Chemical Genetics of Zipper-interacting Protein Kinase Reveal Myosin Light Chain as a Bona Fide Substrate in Permeabilized Arterial Smooth Muscle

Smooth Muscle Research Group and the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6, Canada.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 08/2011; 286(42):36978-91. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.257949
Source: PubMed


Zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) has been implicated in Ca(2+)-independent smooth muscle contraction, although its specific role is unknown. The addition of ZIPK to demembranated rat caudal arterial strips induced an increase in force, which correlated with increases in LC(20) and MYPT1 phosphorylation. However, because of the number of kinases capable of phosphorylating LC(20) and MYPT1, it has proven difficult to identify the mechanism underlying ZIPK action. Therefore, we set out to identify bona fide ZIPK substrates using a chemical genetics method that takes advantage of ATP analogs with bulky substituents at the N(6) position and an engineered ZIPK capable of utilizing such substrates. (32)P-Labeled 6-phenyl-ATP and ZIPK-L93G mutant protein were added to permeabilized rat caudal arterial strips, and substrate proteins were detected by autoradiography following SDS-PAGE. Mass spectrometry identified LC(20) as a direct target of ZIPK in situ for the first time. Tissues were also exposed to 6-phenyl-ATP and ZIPK-L93G in the absence of endogenous ATP, and putative ZIPK substrates were identified by Western blotting. LC(20) was thereby confirmed as a direct target of ZIPK; however, no phosphorylation of MYPT1 was detected. We conclude that ZIPK is involved in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction through direct phosphorylation of LC(20).

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Available from: Justin A Macdonald
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    • "It has long been recognized that kinases other than MLCK may operate in SM, such as the Ca2+-independent kinases zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) [32], [35] and the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) [36], [37]. An interesting variation of this scheme involves Ca2+-independent kinases, such as proline-directed kinases [38], [39], [40], acting indirectly on RLC20, by phosphorylating and up-regulating MLCK. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the canonical model of smooth muscle (SM) contraction, the contractile force is generated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC20) by the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Moreover, phosphorylation of the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of the RLC20 phosphatase (MLCP) by the RhoA-dependent ROCK kinase, inhibits the phosphatase activity and consequently inhibits dephosphorylation of RLC20 with concomitant increase in contractile force, at constant intracellular [Ca(2+)]. This pathway is referred to as Ca(2+)-sensitization. There is, however, emerging evidence suggesting that additional Ser/Thr kinases may contribute to the regulatory pathways in SM. Here, we report data implicating the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in SM contractility. During both Ca(2+)- and agonist (U46619) induced SM contraction, RSK inhibition by the highly selective compound BI-D1870 (which has no effect on MLCK or ROCK) resulted in significant suppression of contractile force. Furthermore, phosphorylation levels of RLC20 and MYPT1 were both significantly decreased. Experiments involving the irreversible MLCP inhibitor microcystin-LR, in the absence of Ca(2+), revealed that the decrease in phosphorylation levels of RLC20 upon RSK inhibition are not due solely to the increase in the phosphatase activity, but reflect direct or indirect phosphorylation of RLC20 by RSK. Finally, we show that agonist (U46619) stimulation of SM leads to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2 and PDK1, consistent with a canonical activation cascade for RSK. Thus, we demonstrate a novel and important physiological function of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase, which to date has been typically associated with the regulation of gene expression.
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    ABSTRACT: The principal signal to activate smooth muscle contraction is phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains of myosin (LC(20)) at Ser(19) by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase. Inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase leads to Ca(2+)-independent phosphorylation at both Ser(19) and Thr(18) by integrin-linked kinase and/or zipper-interacting protein kinase. The functional effects of phosphorylation at Thr(18) on steady-state isometric force and relaxation rate were investigated in Triton-skinned rat caudal arterial smooth muscle strips. Sequential phosphorylation at Ser(19) and Thr(18) was achieved by treatment with adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) in the presence of Ca(2+), which induced stoichiometric thiophosphorylation at Ser(19), followed by microcystin (phosphatase inhibitor) in the absence of Ca(2+), which induced phosphorylation at Thr(18). Phosphorylation at Thr(18) had no effect on steady-state force induced by Ser(19) thiophosphorylation. However, phosphorylation of Ser(19) or both Ser(19) and Thr(18) to comparable stoichiometries (0.5 mol of P(i)/mol of LC(20)) and similar levels of isometric force revealed differences in the rates of dephosphorylation and relaxation following removal of the stimulus: t(½) values for dephosphorylation were 83.3 and 560 s, and for relaxation were 560 and 1293 s, for monophosphorylated (Ser(19)) and diphosphorylated LC(20), respectively. We conclude that phosphorylation at Thr(18) decreases the rates of LC(20) dephosphorylation and smooth muscle relaxation compared with LC(20) phosphorylated exclusively at Ser(19). These effects of LC(20) diphosphorylation, combined with increased Ser(19) phosphorylation (Ca(2+)-independent), may underlie the hypercontractility that is observed in response to certain physiological contractile stimuli, and under pathological conditions such as cerebral and coronary arterial vasospasm, intimal hyperplasia, and hypertension.
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    ABSTRACT: Ca(2+) sensitization of smooth muscle contraction depends upon the activities of protein kinases, including Rho-associated kinase, that phosphorylate the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) at Thr(697) and/or Thr(855) (rat sequence numbering) to inhibit phosphatase activity and increase contractile force. Both Thr residues are preceded by the sequence RRS, and it has been suggested that phosphorylation at Ser(696) prevents phosphorylation at Thr(697). However, the effects of Ser(854) and dual Ser(696)-Thr(697) and Ser(854)-Thr(855) phosphorylations on myosin phosphatase activity and contraction are unknown. We characterized a suite of MYPT1 proteins and phosphospecific antibodies for specificity toward monophosphorylation events (Ser(696), Thr(697), Ser(854), and Thr(855)), Ser phosphorylation events (Ser(696)/Ser(854)) and dual Ser/Thr phosphorylation events (Ser(696)-Thr(697) and Ser(854)-Thr(855)). Dual phosphorylation at Ser(696)-Thr(697) and Ser(854)-Thr(855) by cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases had no effect on myosin phosphatase activity, whereas phosphorylation at Thr(697) and Thr(855) by Rho-associated kinase inhibited phosphatase activity and prevented phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase at the neighboring Ser residues. Forskolin induced phosphorylation at Ser(696), Thr(697), Ser(854), and Thr(855) in rat caudal artery, whereas U46619 induced Thr(697) and Thr(855) phosphorylation and prevented the Ser phosphorylation induced by forskolin. Furthermore, pretreatment with forskolin prevented U46619-induced Thr phosphorylations. We conclude that cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide and RhoA signaling pathways dictates the phosphorylation status of the Ser(696)-Thr(697) and Ser(854)-Thr(855) inhibitory regions of MYPT1 in situ, thereby regulating the activity of myosin phosphatase and contraction.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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