Article

Childhood Development and Access to Nature A New Direction for Environmental Inequality Research

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Although environmental inequality researchers have increased our understanding of race- and class-based environmental inequality in many important ways, few environmental inequality studies ask whether children are disproportionately burdened by environmental pollution or whether poor and minority youth are less likely than their White and wealthier counterparts to spend time in green spaces and the natural world. This gap in the literature undermines the ability of researchers to fully understand and explain environmental inequality. To demonstrate the importance of filling this gap, the authors (a) highlight current research findings from the environmental health, environmental education, and environmental psychology literatures regarding the cognitive, emotional, and physical importance of childhood exposure to nature and (b) summarize the few existing studies that have examined class- and race-based inequalities in children's exposure to the natural world and industrial environmental hazards. The authors then suggest several avenues of research that would, if undertaken, significantly increase our understanding of youth-based environmental inequality. By synthesizing findings across multiple disciplines, the authors hope to convince environmental inequality researchers of the importance of investigating children's differential exposure to nature, green spaces, and industrial environmental hazards.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... However, public spaces in cities, starting from the street in front of the house to public spaces in the broader city, are the places holding an eminent role in enabling children to explore society (McGlone, 2016). Also, there is strong evidence on the positive impact of public spaces on children's physical and mental development (Strife & Downey, 2009;Ferguson et al., 2013;Tappe et al., 2013;Hooper et al., 2015;Christian et al., 2015Christian et al., , 2017. Therefore, there is a growing interest in rethinking the urban environment from a child-focused point of view. ...
... Children explore their environments through expanding exploratory circles around their homes; this exploration contributes to their physical and mental health (Aarts et al., 2012). Researchers from different disciplines and perspectives (e.g., medicine, health, urban planning, sports, and child development) have studied the relationship between outdoor physical activity and children's overall development and wellbeing (Weir et al., 2006;Davison & Lawson, 2006;Gill, 2008;Strife & Downey, 2009;Audrey & Batista-Ferrer, 2015;Christian et al., 2015Christian et al., , 2017. However, the discussion around which places are most suitable for children's play and socializing (e.g., streets, parks, supervised playgrounds) is still ongoing. ...
... Especially in Istanbul, rapid urbanism resulted in worsening the quality of everyday life of children in patchwork-type public spaces associated with unsafe, unpleasant, unmaintained, inaccessible, unclean, and grey urban environments. As a result, children living in Istanbul become or are forced to become more indoor beings even though their time spent outside in public spaces benefits their mental and physical development (Nelson & Woods, 2007;Nelson, 2008;Strife & Downey, 2009;Ferguson et al., 2013;Tappe et al., 2013;Hooper et al., 2015;Christian et al., 2015Christian et al., , 2017. This suggests an urgent need to rethink Istanbul from a child-focused approach. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
the findings of this Ph.D. research contribute to understanding children’s unique capabilities, the equalizing role of policies in enabling children’s participation, and the informative role of caregivers in the representation of very young children in participatory urban planning processes, and also enhance methodologies in urban planning research with children. Supporting children and caregivers in creating child-focused urban environments in Istanbul through participatory planning first and foremost requires legislative change that liberates children from preconditions towards their citizenship. Also, a specialized child-centered approach that supports inclusivity, encouraging caregivers’ participation when needed for the representation of all children, and equity between all stakeholders by supporting children’s capabilities with methods relevant to children and approaches leading to shared leadership are critical. Research on children’s participation in urban planning in Turkey has yet to reach sufficient knowledge creation to inform urban planning approach and practice. More research with different age groups and caregiver profiles is needed first to introduce participation as a right and pave the way towards creating cities for children through enhancing the participatory urban planning approach and practice.
... Given these potential limitations, there may be educational advantages to outdoor play, which tends to focus more on the natural elements of the environment rather than technological elements (Henderson & Atencio, 2007). Childhood play in natural environments is inherently exploratory, which helps children develop navigation skills, autonomy, and appreciation for nature (Bixler et al., 2002;Chipeniuk, 1995;Strife & Downey, 2009). Outdoor play encourages active, physical movement that can enhance children's categorization and recall in perspective taking and spatial imagery tasks (Clements, 2004;Pellegrini & Smith, 1998). ...
