Development rate of chronic kidney disease in hepatitis C virus patients with advanced fibrosis after interferon therapy

Toranomon Hospital, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
Hepatology Research (Impact Factor: 2.74). 08/2011; 41(10):946-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2011.00845.x
Source: PubMed


Aim: The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to assess the development incidence and predictive factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) after the termination of interferon therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive Japanese patients with liver cirrhosis.
Methods: A total of 650 HCV positive, liver cirrhotic patients who were treated with interferon and showed an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 after the termination of interferon therapy were enrolled. CKD was defined as an eGFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. End-stage-CKD was defined as an eGFR of <15 mL/min/1.73 m2. The primary goal is the new development of CKD and end-stage-CKD.
Results: Eighty-five patients developed CKD, and six patients progressed to end-stage-CKD. The development rate of CKD was 5.2% at the 5th year, 14.5% at the 10th year and 30.6% at the 15th year. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that CKD occurred when patients had age increments of 10 years (hazard ratio: 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61–3.35; P < 0.001), eGFR decrements of 10 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio: 1.66; 95% CI 1.27–2.16; P < 0.001), hypertension (hazard ratio: 2.00; 95% CI 1.13–3.53; P = 0.017), diabetes (hazard ratio: 1.79; 95% CI 1.02–3.14; P = 0.042), and non-clearance of HCV (hazard ratio: 2.67; 95% CI 1.34–5.32; P = 0.005). The development rate of end-stage-CKD was 0.4% at the 5th year, 1.6% at the 10th year and 2.8% at the 15th year.
Conclusions: The annual incidence for CKD among cirrhotic patients with HCV was determined to be about 1.0–1.5%. In addition, the annual incidence for end-stage-CKD is one order of magnitude lower than that of CKD.

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    • "Thus, our result suggests that the HCV clearance prevent the aggravation of prothrombin deficit and platelets diminution. Our previous reports have indicated that HCV clearance reduces type 2 diabetes mellitus [Arase et al., 2009], bone fracture [Arase et al., 2010], and chronic kidney disease [Arase et al., 2011]. In the present study, HCV clearance reduced the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the cumulative incidence and predictive factors for intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke after the termination of interferon (IFN) therapy in Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). A total of 4,649 HCV-positive patients treated with IFN were enrolled. The primary goal is the first onset of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke. The mean observation period was 8.0 years. Evaluation was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard model. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 28 developed intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke. The cumulative incidence of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke was 0.3% at 5 years, 0.8% at 10 years, and 1.7% at 15 years. Intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke occurred when patients had age increments of 10 years (hazard ratio: 2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-5.18; P = 0.001), hypertension (hazard ratio: 2.30; 95% CI 1.09-4.83; P = 0.021), liver cirrhosis (hazard ratio: 4.50; 95% CI 2.07-9.78; P < 0.001), and HCV non-clearance (hazard ratio: 3.22; 95% CI 1.22-8.53; P = 0.018). On the intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke based on the difference of liver fibrosis and efficacy of IFN therapy, HCV clearance reduced to 24.3% (1/4.11) compared to HCV non-clearance in cirrhotic patients (P = 0.040). In conclusion, HCV clearance reduced the development of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke. In particular, HCV clearance reduced intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke to about one-fourth in cirrhotic patients. J. Med. Virol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Medical Virology
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    • "In addition, HCV is more common in CKD patients who are not yet on dialysis than in the general population [6]. Previous research indicated that HCV infection leads to a rapid decline in the renal function of patients with diabetic nephropathy [7] and of HCV-infected patients with cirrhosis who terminated interferon therapy [8]. Collectively, these studies suggest that HCV infection has an adverse impact on renal function. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high prevalences in Taiwan and worldwide, but the role of HCV infection in causing CKD remains uncertain. This cohort study aimed to explore this association. This nationwide cohort study examined the association of HCV with CKD by analysis of sampled claims data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2004. ICD-9 diagnosis codes were used to identify diseases. We extracted data of 3182 subjects who had newly identified HCV infection and no traditional CKD risk factors and data of randomly selected 12728 matched HCV-uninfected control subjects. Each subject was tracked for 6 years from the index date to identify incident CKD cases. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the risk of CKD in the HCV-infected and control groups. The mean follow-up durations were 5.88 years and 5.92 years for the HCV-infected and control groups, respectively. Among the sample of 15910 subjects, 251 subjects (1.6%) developed CKD during the 6-year follow-up period, 64 subjects (2.0%) from the HCV-infected group and 187 subjects (1.5%) from the control group. The incidence rate of CKD was significantly higher in the HCV-infected group than in the control group (3.42 vs. 2.48 per 1000 person-years, p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis indicated that the HCV-infected group had significantly greater risk for CKD (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.25-2.43, p = 0.0009). This relationship also held for a comparison of HCV-infected and HCV-uninfected subjects who were younger than 70 years and had none of traditional CKD risk factors. HCV infection is associated with increased risk for CKD beyond the well-known traditional CKD risk factors. HCV patients should be informed of their increased risk for development of CKD and should be more closely monitored.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · BMC Nephrology
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with glomerular disease, which is manifested by proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction. To determine the prevalence of HCV-associated renal injury and associated risk factors, we performed an observational, analytic, cross-sectional study of 120 HCV-positive patients and 145 HCV-negative controls. Data were gathered from medical records and history-taking and at least three blood and urine analyses were performed over a 1-year period. Renal insufficiency was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or microalbuminuria of more than 20mg/l or a microalbumin/creatinine ratio higher than 30 mcg/mg. The prevalence of microalbuminuria and renal insufficiency was 19.3% and 11.7% in HCV-positive patients versus 10.5% and 0.7% in HCV-negative controls (p 0.04), respectively. A total of 26.1% of HCV-positive patients had signs of renal injury compared with 11.8% of HCV-negative controls (p 0.003). HCV infection was independently and significantly associated with the probability of worsening of renal function. The prevalence of microalbuminuria and renal insufficiency progressively increased with greater age. HCV-positive patients show a high prevalence of microalbuminuria and renal insufficiency compared with HCV-negative individuals. The risk of HCV-associated renal insufficiency is independent of the presence of other predisposing factors such hypertension and diabetes.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Gastroenterología y Hepatología
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