Math Fluency Is Etiologically Distinct From Untimed Math Performance, Decoding Fluency, and Untimed Reading Performance: Evidence From a Twin Study

Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
Journal of Learning Disabilities (Impact Factor: 1.9). 09/2011; 45(4):371-81. DOI: 10.1177/0022219411407926
Source: PubMed


The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the shared environment and genetics influenced the covariance among math fluency, untimed math measures, and reading measures. However, roughly two thirds of the variance in math fluency was independent from untimed math measures and reading, including reading fluency. The majority of this independent variance was the result of genetic factors that were longitudinally stable across two measurement occasions. These results suggest that math fluency, although related to other math measures, may also be a genetically distinct dimension of mathematics performance.

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