... As a result, parents may have relied on signage to address children's questions or direct their engagement in these areas. These patterns of engagement and parent involvement outdoors may provide an example of how children's outdoor exhibit exploration promotes a better understanding of key concepts related to the environment and biodiversity (e.g., Chipeniuk, 1995;Strife & Downey, 2009). Live animals served to capture children's interest and foster engagement, perhaps because of the unique and salient opportunity for direct encounters with them (LoBue et al., 2013). ...
... In a similar manner to technology, children appeared captivated by the opportunity for direct encounters with live animals while they explored the outdoor exhibit, which may have made the concept of biodiversity personally salient. Any opportunity for science centers and museums to integrate outdoor experiences, particularly with live animals, may be an important avenue for increasing children's desire to learn about pressing environmental topics or interest in environmental careers (Strife & Downey, 2009;Wells & Lekies, 2006). ...
... This concept has been studied in the context of unequal access that different socio-economic and ethnic groups have to green spaces in a city. For example, studies indicate youth from low-income, minority families have relatively limited access to greenways and trails (Strife & Downey, 2009). Further, a Los Angeles study found poorer neighborhoods and Latino, African-American, and Asian-Pacific Islander neighborhoods had significantly lower levels of access to park resources than areas dominated by Caucasians (Strife & Downey, 2009). ...
... For example, studies indicate youth from low-income, minority families have relatively limited access to greenways and trails (Strife & Downey, 2009). Further, a Los Angeles study found poorer neighborhoods and Latino, African-American, and Asian-Pacific Islander neighborhoods had significantly lower levels of access to park resources than areas dominated by Caucasians (Strife & Downey, 2009). ...
... Research also suggests that recreation constraints are not equally distributed across society and socio-demographic characteristics influences the prevalence and extent of constraints (Shores, Scott, & Floyd, 2007). Latinos and African Americans are less likely than Caucasians to use outdoor recreation areas, local parks, and nature centers; this differential participation has been attributed to complex and interrelated factors, such as cultural preferences, racial discrimination, language differences, lack of transportation, lack of access to safe green spaces, and lack of diverse staff that make minority and lowincome families feel unwelcome (Strife & Downey, 2009). Thus, it is possible that unequal access to green space, along with socio-demographic characteristics, may be influencing the amount of time young children are spending in nature play resulting in unequal opportunities to gain the benefits this type of play offers. ...
Article
Due to a growing body of evidence suggesting nature play experiences support the healthy development of young children, a needs assessment of licensed childcare providers in Minnesota was conducted. The purpose was to inform efforts toward ensuring all young children in Minnesota have the opportunities to gain the benefits nature play offers. Based on the results of a cross-sectional survey of 81 licensed childcare providers, results indicate there is a need to increase the amount of time preschool-aged children are playing outdoors, and specifically playing outdoors in natural areas. Results also suggest a need to increase access (or perceived access) to natural areas, and in particular among those providers who report serving primarily children of a lower socio-economic status (SES). Results suggest respondents recognize the benefits of outdoor play, but there may be a need to raise awareness of the benefits of outdoor play in nature. Key obstacles to be addressed in future efforts to encourage nature play for preschool-aged children include lack of access (perceived access) to natural areas, lack of appropriate clothing, safety/liability concerns, and lack of time. Efforts to reduce obstacles may be of particular importance for providers serving children of lower SES. These results may be used to guide future discussions and actions regarding strategies, policies, and programs for incorporating nature play into childcare programs for preschool-aged children.
... Although there could be potential bias toward greater understanding of environmental issues among younger cohorts due in large part to widely publicized climate change actions, such as the Paris Agreement and global climate strikes, proximity to and interaction with the environment are not uniform across youth. Children who reside in urban environments, have compromised living conditions, or have minimal exposure to outdoor activities may be limited in their perception of the environment [15,16] (Chawla, 1992;Strife and Downey, 2009). Furthermore, other characteristics such as gender, income, and parents' political values may have more significance than age with respect to environmental sensitivity. ...
... Although there could be potential bias toward greater understanding of environmental issues among younger cohorts due in large part to widely publicized climate change actions, such as the Paris Agreement and global climate strikes, proximity to and interaction with the environment are not uniform across youth. Children who reside in urban environments, have compromised living conditions, or have minimal exposure to outdoor activities may be limited in their perception of the environment [15,16] (Chawla, 1992;Strife and Downey, 2009). Furthermore, other characteristics such as gender, income, and parents' political values may have more significance than age with respect to environmental sensitivity. ...
