ADAM12 Produced by Tumor Cells Rather than Stromal Cells Accelerates Breast Tumor Progression

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotech Research & Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.
Molecular Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 4.38). 08/2011; 9(11):1449-61. DOI: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-11-0100
Source: PubMed


Expression of ADAM12 is low in most normal tissues but is markedly increased in numerous human cancers, including breast carcinomas. We have previously shown that overexpression of ADAM12 accelerates tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer (PyMT). In this study, we found that ADAM12 deficiency reduces breast tumor progression in the PyMT model. However, the catalytic activity of ADAM12 seems to be dispensable for its tumor-promoting effect. Interestingly, we show that ADAM12 endogenously expressed in tumor-associated stroma in the PyMT model does not influence tumor progression, but that ADAM12 expression by tumor cells is necessary for tumor progression in these mice. This finding is consistent with our observation that in human breast carcinoma, ADAM12 is almost exclusively located in tumor cells and, only rarely, seen in the tumor-associated stroma. We hypothesized, however, that the tumor-associated stroma may stimulate ADAM12 expression in tumor cells, on the basis of the fact that TGF-β1 stimulates ADAM12 expression and is a well-known growth factor released from tumor-associated stroma. TGF-β1 stimulation of ADAM12-negative Lewis lung tumor cells induced ADAM12 synthesis, and growth of these cells in vivo induced more than 200-fold increase in ADAM12 expression. Our observation that ADAM12 expression is significantly higher in the terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) adjacent to human breast carcinoma compared with TDLUs found in normal breast tissue supports our hypothesis that tumor-associated stroma triggers ADAM12 expression.

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Available from: Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa
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    • "ADAM 12 has also been associated with development and progression of a number of disease states, including arthritis [32], cardiac hypertrophy [33], liver fibrogenesis [34], and various cancers, including bladder [35], lung [36], brain [37] and breast [11]. It has also been suggested that the ADAM 12 produced by the tumor cells drives the progression of breast tumors [38]. Further, a study conducted in 2012 correlates gene expression of both ADAM 12 and ADAM 17 with clinical and pathological characteristics of breast cancer [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The ADAMs (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases) are a family of multi-domain, zinc-dependent metalloproteinase enzymes. ADAM 12 has been previously associated with the onset and progression of breast cancer, and elevated levels of ADAM 12 have been previously found in the urine of breast cancer patients. Aims of the current study are: 1) establish the viability of urinary ADAM 12 as a diagnostic marker for breast cancer, and 2) explore the effects of surgical tumor removal on the levels of urinary ADAM 12. A total of 96 patients have been recruited for this study, including 50 patients diagnosed with cancer, and 46 age-matched controls. Commercially available ELISA kits for ADAM 12 were used to quantify the presence and concentration of this enzyme in the urine from cancer patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer (IBC) both prior to any treatment and approximately two weeks following surgery, as well as from controls. We find no statistically significant differences between the concentrations of ADAM 12 in the urine of breast cancer patients prior to treatment and that of their age-matched controls; however the concentration of ADAM 12, both alone and as a function of urine total protein, are significantly elevated following surgery (p < 0.0001). Patients who underwent a mastectomy have significantly higher urinary ADAM 12 concentrations than those who underwent a lumpectomy (significant at p = 0.0271). These findings suggest that urinary ADAM 12 may not correlate directly with the status and stage of breast cancer as previously thought; rather these increases may be a result of tissue injury and inflammation from biopsy and surgical resection. Results of this study may suggest a need for biomarkers to be evaluated carefully in the context of tissue damage.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine
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    • "We, and others previously showed that ADAM12 expression was markedly upregulated in different cancers [5]–[9], and that the level of ADAM12 in urine from breast and bladder cancer patients correlated with disease status and stage [10], [11]. ADAM12 promotes tumor progression in transgenic mouse models of breast and prostate cancer [6], [12], [13] and several ADAMs are considered as promising targets for cancer therapy [14]–[16]. Despite accumulating evidence for involvement of ADAMs in cancer, only a few cancer-related ADAM mutations have been reported (see ref. [17] for complete list). "
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    ABSTRACT: A recently identified breast cancer-associated mutation in the metalloprotease ADAM12 alters a potential dileucine trafficking signal, which could affect protein processing and cellular localization. ADAM12 belongs to the group of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteases (ADAMs), which are typically membrane-associated proteins involved in ectodomain shedding, cell-adhesion, and signaling. ADAM12 as well as several members of the ADAM family are over-expressed in various cancers, correlating with disease stage. Three breast cancer-associated somatic mutations were previously identified in ADAM12, and two of these, one in the metalloprotease domain and another in the disintegrin domain, were investigated and found to result in protein misfolding, retention in the secretory pathway, and failure of zymogen maturation. The third mutation, p.L792F in the ADAM12 cytoplasmic tail, was not investigated, but is potentially significant given its location within a di-leucine motif, which is recognized as a potential cellular trafficking signal. The present study was motivated both by the potential relevance of this documented mutation to cancer, as well as for determining the role of the di-leucine motif in ADAM12 trafficking. Expression of ADAM12 p.L792F in mammalian cells demonstrated quantitatively similar expression levels and zymogen maturation as wild-type (WT) ADAM12, as well as comparable cellular localizations. A cell surface biotinylation assay demonstrated that cell surface levels of ADAM12 WT and ADAM12 p.L792F were similar and that internalization of the mutant occurred at the same rate and extent as for ADAM12 WT. Moreover, functional analysis revealed no differences in cell proliferation or ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor (EGF), a known ADAM12 substrate between WT and mutant ADAM12. These data suggest that the ADAM12 p.L792F mutation is unlikely to be a driver (cancer causing)-mutation in breast cancer.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Based on its shedding and binding activities, the disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12) has been implicated in cell signaling. Here we investigate the intracellular protein interaction network of the transmembrane ADAM12L variant using an integrative approach. We identify the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) as a new partner for ADAM12L cellular functions. We demonstrate that ADAM12L coimmunoprecipitates with ILK in cells and that its cytoplasmic tail is required for this interaction. In human cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which express high levels of endogenous ADAM12L and ILK, the two proteins are redistributed to focal adhesions upon stimulation of a β1 integrin-dependent pathway. We show that down-regulation of ADAM12L in HSCs leads to cytoskeletal disorganization and loss of adhesion. Conversely, up-regulation of ADAM12L induces the Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation-dependent survival pathway via stimulation of β1 integrins and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Depletion of ILK inhibits this effect, which is independent of ADAM12L proteolytic activity and involves its cytoplasmic domain. We further demonstrate that overexpression of ADAM12L promotes kinase activity from ILK immunoprecipitates. Our data suggest a new role for ADAM12L in mediating the functional association of ILK with β1 integrin to regulate cell adhesion/survival through a PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Molecular biology of the cell
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