Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation or Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement as Redo Procedure After Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Department of Cardiology, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland. The Annals of thoracic surgery
(Impact Factor: 3.85).
08/2011; 92(4):1324-30; discussion 1230-1. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.05.106
The perioperative risk for redo surgical aortic valve replacement (S-AVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis and prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is increased. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) represents an alternative. We assessed the perioperative and mid-term clinical outcome of patients undergoing S-AVR or TAVI.
In a retrospective observational, comparative study, 40 consecutive patients underwent redo operation with S-AVR or TAVI between April 2005 and April 2010. Median sternotomy and extracorporeal circulation were used for S-AVR; TAVI access was transfemoral (n = 27; 67.5%), transapical (n = 11; 27.5%), or transsubclavian (n = 2; 5.0%). Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up was at 30 days and 6 months.
TAVI patients were older (78.5 ± 6 vs 70.6 ± 8 years, p < 0.001) and presented higher logistic (33.5 ± 17 vs 20.2 ± 14, p < 0.001) European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation scores. All-cause mortality was 2.5% in both groups and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event rates were comparable (7.5% TAVI vs 17.5% S-AVR, p = 0.311) after 30 days. TAVI was associated with a higher rate of permanent pacemaker implantation (30% vs 0%, p < 0.001) and grade II residual aortic regurgitation in 14%. Incidence of cerebrovascular events was 7.5% in S-AVR vs 2.5% in TAVI (p = 0.61).
In elderly, high-risk patients after prior CABG, conventional aortic valve replacement and TAVI are comparable treatment options with favorable clinical outcome. A redo operation itself does not sufficiently justify a TAVI approach.
Available from: Mirko Doss
- "Statistically this reduced surgical trauma is reflected in lower postoperative chest tube drainage and a lower transfusion rate of allogenic blood products in the Redo-TAVI group. Similar results were observed by Strotecky and colleagues, with a reported significantly lower requirement of blood components per patients in the Redo-TAVI group compared to Redo-AVR
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The aim of this study was to compare outcome of patients with previous cardiac surgery undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation (Redo-TAVI) to those undergoing classic aortic valve replacement (Redo-AVR) by using propensity analysis.
From January 2005 through May 2012, 52 high-risk patients underwent Redo-TAVI using a pericardial xenograft fixed within a stainless steel, balloon-expandable stent (Edwards SAPIEN™). During the same period of time 167 patients underwent classic Redo-AVR. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify covariates among 11 baseline patient variables including the type of initial surgery. Using the significant regression coefficients, each patient’s propensity score was calculated, allowing selectively matched subgroups of 40 patients each. Initial surgery included coronary artery bypass grafting in 30 patients, aortic valve replacement in 7 patients and mitral valve reconstruction in 3 patients in each group. Follow-up was 4 ± 2 years and was 100% complete.
Postoperative chest tube drainage (163 ± 214 vs. 562 ± 332 ml/24 h, p = 0.02) and incidence of early permanent neurologic deficit (0 vs. 13%, p = 0.04) was lower in patients with Redo-TAVI and there was a trend towards improved 30-day survival (p = 0.06). Also we detected a decreased ventilation time (p = 0.04) and lower transfusion rate of allogenic blood products (p ≤ 0.05) in the Redo-TAVI group. At late follow up differences regarding incidence of major adverse events, including death and permanent neurologic deficits (25% vs. 43%, p = 0.01) statistically supported early postoperative findings.
The encouraging results regarding early and long-term outcomes following TAVI in patients with previous cardiac surgery show, that this evolving approach may be particularly beneficial in this patient cohort.
Available from: ejcts.oxfordjournals.org
- "Stortecky et al.  retrospectively compared 40 patients undergoing conventional aortic valve replacement with TAVI, both as redo procedure. Finally, because of comparable clinical results, they concluded that 'a redo operation itself does not sufficiently justify a TAVI approach' . In contrast, Ducrocq et al.  advocated 'TAVI as an attractive option in the population of high-risk patients with aortic stenosis and previous CABG'. "
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The present analysis compared clinical and mid-term outcomes of patients with previous cardiac surgery undergoing transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with propensity-matched patients undergoing conventional redo aortic valve replacement (cAVR).