... The literature concerning the relationship between place of origin (or another location that has had a comparable impact on the respondent) and environmental attitudes justifies the inclusion of this question, which suggests that prior residence may have a significant effect on an individual's beliefs and values. These beliefs and values, if instilled at a young age, can influence an individual throughout their life [15,16] (Chawla, 1992;Strife and Downey, 2009). Morrissey and Manning (2000) [22] note that while urban residents are generally thought to be more concerned about the environment than rural residents, this correlation is complex and unclear. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is the outcome of a course project for Economics of Sustainability (Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts). Facilitated and under the direction of the instructor, course participants designed a survey instrument where questions and responses were developed to be indicators of behavioral bias related to the environment. The consumer good targeted in the survey was convenience-based coffee consumption, and convenience was defined by the use of single-use disposable coffee cups. The discussion highlights the survey development process including literature review-based expectations specific to each question. The paper concludes with next steps, which involve the administration of the instrument and evaluation of the survey results.
... In the last decade, scholars mostly from medicine, health, and child development have been focusing on the role of the built environment on children's health and well-being (Christian et al., 2017;Davison & Lawson, 2006;Audrey & Batista-Ferrer, 2015;Strife & Downey, 2009;Christian et al., 2015;Weir et al., 2006). Scholars on the built environment such as Williams & Williams (2017), Ferguson et al. (2013), Burton (2011), Gill (2008) for example have also highlighted the links between well-being and children's development. ...
... Caregivers' well-being, as well as their perceptions of the safety and quality of the built environment are intrinsically linked to children's wellbeing and their mobility in/around the neighbourhood. Scholars have stressed that interaction with the built environment is essential for the development of younger children (Strife & Downey, 2009;CEH, 2009;Christian et al., 2015). Exploring, for example helps children create social networks within the neighbourhood, facilitate their self-confidence (Shackell et al., 2008) and increase their visibility in urban environments (the Popsicle Test 2 as an example). ...
... Children positively benefit from experiencing nature for example (Christian et al., 2015;Strife & Downey, 2009). The benefits on their emotional, physical, and mental development are many. ...
Book
Full-text available
Developing spatial and contextual knowledge on how children and caregivers use public space and services in disadvantaged areas in a city provides input for planning better spatial interventions and redevelopment schemes. By identifying daily routines and discussing the multifaceted nature and use of public spaces in different geographies we aim to contribute towards identifying resources that play an important role in supporting early urban childhoods. Unsurprisingly, the cultures of Istanbul and Pune, while very different from each other, the concerns of caregivers, complexity of their daily lives, levels of access and poverty, cultures of child rearing etc. determine the experience of urban child- hoods. Evidence from Pune (IN) and Istanbul (TR) provides contextual knowledge about the importance of community and communal trust, the commonalities as related to mothers staying at home with young children, wide range of caregivers, difficulty of navigating the urban environment with young children.
... Despite the recognized benefits of outdoor free play on children's physical and psychological well-being, there is a marked decrease of the time spent in these activities. Many factors could explain this, notably early schooling, increased time spent in indoor sedentary activities and the rise of adults' supervision and concerns related to children's safety (Strife & Downey, 2009). The Enfant Nature (EN) approach aims to counteract the "nature deficit disorder" (Louv, 2005) with an experiential outdoor education program. ...
... Despite the recognized benefits of outdoor free play on children's development, there is a marked decrease in time spent in these activities. Many social factors could explain this, notably early schooling, increased time spent in indoor sedentary activities and the rise of adults' concerns related to children's safety (Strife & Downey, 2009). The Enfant Nature (EN) approach aims to foster overall children's development while promoting a healthy and active lifestyle. ...
... Besides, Burdette and Whitaker (2005) argue that problem-solving opportunities, in a play context, promote the development of executive functions, which are important not only for subsequent educational success, but also for the achievement of everyday tasks. Both groups of participants indicated that EN had contributed to the development of several emotional skills and strengthened social ties, which was also reported by Strife and Downey (2009). Indeed, children were more resourceful, self-confident and autonomous in their actions. ...
