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Contact Toxicity, Feeding Reduction, and Repellency of Essential
Oils from Three Plants from the Ginger Family (Zingiberaceae)
and their Major Components Against Sitophilus zeamais and
Author(s) :Duangsamorn Suthisut, Paul G. Fields, and Angsumarn Chandrapatya
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, 104(4):1445-1454. 2011.
Published By: Entomological Society of America
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Contact Toxicity, Feeding Reduction, and Repellency of Essential Oils
From Three Plants From the Ginger Family (Zingiberaceae) and
Their Major Components Against Sitophilus zeamais and
DUANGSAMORN SUTHISUT,1,2PAUL G. FIELDS,1,3AND ANGSUMARN CHANDRAPATYA2
J. Econ. Entomol. 104(4): 1445Ð1454 (2011); DOI: 10.1603/EC11050
The essential oils from rhizomes of Alpinia conchigera Griff, Zingiber zerumbet Smitt,
Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe; their major compounds (camphene, camphor, 1,8-cineole, ?-hu-
mulene, isoborneol, ?-pinene, ?-pinene and terpinen-4-ol); and synthetic essential oils comprised of
mixtures of major pure compounds in the same ratios as the extracted essential oils were tested for
contact, feeding reduction, and repellency against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium
S. zeamais (LD50, Þducial limits: 18Ð24 ?g oil/mg insect). T. castaneum had similar sensitivity to all
three oils (35Ð58 ?g/mg), and it was less sensitive than S. zeamais. The LD50values of synthetic A.
conchigera and synthetic Z. zerumbet oils were similar to those of their corresponding extracted
essential oils. The synthetic C. zedoaria oils showed lower contact toxicity than the extracted C.
zedoaria oils to both insects. Sitophilus zeamais and T. castaneum were sensitive to terpinen-4-ol and
isoborneol in contact toxicity tests. In antifeedant tests, the three extracted oils were able to decrease
the consumption of ßour disks, especially Z. zerumbet oils, whereas both insect species could feed on
the ßour disks treated with three synthetic essential oils. Only terpinen-4-ol deterred feeding in both
insects. In repellency tests, A. conchigera oils at highest concentration repelled S. zeamais and T.
?l/cm2). Only terpinen-4-ol showed repellent activity against both insects.
Alpinia conchigera, Zingiber zerumbet, Curcuma zedoaria, synthetic oil, contact tox-
Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium casta-
neum (Herbst) are serious pests of stored products
worldwide (Rees 2004). Control of these insects de-
pends in large part on the application of chemical
insecticides, either as residual insecticides or as fumi-
gants (Subramanyam and Hagstrum 1996). The most
commonly used fumigants are methyl bromide, phos-
phine, and sulfuryl ßuoride. Fumigants have a broad
ever, fumigation has some drawbacks; such as short
environment (Emekci 2010). Various groups of insec-
ticides such as organochlorines (lindane), organo-
phosphates (malathion), carbamates (carbaryl), and
pyrethroids (deltamethrin) are currently in use or
have been used as residual insecticides to control
stored-product insects. These insecticides are applied
to the empty granaries and warehouses, to bags or
directly to grain (Snelson 1987, White and Leesch
stored-product insects, but there is now widespread
resistance worldwide to this insecticide and other in-
secticides in stored-product insect populations (Sub-
insecticides than pest insects (Scho ¨ller and Flinn
2000), although there are a few cases where a para-
sitoid has developed resistance to an insecticide
whole plants or parts of plants to protect stored prod-
ucts from insect attack (Golob et al. 1999). For ex-
ample, neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) is com-
monly applied to grain and acts as a repellent,
juola 1989, Gerard and Ruf 1995, Senthil-Nathan et al.
used botanical insecticide (Snelson 1987). It is ex-
tracted from chrysanthemum [Tanacetum cinerariae-
1Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, 195
Dafoe Rd., Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2M9, Canada.
2Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart
University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
3Corresponding author, e-mail: paul.Þelds@agr.gc.ca.
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Received 16 February 2011; accepted 11 May 2011.
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