The purpose of this study was to describe the use, as well as perceived effectiveness, of mainstream and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in the treatment of lymphedema following breast or gynecological cancer. Further, the study assessed the relationship between the characteristics of lymphedema (including type, severity, stability, and duration), and the use of CAM and/or mainstream treatment.
This was a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of women with lymphedema following breast and gynecological cancers. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 247 potentially eligible women. Of those returned (50%), 23 were ineligible and 6 were excluded due to level of missing data.
In the previous 12 months, the majority of women (90%) had used mainstream treatments to treat their lymphedema, with massage being the most commonly used (86%). One (1) in 2 women had used CAM to treat their lymphedema, and 98% of those using CAM were also using mainstream treatments. Over 27 types of CAM were reported, with use of a chi machine, vitamin E supplements, yoga, and meditation being the most commonly reported forms. The perceived effectiveness ratings (1-7 with 7=completely effective) of mainstream (mean±standard deviation (SD): 5.3±1.5) and CAM therapies (mean±SD: 5.2+1.6) were considered high.
These results demonstrate that mainstream and CAM treatment use is common, varied, and considered to be effective among women with lymphedema following breast or gynecological cancer. Furthermore, it highlights the immediate need for larger prospective studies assessing the inter-relationship between the use of mainstream and CAM therapies for treatment success.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Secondary arm lymphoedema continues to affect at least 20% of women after treatment for breast cancer requiring lifelong professional treatment and self-management. The holistic practice of yoga may offer benefits as an adjunct self-management option. The aim of this small pilot trial was to gain preliminary data to determine the effect of yoga on women with stage one breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL). This paper reports the results for the primary and secondary outcomes.
Participants were randomised, after baseline testing, to receive either an 8-week yoga intervention (n = 15), consisting of a weekly 90-minute teacher-led class and a 40-minute daily session delivered by DVD, or to a usual care wait-listed control group (n = 13). Primary outcome measures were: arm volume of lymphoedema measured by circumference and extra-cellular fluid measured by bioimpedance spectroscopy. Secondary outcome measures were: tissue induration measured by tonometry; levels of sensations, pain, fatigue, and their limiting effects all measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and quality of life based on the Lymphoedema Quality of Life Tool (LYMQOL). Measurements were conducted at baseline, week 8 (post-intervention) and week 12 (four weeks after cessation of the intervention).
At week 8, the intervention group had a greater decrease in tissue induration of the affected upper arm compared to the control group (p = 0.050), as well as a greater reduction in the symptom sub-scale for QOL (p = 0.038). There was no difference in arm volume of lymphoedema or extra-cellular fluid between groups at week 8; however, at week 12, arm volume increased more for the intervention group than the control group (p = 0.032).
An 8-week yoga intervention reduced tissue induration of the affected upper arm and decreased the QOL sub-scale of symptoms. Arm volume of lymphoedema and extra-cellular fluid did not increase. These benefits did not last on cessation of the intervention when arm volume of lymphoedema increased. Further research trials with a longer duration, higher levels of lymphoedema and larger numbers are warranted before definitive conclusions can be made.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
"Currently, there is no published research into the effects of yoga on BCRL, despite many women with BCRL stating that they are already using yoga along with conventional lymphoedema treatment . However, yoga therapy as part of a holistic treatment for lower limb lymphoedema in India, has resulted in decreased levels of lymphoedema, and fewer infections. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women who develop secondary arm lymphoedema subsequent to treatment associated with breast cancer require life-long management for a range of symptoms including arm swelling, heaviness, tightness in the arm and sometimes the chest, upper body impairment and changes to a range of parameters relating to quality of life. While exercise under controlled conditions has had positive outcomes, the impact of yoga has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of yoga in the physical and psycho-social domains, in the hope that women can be offered another safe, holistic modality to help control many, if not all, of the effects of secondary arm lymphoedema.
A randomised controlled pilot trial will be conducted in Hobart and Launceston with a total of 40 women receiving either yoga intervention or current best practice care. Intervention will consist of eight weeks of a weekly teacher-led yoga class with a home-based daily yoga practice delivered by DVD. Primary outcome measures will be the effects of yoga on lymphoedema and its associated symptoms and quality of life. Secondary outcome measures will be range of motion of the arm and thoracic spine, shoulder strength, and weekly and daily physical activity. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline, weeks four, eight and a four week follow up at week twelve. Range of motion of the spine, in a self-nominated group, will be measured at baseline, weeks eight and twelve. A further outcome will be the women's perceptions of the yoga collected by interview at week eight.
The results of this trial will provide information on the safety and effectiveness of yoga for women with secondary arm lymphoedema from breast cancer treatment. It will also inform methodology for future, larger trials.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is a progressive, chronic disease that affects millions of cancer survivors and primarily results from surgical lymphatic vessel and/or node removal and radiation therapy. Patient support and education in the importance of early detection is essential in helping health care providers detect lymphedema early, when there is the best chance of preventing progression. Improved imaging and surgical techniques have reduced the incidence of LE; however, effective risk-reduction and treatment have historically lacked the level of evidence necessary to standardize effective treatment. The purpose of this article is to report an extensive review of literature, including highlighted multidisciplinary studies within the past 3 years, in order to update best-practice guidelines in assessment, risk reduction, management, and surveillance for post-breast cancer lymphedema.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Current Breast Cancer Reports