Since 2008, 508 patients were treated with TAVI. Fifty-three of these patients presented with a history of cardiac surgery and underwent transapical TAVI using the Edwards SAPIEN bioprosthesis. A propensity-matched control group of 53 patients receiving cAVR was generated out of the hospital's database. The mean age for all the patients was 77.8 ± 4.5 years. The logistic EuroSCORE was 28.4 ± 13.6% in mean, and mean EuroSCORE II was 8.56 ± 3.93%. The mean follow-up time was 245 ± 323 days, which equated to a total of 700 patient-months.
The observed hospital mortality did not differ significantly between TAVI and cAVR (TAVI: 9.4% and cAVR: 5.7%; P = 0.695). Six-month survival was 83.0% for the TAVI and 86.8% for the cAVR patients (P = 0.768). Postoperative bleedings (TAVI: 725 ± 1770 ml and cAVR: 1884 ± 6387; P = 0.022), the need for transfusion (TAVI: 1.7 ± 5.3 vs cAVR: 6.2 ± 13.7 units packed red blood cells (PRBC); P = 0.030), consecutive rethoracotomy (TAVI: 1.9% vs cAVR: 16.9%; P = 0.002) and postoperative delirium (TAVI: 11.5% vs cAVR: 28.3%; P = 0.046) were more common in the cAVR patients. The TAVI patients suffered more frequently from respiratory failure (TAVI: 11.3% vs cAVR: 0.0%; P = 0.017) and mean grade of paravalvular regurgitation (TAVI: 0.8 ± 0.2 vs cAVR: 0.0; P = 0.047). Although primary ventilation time (P = 0.020) and intensive care unit stay (P = 0.022) were shorter in the TAVI patients, mean hospital stay did not differ significantly (P = 0.108).
Transapical TAVI as well as surgical aortic valve replacement provided good clinical results. The pattern of postoperative morbidity and mortality was different for both entities, but the final clinical outcome did not differ significantly. Both techniques can be seen as complementary approaches by means of developing a tailor-made and patient-orientated surgery.
Available from: Gino Gerosa
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ABSTRACT: Redo cardiac surgery has an increased risk of morbidity and mortality when compared with the initial operation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of previous cardiac operations on patients undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation (TA-TAVI).
We analysed data from 566 patients included in the Italian Registry of Transapical Aortic Valve Implantation who underwent TA-TAVI implantation with the Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) from April 2008 through May 2011. Of these, 110 patients (19.4%) had already undergone at least one previous cardiac operation with opening of the pericardium (group R) while for 456 patients (80.6%) TA-TAVI was the first cardiac procedure (group F). Data were prospectively collected at each of the 20 participating centres and then sent to a central database for storage and analysis.
Preoperative logistic EuroSCORE was higher in group R (35 ± 18.6 vs. 23.5 ± 11.9%; P < 0.001). Hospital mortality occurred in eight (7.2%) and 36 (7.9%) patients in groups R and F, respectively (P = 0.8). Mean follow-up was 10.4 ± 7.9 months (range: 1-34). Overall 2-year Kaplan-Meier survival was 64.2 ± 9.8 and 75.4 ± 3.5% in groups R and F, respectively (P = 0.69). Incidence of operative complications, postoperative bleeding, pacemaker implantation, myocardial infarction and stroke did not show statistically significant differences between groups. The univariate analysis showed that arterial hypertension, logistic EuroSCORE, porcelain aorta, left ventricular ejection fraction and previous percutaneous coronary interventions were significantly associated with 30-day mortality in group R.
According to our data, patients undergoing TAVI with previous cardiac operations have a higher preoperative risk profile but have similar outcomes when compared with patients undergoing a first operation. In these subset of patients, TAVI is a promising therapeutic option.
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