Contact Toxicity, Feeding Reduction, and Repellency of Essential Oils From Three Plants From the Ginger Family (Zingiberaceae) and Their Major Components Against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum

Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, 195 Dafoe Rd., Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2M9, Canada.
Journal of Economic Entomology (Impact Factor: 1.51). 08/2011; 104(4):1445-54. DOI: 10.1603/EC11050
Source: PubMed


The essential oils from rhizomes of Alpinia conchigera Griff, Zingiber zerumbet Smitt, Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe; their major compounds (camphene, camphor, 1,8-cineole, alpha-humulene, isoborneol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and terpinen-4-ol); and synthetic essential oils comprised of mixtures of major pure compounds in the same ratios as the extracted essential oils were tested for contact, feeding reduction, and repellency against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults. Via topical applications, the three extracted oils had similar toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 fiducial limits: 18-24 microg oil/mg insect). T. castaneum had similar sensitivity to all three oils (35-58 microg/mg), and it was less sensitive than S. zeamais. The LD50 values of synthetic A. conchigera and synthetic Z. zerumbet oils were similar to those of their corresponding extracted essential oils. The synthetic C. zedoaria oils showed lower contact toxicity than the extracted C. zedoaria oils to both insects. Sitophilus zeamais and T. castaneum were sensitive to terpinen-4-ol and isoborneol in contact toxicity tests. In antifeedant tests, the three extracted oils were able to decrease the consumption of flour disks, especially Z. zerumbet oils, whereas both insect species could feed on the flour disks treated with three synthetic essential oils. Only terpinen-4-ol deterred feeding in both insects. In repellency tests, A. conchigera oils at highest concentration repelled S. zeamais and T. castaneum. None of the synthetic essential oils repelled S. zeamais (315 microl/cm2) and T. castaneum (31 microl/cm2) Only terpinen-4-ol showed repellent activity against both insects.

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    • "volatile terpenic compounds in the plant powder, which were not lost when the leaves were dried due to the exposure to a slow drying in a low-temperature process. Although the action of chavibetol has not been studied yet, the effects of other components of the essential oil of P. pseudocaryophyllus on the behavior of various pest species of stored grains have been previously reported (Obeng- Ofori & Reichmuth 1997, Ogendo et al 2008, Zapata & Smagghe 2010, Ukeh & Urnoetok 2011, Suthisut et al 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Plant-based insecticides can play an important role in integrated insect pest management (IPM), especially in protecting stored grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of derivatives (powder, ethanolic extract, and essential oil (EO)) from the leaves of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae), a Brazilian native species, against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the main insect pest of stored corn. The powder and essential oil prepared from leaves showed a repellent effect. Moreover, the EO exhibited promising insecticidal activity through residual contact (LC50 = 1522 mg kg(-1)) and significantly decreased the F 1 progeny and the percentage of damaged grains. However, the essential oil obtained from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves did not result in significant mortality of S. zeamais adults after 72 h of exposure by fumigation in concentrations up to 400 μL L(-1) of air. Based on GC-MS analysis, 20 compounds were identified in the essential oil of P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves, being chavibetol (38.14%), methyl eugenol (11.35%), and terpinolene (9.17%) as the major constituents. Essential oil from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves is an interesting source of compounds with grain-protectant properties and should be analyzed in future studies aiming to develop new bioinsecticides to use in the IPM of stored grains.
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    • "Natural products are an excellent alternative to synthetic pesticides as a means to reduce negative impacts to human health and the environment (Koul et al., 2008 ▶). Plant essential oils may be an alternative source for B. tabaci control because these are secondary metabolites and source of bioactive chemicals that plants produce for defense against herbivory and disease source of bioactive chemicals (Suthisut et al., 2011 ▶). Iran has rich medical flora and essential oils from Iranian plants and their major constituents show potential for utilization in insect pest management programs due to their availability, efficiency, and safety to environment and non-target organisms (Ebdollahi, 2011 ▶). "
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    • "The associated detrimental effects on the environment and health, development of genetically resistant strains, erratic supply and control failures have become a major concern and thus, given impetus to the search for alternative methods of pest control to reduce the side effects of insecticides. Phytochemicals derived from plant sources can act as larvicides, insect growth regulators, repellents and ovipositor attractants, and these different activities have been observed by many researchers (Venketachalam and Jebasan, 2001; Silva et al., 2009; Ishii et al., 2010; Ntonifor et al., 2011; Suthisut et al., 2011; Asmanizar et al., 2012). Plants are considered rich sources of bioactive chemicals and may be an alternative source of insect control agents. "

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