Candidal infections of ventriculoperitoneal shunts

Department of Microbiology, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital, Sion, Mumbai - 400 002, India.
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences 07/2009; 4(2):73-5. DOI: 10.4103/1817-1745.57325
Source: PubMed


Although ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infection is a common complication of shunt procedures, fungal infection is considered to be rare. In the present study, we performed retrospective analysis of six cases in which candida infection occurred. In all these six cases, VP shunt was performed in children for hydrocephalus and the onset of symptoms varied between seven days to one month after the surgical procedure was performed. The commonest clinical signs and symptoms were fever (100%), vomiting (100%), and altered sensorium (50%). The commonest isolate was Candida albicans (66.66%) followed by Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata in one case each. All the patients were successfully treated with Amphotericin B and there was no mortality recorded.

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    • "Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures. Although infection is a common complication of shunt procedures, fungi are rarely implicated in VP shunt infections [1] [2] [3] [4]. Transient fungemia and secondary colonization of VP shunts in the absence of other risk factors for fungemia have been suggested as a possible mechanism of fungal VP infections [5] but definite evidence is lacking. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fungal infections in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with significant morbidity and death. Transient fungemia in immunocompetent patients without any other risk factors for fungemia has been suggested as a possible mechanism that may lead to serious fungal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections, but evidence is lacking. The clinical spectrum, diagnosis, and optimal therapy of Cyberlindnera fabianii infections remain to be determined. We describe the first case of CNS infection due to C. fabianii that occurred in an immunocompetent adult with a VP shunt. Spontaneous translocation with yeast that is not part of the normal gastrointestinal flora in the setting of ingestion of multiple servings of a fermentation product was the likely source from which Cyberlindnera fabianii gained entrance into the VP shunt system, causing meningitis in this patient. The authors conclude that, in view of the high morbidity associated with yeast infection of the CNS, long-term antifungal therapy should be strongly considered in cases where the VP shunt cannot be completely removed. Transient fungemia may lead to invasive disease in an immunocompetent host with VP shunt, even in the absence of any other risk factors for fungemia and even after remote placement of the VP shunt.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrocephalus in its various forms constitutes one of the major problems in pediatric neurosurgical practice. The placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is the most common form of treatment for hydrocephalus, so that all neurosurgeons struggle with shunt malfunctions and their complications. Well-known complications are connected with the use of the valve systems (malfunction, infectious, overdrainage, secondary craniosynostosis, etc.). We report an unusual case of protruding abdominal catheter from the urethra. This girl had received a VP shunt for hydrocephalus following surgery of posterior fossa medulloblastoma 4 years ago. After admission, the entire system was removed, antibiotic treatment was administered for 2 weeks, and a new VP shunt was placed. The postoperative course was uneventful. This complication is extremely rare.
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