RP was present in 50 (42%) patients. In patients without RP, 10-year freedom-from-death or aborted sudden cardiac death (aSCD), and death or heart transplant (HT), were 93.6 and 98.5%, respectively. In patients with RP, 10-year freedom-from-death or aSCD, and death or HT, were 59.0 and 71.2%, respectively. RP conferred a 3.5-fold increase in incidence rate of hospitalization (P = 0.01), a 3.8-fold increase in hazard of death or aSCD (P = 0.02), and a 5.7-fold increase in hazard of death or HT (P = 0.04). Assessment for RP is of paramount importance in children with HCM because those without RP have a good prognosis, and those with RP account for the majority of poor outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the second commonest form of heart muscle disease affecting children and adolescents and is a leading cause of sudden death in young athletes. The aetiology of HCM is heterogeneous in the paediatric population, and includes inborn errors of metabolism, neuromuscular disorders and malformation syndromes. However, most cases of apparently idiopathic HCM in childhood are caused by mutations in cardiac sarcomere protein genes. Patients with metabolic or syndromic HCM usually present in infancy or early childhood, whereas those with neuromuscular disorders are more frequently diagnosed in adolescence. The diagnosis of HCM in infants is often made during evaluation for a heart murmur or congestive heart failure. Older children are usually referred for evaluation of symptoms, electrocardiographic abnormalities or heart murmur, or for family screening following the diagnosis of HCM in a relative. Risk stratification in the paediatric population remains a challenge. As most cases of HCM are familial, evaluation of first-degree relatives and other family members at risk of inheriting the disease should be a routine component of clinical management.
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ABSTRACT: The number of children and adolescents suffering from heart failure is increasing dramatically. Some of these patients will progress to need advanced therapies in the form of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Over the past few years, increased attention has been focused on clinical use of existing devices as well the development of pediatric-specific ventricular assist devices (VADs). As in adult populations, these devices offer unique opportunities to successfully support children as a bridge-to-transplant, but increasing data suggest that bridge-to-recovery and bridge-to-destination are also viable options in select pediatric populations. Herein, we will review existing approaches as well describe future potential MCS options.