... Specifically, NDVI as the common measure for area-level green space has some limitations, such as its inability to distinguish different types of green space (e.g., park, garden, etc.) and does not take into account the quality of green space including abandoned or unsafe areas (Villeneuve et al., 2018). Previous studies reported that parental concern on children's safety for playing outdoors might discourage green space use (Sefcik et al., 2019;Strife & Downey, 2009). Therefore, adequate quantity of neighbourhood green space available might not fully lead to its utilisation due to other characteristics are paid attention for children's use, such as green space quality. ...
... Neighbourhood safety Caregiver perceptions of neighbourhood safety may play an important role on the use of green space among children (Lovasi et al., 2013;Sefcik et al., 2019;Strife & Downey, 2009). In this research, caregivers were asked to rate to the extent to which they agreed with the following statement: "This is a safe neighbourhood.". ...
... concern for children's outdoor play, which, in turn, can influence the use of green space among children (Sefcik et al., 2019;Strife & Downey, 2009). Therefore, neighbourhood safety was included in this study by asking caregivers to rate on a Likert-scale statement: ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Background: While a legion of evidence indicates green spaces (e.g., parks) support health, there is a paucity of studies investigating their potential role in the development of prosocial behaviour (i.e., a range of behaviours that benefit others or promote positive relationships with others) across childhood and adolescence. The review of current evidence suggests that exposure to nearby green space may increase prosocial behaviour, but most of the evidence is cross-sectional, hindering causal inferences and understandings of temporality. Furthermore, most of this research has focused on the quantity of green space (i.e., the amount of green space available in the residential environment), neglecting the potentially critical importance of green space quality (i.e., aspects or attributes of green space that influence its utilisation) as a key determinant in its use and in the development of prosocial behaviour. Besides, candidate mediators and effect modifiers have not been comprehensively examined by previous studies, limiting understandings of plausible pathways and potential contingencies in who benefits. Therefore, research on green space quality and prosocial behaviour is important to improve the quality of current evidence and inform avenues on how to maximise the role of green space in shaping the development of prosocial behaviour. Enhancing the development of prosocial behaviour from a young age is important due to health, psychological, and social benefits. Aims: This PhD thesis primarily aimed to examine the longitudinal association between green space quality and prosocial behaviour among children and adolescents. This thesis also investigated whether the accumulation of, or changes in, green space quality during childhood and adolescence were associated with the development of prosocial behaviour. Potential effect modifiers of the association and plausible pathways in which green space quality may influence prosocial behaviour were also assessed. In addition, the potential role of prosocial behaviour as a missing link – a candidate mediating variable – on the causal chain from green space quality to child health-related outcomes was tested. Methods: This thesis used 10-year longitudinal data retrieved from the K-cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Data pertaining to green space quality, child prosocial behaviour, health-related outcomes (mental health, physical activity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL)), and socioeconomic measures were biennially recorded from 4,983 children for a 10-year period, from 2004 (children aged 4-5 years: Wave 1) to 2014 (14-15 years: Wave 6). Green space quality was measured using caregiver reports on the availability of good parks, playgrounds, and play spaces in the neighbourhood. Caregivers also evaluated their child’s prosocial behaviour using the prosocial subscale from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multilevel linear regression was applied to assess the association between green space quality and prosocial behaviour. Trajectories in green space quality experienced across childhood and adolescence were examined using latent class analysis. Causal mediation analysis was used to identify mechanistic pathways between green space quality and prosocial behaviour, as well as to test prosocial behaviour as a candidate mediator of the associations between green space quality and child health-related outcomes. Results: The presence of quality neighbourhood green space was positively associated with child prosocial behaviour, irrespective of residential relocation. In addition, children whose caregiver perception of green space quality was ‘very good’ over time, trended from ‘good’ to ‘very good’ or from ‘very good’ to ‘good’ had higher prosocial behaviour than children of caregivers who consistently perceived nearby green space as low in quality. Evidence also indicated that the accumulation of very good quality green space over time may attenuate socioeconomic inequalities in prosocial behaviour. The association between green space quality and prosocial behaviour was found to be stronger among boys, children speaking only English at home, and children living in more affluent and/or remote areas. Moreover, physical activity enjoyment, social interaction, child and caregiver mental health, and HRQOL served as mechanistic pathways in which green space quality influenced prosocial behaviour. Prosocial behaviour was found as a mediator of the associations between green space quality and child health (mental health, HRQOL), and physical activity enjoyment. Conclusions: The findings indicate that policies on provisioning and maintaining the quality of green space across childhood and adolescence in a targeted manner (e.g., prioritised in more disadvantaged and remote areas) can potentially buffer the negative impact of growing up in unfavourable socioeconomic circumstances and foster the development of prosocial behaviour. Improving the quality of neighbourhood green space that also encourages social interactions, physical activity enjoyment, and mental health might provide better support for the development of prosocial behaviour and vice versa. In addition, ensuring the neighbourhood to be safe and friendly for ethnic minorities is vital as it removes impediments to such populations gaining benefits from quality green space. Furthermore, identifying attributes of quality green space suitable for both boys and girls, and children from different age groups forms an important next step to maximise the benefits of quality green space for all.
