Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity in rats
Nutritional and Industrial Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Acta biochimica Polonica
(Impact Factor: 1.15).
In recent years there have been remarkable developments in the prevention of diseases, especially with regards to the role of free radicals and antioxidants. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be one mechanism by which ethanol causes liver injury. The protective effect of aqueous plant extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity was investigated in male Wistar rats. The rats were treated with 45 % ethanol (4.8 g/kg b.w.t.) for 16 days to induce alcoholic diseases in the liver. The activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride were monitored and the histological changes in liver examined in order to evaluate the protective effects of the plant extract. Hepatic malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione, as well as superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were determined for the antioxidant status. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in a statistically significant elevation of serum alanine aminotransferases and triglyceride levels, as well as a decrease in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase which was dramatically attenuated by the co-administration of the plant extract. Histological changes were related to these indices. Co-administration of the plant extract suppressed the elevation of lipid peroxidation, restored the reduced glutathion, and enhanced the superoxide dismutase activity. These results highlight the ability of Aframomum melegueta to ameliorate oxidative damage in the liver and the observed effects are associated with its antioxidant activities.
Available from: Christopher Elliott
- "For instance it has been reported that oral ingestion of its seed extract increases whole-body energy expenditure (Sugita et al., 2013). Other properties reported include antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the seed extract (Adefegha and Oboh, 2012), antihypertensive property (Gbolade, 2012), mycobacterial efflux inhibitory activity (Groblacher et al., 2012), hepatoprotective (Nwozo and Oyinloye, 2011) and reduction in gestational weight gain (Inegbenebor et al., 2009). Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A' enzyme (Agbonon et al., 2010), anticancer properties (Gismondi et al., 2013) and increased the production of male hormones in rats (Mbongue et al., 2012) have also been reported. "
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ABSTRACT: The ethnobotanical use of Aframomum melegueta in the treatment of urinary tract and soft tissue infection suggested that the plant has antimicrobial activity.
To substantiate the folkloric claims, an acetone, 50:50 acetone:methanol and 2:1 chloroform:methanol extracts were tested against E. coli K12; acetone extract and the fractions of acetone extracts were tested against L. monocytogenes. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed on the extract using L. monocytogenes as the test organism to isolate the bioactive compounds which were then tested against all the other organisms.
Four known labdane diterpenes (G3 and G5) were isolated for the first time from the rhizomes of A. melegueta and purified. These were tested against E. coli, L. monocytogenes, methicillin resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus to determine antibacterial activity. The result showed that two compounds G3 and G5 exhibited more potent antibacterial activity compared to the current clinically used antibiotics ampicillin, gentamicin and vancomycin and can be potential antibacterial lead compounds. The structure of the labdane diterpenes were elucidated using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry. A possible mode of action of the isolated compound G3 and its potential cytotoxicity towards mammalian cells were also discussed.
The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial compounds in the rhizomes of A. melegueta with a favourable toxicity profile which could be further optimized as antibacterial lead compounds.
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has been recognized as a critical pathogenetic mechanism for the initiation and the progression of hepatic injury in a variety of liver disorders. Antioxidants, including many natural compounds or extracts, have been used to cope with liver disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of cassia seed ethanol extract (CSE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury in mice. The animals were pre-treated with different doses of CSE (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg body weight) or distilled water for 5 days, then were injected intraperitoneally with CCl(4) (0.1% in corn oil, v/v, 20 ml/kg body weight), and sacrificed at 16 hours after CCl(4) exposure. The serum aminotransferase activities, histopathological changes, hepatic and mitochondrial antioxidant indexes, and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activities were examined. Consistent with previous studies, acute CCl(4) administration caused great lesion to the liver, shown by the elevation of the serum aminotransferase activities, mitochondria membrane permeability transition (MPT), and the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes. However, these adverse effects were all significantly inhibited by CSE pretreatment. CCl(4)-induced decrease of the CYP2E1 activity was dose-dependently inhibited by CSE pretreatment. Furthermore, CSE dramatically decreased the hepatic and mitochondrial malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, increased the hepatic and mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) levels, and restored the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). These results suggested that CSE could protect mice against CCl(4)-induced liver injury via enhancement of the antioxidant capacity.
Available from: Manikandaselvi S
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ABSTRACT: Lippia nodiflora L. (Verbenaceae) is widely used in traditional system of medicine to treat various diseases. This present study was undertaken to evaluate the hepato-protective effect of crude flavanoid fraction of aerial parts of Lippia nodiflora in ethanol induced oxidative stress in liver using experimental animal models. Ethanol-fed (5 g/kg/day) male rats were treated by crude flavanoid fraction (25, 50 mg/kg) for 21 days. The liver damage was indicated by the significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin, urea and decrease in total protein and triglyceride (TG). Lipid peroxidation markers like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were also measured. The crude flavanoid fraction showed significant (p<0.05) protective effect by decreasing the elevated liver marker enzymes, total bilirubin, lipid peroxidation marker and ameliorated the diminished serum total protein as well as antioxidant levels in a dose dependent manner. The protective effect of the crude flavanoid fraction was observed at both concentrations and was compared to that of the standard used. The results highlights the ability of crude flavanoid fraction of Lippia nodiflora to ameliorate oxidative damage in the liver and the observed effects are associated with its antioxidant activities.
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