Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia with Corticobasal Degeneration Pathology: Phenotypic Comparison to bvFTD with Pick’s Disease

ArticleinJournal of Molecular Neuroscience 45(3):594-608 · September 2011with121 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s12031-011-9615-2 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) pathology present with diverse clinical syndromes also associated with other neuropathologies, including corticobasal syndrome, progressive nonfluent aphasia, and an Alzheimer's-type dementia. Some present with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), though this subtype still requires more detailed clinical characterization. All patients with CBD pathology and clinical assessment were reviewed (N = 17) and selected if they initially met criteria for bvFTD [bvFTD(CBD), N = 5]. Available bvFTD patients with Pick's [bvFTD(Pick's), N = 5] were selected as controls. Patients were also compared to healthy older controls [N = 53] on neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures. At initial presentation, bvFTD(CBD) showed few neuropsychological or motor differences from bvFTD(Pick's). Neuropsychiatrically, they were predominantly apathetic with less florid social disinhibition and eating disturbances, and were more anxious than bvFTD(Pick's) patients. Voxel-based morphometry revealed similar patterns of predominantly frontal atrophy between bvFTD groups, though overall degree of atrophy was less severe in bvFTD(CBD), who also showed comparative preservation of the frontoinsular rim, with dorsal > ventral frontal atrophy, and sparing of temporal and parietal structures relative to bvFTD(Pick's) patients. Despite a remarkable overlap between the two patient types, bvFTD patients with underlying CBD pathology show subtle clinical features that may distinguish them from patients with Pick's disease neuropathology.
    • "PSP is a neurodegenerative tauopathy that manifests with vertical gaze palsies, postural instability, bradykinesia , and dementia (Boxer et al. 2006). On the other hand, CBD, which is also a tauopathy, classically presents with asymmetric motor and cortical sensory dysfunction (Rankin et al. 2011; Rohrer et al. 2011 ). Our results indicate that a distinction between these diseases may be made on a neuroanatomical basis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and PurposeAccurate diagnosis of Atypical Parkinsonian Syndromes (APS) is important due to differences in prognosis and management, but remains a challenge in the clinical setting. The purpose of our meta-analysis was to identify characteristic patterns of gray matter atrophy in Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD), Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP), Multisystem-Atrophy Parkinsonian type (MSA-P), and Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (IPD).Materials and Methods Whole-brain meta-analysis was performed on 39 published voxel-based morphometry (VBM) articles (consisting of 404 IPD, 87 MSA-P, 165 CBD, and 176 PSP subjects) using the modified Anatomic Likelihood Estimation method. Based on these results, contrast analyses were then utilized to determine areas of atrophy shared by as well as unique to each disorder.ResultsCBD was characterized by asymmetric gray matter atrophy in multiple cortical regions, while the thalamus-midbrain and insula were predominantly involved in PSP. The striatum and superior cerebellum were affected in MSA-P, while IPD demonstrated an anterior cerebral pattern. Although there was a mild overlap among PSP, CBD, and MSA-P, significant regions of atrophy unique to each disorder were identified, including (1) the superior parietal lobule in CBD (2) putamen in MSA-P (3) insula and medial dorsal nucleus in PSP.Conclusion Our results suggest that there are characteristic patterns of atrophy in APS. Guided by these findings, future studies on the individual subject level may lead to the development of robust imaging biomarkers.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
    • "MAPT mutations have been associated with symmetrical anterior temporal lobe atrophy, with less pronounced frontal atrophy than that seen in Pick's disease (Whitwell et al., 2005). In PSP and CBD, there is atrophy of the posterior frontal regions, particularly involving the premotor regions, but in CBD, the atrophy is typically more widespread and asymmetrical, and the parietal region can be involved (Rankin et al., 2011). "
    Chapter · Jan 2015 · Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurophysiological studies in primates and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that the orbito-frontal cortex is involved in representing the reward value of stimuli and in the rapid learning and relearning of associations between visual stimuli and rewarding or punishing outcomes. In the present study, we tested patients with circumscribed surgical lesions in different regions of the frontal lobe on a new visual discrimination reversal test, which, in an fMRI study (O'Doherty, Kringelbach, Rolls, Hornak, & Andrews, 2001), produced bilateral orbito-frontal cortex activation in normal subjects. In this task, touching one of two simultaneously presented patterns produced reward or loss of imaginary money delivered on a probabilistic basis to minimize the usefulness of verbal strategies. A number of types of feedback were present on the screen. The main result was that the group of patients with bilateral orbito-frontal cortex lesions were severely impaired at the reversal task, in that they accumulated less money. These patients often failed to switch their choice of stimulus after a large loss and often did switch their choice although they had just received a reward. The investigation showed that bilateral lesions were required for this deficit, since patients with unilateral orbito-frontal cortex (or medial prefrontal cortex) lesions were not impaired in the probabilistic reversal task. The task ruled out a simple motor disinhibition as an explanation of the deficit in the bilateral orbito-frontal cortex patients, in that the patients were required to choose one of two stimuli on each trial. A comparison group of patients with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lesions was in some cases able to do the task, and in other cases, was impaired. Posttest debriefing showed that all the dorsolateral prefrontal patients who were impaired at the task had failed to pay attention to the crucial feedback provided on the screen after each trial about the amount won or lost on each trial. In contrast, all dorsolateral patients who paid attention to this crucial feedback performed normally on the reversal task. Further, it was confirmed that the bilateral orbito-frontal cortex patients had also paid attention to this crucial feedback, but in contrast had still performed poorly at the task. The results thus show that the orbital prefrontal cortex is required bilaterally for monitoring changes in the reward value of stimuli and using this to guide behavior in the task; whereas the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, if it produces deficits in the task, does so for reasons related to executive functions, such as the control of attention. Thus, the ability to determine which information is relevant when making a choice of pattern can be disrupted by a dorsolateral lesion on either side, whereas the ability to use this information to guide behavior is not disrupted by a unilateral lesion in either the left or the right orbito-frontal cortex, but is severely impaired by a bilateral lesion in this region. Because both abilities are important in many of the tasks and decisions that arise in the course of daily life, the present results are relevant to understanding the difficulties faced by patients after surgical excisions in different frontal brain regions.
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