... For decades, we have associated spending time in a natural environment with the physical, mental, and social well-being [6][7][8] of people of all ages. There has been focus on the most vulnerable groups in society: the elderly, the sick, women, the poor and the socially disadvantaged, but recently the focus has shifted towards children [9]. Access to green spaces and spending time there promotes physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social development [10][11][12]. ...
... Sufficient time spend by a child in nature not only has a direct effect on development, but also has an impact on adulthood. It can have an impact through a better ability to maintain a healthy lifestyle and the ability to estimate and manage risks [3,9]. The experience they gain in their youth shapes their attitude towards nature and environment in the adult years [13,14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
By providing ecosystem services, urban forests contribute significantly to the well-being of urban populations. Urban forests, along with other urban green spaces, are often the closest natural environment in the city where a child can play. The majority of pre-school children spend a large part of the day in kindergarten, which means that forest visits should have a prominent place in the kindergarten curriculum. Therefore, this study focuses on making the forest more suitable and thus more accessible for visits with children. The first goal of the research is to identify teachers’ preferences for the forest environment they visit with a group of pre-school children. The second goal is to present a forest suitability model for a visit with kindergarten children based on the teachers’ preferences. Based on the research survey conducted among the teachers in Slovenian public kindergartens, we formed and evaluated the criteria for the construction of a model of forest suitability for a visit with children. As the most important requirement for visiting a forest, the teachers note its proximity. They prefer a mature, mixed forest, with a bit of undergrowth, dead wood, and a presence of water and a meadow. Based on the identified criteria, we used the multi-criteria evaluation method in the GIS-environment in order to build a model of urban forest suitability for a visit with kindergarten groups of children in the study area of the City of Ljubljana, Slovenia. The results are useful in urban forest planning and management to ensure better forest suitability and accessibility for visits by children. Suitability maps can be used as one of the spatial foundations necessary for an integrated urban forest planning with emphasis on social functions. The model can be adapted beyond Slovenia to different spatial and social requirements and contexts.
... A higher proportion of green space close to a child's home has been linked with better cognitive functioning in children (Bijnens et al., 2020;Wells, 2000) and can be important for buffering stress (Wells & Evans, 2003), while a child's freedom to explore their local environment has also been linked to a range of health and social benefits (McCormick, 2017;Veitch et al., 2008). Exposure to the natural world during childhood has been shown to affect long-term cognitive development (Kellert, 2002(Kellert, , 2005McCormick, 2017), as well as environmental attitudes, behaviours and values later in life (Strife & Downey, 2009;Wells & Lekies, 2006). However, evidence suggests that children's freedom to play locally, especially free from adult supervision, has declined in recent decades (Karsten, 2005), such that children now do not generally venture far from home on their own (Loebach & Gilliland, 2014). ...
