FKBP51 and FKBP52 in signaling and disease

The Border Biomedical Research Center and Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA.
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 9.39). 08/2011; 22(12):481-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2011.08.001
Source: PubMed


FKBP51 and FKBP52 are diverse regulators of steroid hormone receptor signaling, including receptor maturation, hormone binding and nuclear translocation. Although structurally similar, they are functionally divergent, which is largely attributed to differences in the FK1 domain and the proline-rich loop. FKBP51 and FKBP52 have emerged as likely contributors to a variety of hormone-dependent diseases, including stress-related diseases, immune function, reproductive functions and a variety of cancers. In addition, recent studies have implicated FKBP51 and FKBP52 in Alzheimer's disease and other protein aggregation disorders. This review summarizes our current understanding of FKBP51 and FKBP52 interactions within the receptor-chaperone complex, their contributions to health and disease, and their potential as therapeutic targets for the treatment of these diseases.

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Available from: Mario Galigniana
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    • "However, timcodar has not been shown to target the LMW FKBPs. FKBP51 and FKBP52 are also important regulators of nuclear receptors (Sanchez 2012; Storer et al. 2011). Unlike FKBP12, FKBP51 and FKBP52 contain three tetratricopeptide repeat domains which allow them to bind to the chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and steroid receptor complexes (Owens-Grillo et al. 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: The immunosuppressive ligand FK506 and the FK506-binding protein FKBP52 are stimulatory to glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity. Here, we explore the underlying mechanism by comparing GR activity and phosphorylation status in response to FK506 and the novel nonimmunosuppressive ligand timcodar (VX-853) and in the presence and absence of FKBP52 and the closely related protein FKBP51. Using mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) deficient knockout (KO) in FKBP51 or FKBP52, we show decreased GR activity at endogenous genes in 52KO cells, but increased activity in 51KO cells. In 52KO cells, elevated phosphorylation occurred at inhibitory serine 212 and decreased phosphorylation at the stimulatory S220 residue. In contrast, 51KO cells showed increased GR phosphorylation at the stimulatory residues S220 and S234. In wild-type (WT) MEF cells, timcodar, like FK506, potentiated dexamethasone-induced GR transcriptional activity at two endogenous genes. Using 52KO and 51KO MEF cells, FK506 potentiated GR activity in 51KO cells but could not do so in 52KO cells, suggesting FKBP52 as the major target of FK506 action. Like FK506, timcodar potentiated GR in 51KO cells, but it also increased GR activity in 52KO cells. Knock-down of FKBP51 in the 52KO cells showed that the latter effect of timcodar required FKBP51. Thus, timcodar appears to have a dual specificity for FKBP51 and FKBP52. This work demonstrates phosphorylation as an important mechanism in FKBP control of GR and identifies the first nonimmunosuppressive macrolide capable of targeting GR action.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    • "We then suspected that FKBP51 could impact immune function and inflammation given its role as an immunophilin and the known ability of GR to regulate transcription of inflammatory mediators [22]. Serum cytokines known to be affected by GR were examined from 6, 10, and 21 month old wild-type and FKBP5−/− mice (Figure 4). "
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    ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene combine with traumatic events to increase risk for post-traumatic stress and major depressive disorders (PTSD and MDD). These SNPs increase FKBP51 protein expression through a mechanism involving demethylation of the gene and altered glucocorticoid signaling. Aged animals also display elevated FKBP51 levels, which contribute to impaired resiliency to depressive-like behaviors through impaired glucocorticoid signaling, a phenotype that is abrogated in FKBP5-/- mice. But the age of onset and progressive stability of these phenotypes remain unknown. Moreover, it is unclear how FKBP5 deletion affects other glucocorticoid-dependent processes or if age-associated increases in FKBP51 expression are mediated through a similar epigenetic process caused by SNPs in the FKBP5 gene. Here, we show that FKBP51-mediated impairment in stress resiliency and glucocorticoid signaling occurs by 10 months of age and this increased over their lifespan. Surprisingly, despite these progressive changes in glucocorticoid responsiveness, FKBP5-/- mice displayed normal longevity, glucose tolerance, blood composition and cytokine profiles across lifespan, phenotypes normally associated with glucocorticoid signaling. We also found that methylation of Fkbp5 decreased with age in mice, a process that likely explains the age-associated increases in FKBP51 levels. Thus, epigenetic upregulation of FKBP51 with age can selectively impair psychological stress-resiliency, but does not affect other glucocorticoid-mediated physiological processes. This makes FKBP51 a unique and attractive therapeutic target to treat PTSD and MDD. In addition, aged wild-type mice may be a useful model for investigating the mechanisms of FKBP5 SNPs associated with these disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "An immunosuppressive drug containing FK506 could bind in this domain and inhibit PPIase activity [18]. FKBP52 could bind with steroid receptors in FKBPs [19]. FKBP52 contains four domains: a FKBP12 domain 1 (FK1), a FKBP12 domain 2 (FK2), a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain (TPR), and a calmodulin binding domain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by the hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein aggregation. FKBP52 (FK506 binding protein 52) has been found to inhibit Tau protein aggregation. This study found six different kinds of anthocyanins that have high binding potential. After analyzing the docking positions, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bond interactions, several amino acids were identified that play important roles in protein and ligand interaction. The proteins' variation is described using eigenvectors and the distance between the amino acids during a molecular dynamics simulation (MD). This study investigates the three loops based around Glu85, Tyr113, and Lys121-all of which are important in inducing FKBP52 activation. By performing a molecular dynamic simulation process between unbound proteins and the protein complex with FK506, it was found that ligand targets that docked onto the FK1 domain will decrease the distance between Glu85/Tyr113 and Glu85/Lys121. The FKBP52 structure variation may induce FKBP52 activation and inhibit Tau protein aggregation. The results indicate that anthocyanins might change the conformation of FKBP52 during binding. In addition, the purple anthocyanins, such as cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside, might be better than FK506 in regulating FKBP52 and treating Alzheimer's disease.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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