... This could reflect the differing amounts of structured work provided by private-and state-funded schools during lockdown (Cullinane & Montacute, 2020;Green, 2020), potentially reflecting differential resource availability (Henshaw, 2018) Our results have implications for children's wellbeing, connection with nature and future long-term support for conservation and ecology (Chawla, 2015(Chawla, , 2020. Lockdown may have exacerbated pre-existing differences between urban and rural children's access to nature and opportunities to form personal experiences and memories in the natural world, something that is known to have important implications for development, future wellbeing and likelihood of future pro-environmental behaviours in children (Kellert, 2002(Kellert, , 2005Strife & Downey, 2009;Wells & Lekies, 2006). In our sample, these differences manifested themselves during lockdown in differing amounts of time spent outside by urban and rural children and in differing parental attitudes towards green space. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the United Kingdom, children are spending less time outdoors and are more disconnected from nature than previous generations. However, interaction with nature at a young age can benefit wellbeing and long‐term support for conservation. Green space accessibility in the United Kingdom varies between rural and urban areas and is lower for children than for adults. It is possible that COVID‐19 lockdown restrictions may have influenced these differences. In this study, we assessed parents' attitudes towards green space, as well as whether the COVID‐19 lockdown restrictions had affected their attitudes or the amount of time spent outside by their children, via an online survey for parents of primary school‐aged children in Cambridgeshire and North London, UK (n = 171). We assessed whether responses were affected by local environment (rural, suburban or urban), school type (state‐funded or fee‐paying) or garden access (with or without private garden access). Parents' attitudes towards green space were significantly different between local environments: 76.9% of rural parents reported being happy with the amount of green space to which their children had access, in contrast with only 40.5% of urban parents. COVID‐19 lockdown restrictions also affected parents' attitudes to the importance of green space, and this differed between local environments: 75.7% of urban parents said their views had changed during lockdown, in contrast with 35.9% of rural parents. The change in amount of time spent outside by children during lockdown was also significantly different between local environments: most urban children spent more time inside during lockdown, while most rural children spent more time outside. Neither parents' attitudes towards green space nor the amount of time spent outside by their children varied with school type or garden access. Our results suggest that lockdown restrictions exacerbated pre‐existing differences in access to nature between urban and rural children in our sampled population. We suggest that the current increased public and political awareness of the value of green space should be capitalised on to increase provision and access to green space and to reduce inequalities in accessibility and awareness of nature between children from different backgrounds. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article. A free plain language summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.
... It is also stated that children who spend limited time in nature can develop emotions such as avoidance or fear of nature (Bixler et al., 1994;Bixler & Floyd, 1997;Kellert & Wilson, 1995). According to Strife and Downey (2009), since children who live in urban cities do have limited access to nature may either be indifferent to nature or develop a sense of fear of nature (Strife & Downey, 2009). Supporting this Dutcher, Finley, Luloff, and Johnson (2007) indicated that lack of support of children's biophilic tendencies may lead to develop avoidance or disgust from nature and natural elements/living organisms. ...
... It is also stated that children who spend limited time in nature can develop emotions such as avoidance or fear of nature (Bixler et al., 1994;Bixler & Floyd, 1997;Kellert & Wilson, 1995). According to Strife and Downey (2009), since children who live in urban cities do have limited access to nature may either be indifferent to nature or develop a sense of fear of nature (Strife & Downey, 2009). Supporting this Dutcher, Finley, Luloff, and Johnson (2007) indicated that lack of support of children's biophilic tendencies may lead to develop avoidance or disgust from nature and natural elements/living organisms. ...
Article
Full-text available
This current study explores 48-60-month-old preschool children's biophilic tendencies by explaining their reasons. The sample of the study consisted of 116 preschool children selected from four public preschools located in Mersin, Turkey. Children's Biophilia Measure exploring young children's levels of affinity toward nature was used as a data collecting material. The findings revealed that the frequencies of young children's biophilic tendencies were much more than their non-biophilic tendencies. The effect of culture, including parental allowance and restriction, was the most striking factor influencing children's biophilic or non-biophilic tendencies. The other factors affecting children's tendencies were affordances of the natural outdoor settings for children's play, safety hazards outdoors, having fun/feeling enjoyment during nature play, attractiveness/unattractiveness of a natural stimuli, curiosity, and previous experiences in natural environment. The finding of this research suggested that there is a need for accessible natural settings to ensure young children's regular and direct interactions with nature; which in turn, strengthen their affinity toward nature.
... The question then remains around the appropriate use of a single metric such as income, wealth, or life expectancy to analyze welfare gaps across racial lines. While each such variable individually contributes to the gaps in racial well-being, it remains unclear if the adoption of such narrowly defined metrics can adequately capture the true welfare inequality between racial groups (e.g., Patton et al., 2016;Lepinteur, 2019;Strife and Downey, 2009). Accounting for the underlying factors contributing to welfare may reveal patterns of inequality that conflict with well-established estimates. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
We estimate racial disparities in well-being among the older U.S. population using an expected utility framework that incorporates differences in consumption, leisure, health, mortality, and wealth. We find large racial disparities in expected welfare later in life. Moreover, disparity measures based on cross-sectional consumption substantially underestimate racial welfare gaps by ignoring disparities in expected elderly health, wealth, and mortality. Our decomposition exercises show that a majority of the estimated welfare gaps are determined by age sixty initial conditions as opposed to racial differences in dynamic processes after age sixty. This suggests that policies aimed at closing racial gaps in late-life may be more successful and efficient if targeted earlier in the life-cycle. In other words, outside of direct wealth transfers, it may largely be too late to target such interventions directly at older populations.
... These Bedouin students' sense of responsibility for their environment cannot be understood without reference to their current socio-economic situation, which has in turn been shaped by a specific socio-political and historical context. Indigenous communities around the world face similar environmental injustices, and are exposed to disproportionate health burdens and environmental health risks because the areas in which they live are often more contaminated than those inhabited by other, wealthier populations (Mohai, Pellow & Roberts 2009;Strife & Downey, 2009). When addressing populations that are exposed to environmental pollution, place-based education programs must not shy away from discussions of environmental justice. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the concept of “connectedness to nature” among students from an indigenous Bedouin community, whose relationship with nature is influenced by a variety of cultural, social and environmental factors, not least of which is the fact that the environment in which they live is highly contaminated. We asked 294 fifth- and sixth-grade students (130 boys and 164 girls), who live in the highly rural Bedouin villages in Israel’s Negev desert, to complete an open questionnaire that was specifically designed to elicit detailed information about these particular students’ connection to nature. The paper presents the results of two analyses of this questionnaire. The first—a quantitative analysis—divides the students’ answers into five aspects of connectedness to nature (nature enjoyment, empathy for living creatures, sense of oneness, sense of responsibility and experience of nature in my immediate environment). The second—an inductive, qualitative analysis of the students’ explanations and elaborations of their answers—provides a more nuanced description of the various social, historical and situational factors that influence these students’ relationship with their environment. It then addresses the tension between these two analyses, highlighting the limitations of “traditional” categories of nature connectedness while showing how these can nevertheless be used to elicit detailed, complex and pertinent information. It concludes by demonstrating how this information, if analyzed critically through its correspondence, or lack of correspondence, with the original assumptions of the statements that elicited it, might be used in the development of place-based environmental education programs for specific populations.
... Outdoor space-even with its risks [6]-is essential for children's healthy development through providing learning opportunities, the freedom to be active, and an environment for social interactions [7,8]. Outdoor space that is natural, and green space specifically, has been associated with improved general health and wellbeing [9,10], neurodevelopment and cognitive skills [11][12][13], social, emotional and behavioral development [14][15][16], academic performance [17,18], mental health [19,20], immune system [21,22], motor development [23], physical activity [24][25][26], and decreased risk of being overweight [27,28]. The presence of green space can also serve as a protective buffer against air and noise pollution in school grounds [29,30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Experiencing outdoor space, especially natural space, during childhood and adolescence has beneficial physical and mental health effects, including improved cognitive and motor skills and a lower risk of obesity. Since school-age children typically spend 35–40 hours per week at schools, we quantified their access to open (non-built-up) space and green space at schools in Greater London. We linked land use information from the UK Ordnance Survey with school characteristics from the Department for Education (DfE) for schools in Greater London. We estimated open space by isolating land and water features within school boundaries and, as a subset of open space, green space defined as open space covered by vegetation. We examined the relationship of both school open and green space with distance to Central London, whether the school was fee-paying, and the percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals (as a school-level indicator of socioeconomic status). Almost 400,000 pupils (30% of all pupils in London) attended schools with less than ten square metre per pupil of open space—the minimum recommended area by DfE—and 800,000 pupils attended schools with less than ten square metre per pupil of green space. Of the latter, 70% did not have any public parks in the immediate vicinity of their schools. School green space increased with distance from Central London. There was a weak association between the school-level socioeconomic indicator and the amount of open and green space. Fee-paying schools provided less open space compared to non-fee-paying schools in central parts of London, but the provision became comparable in suburban London. Many London schools do not provide enough open and green space. There is a need to ensure regular contact with green space through safeguarding school grounds from sales, financially supporting disadvantaged schools to increase their outdoor space and providing access to off-site facilities such as sharing outdoor space with other schools.
... 18 While affluent populations have access to the nature found in their own yards and/ or in neighborhood parks nearby, low-income populations are less likely to. 19,20 This stems from a history of deliberate discriminatory policies, such as redlining, that have exacerbated unequal Lesford Duncan. Running joy | COLLAGE BY JÓSE GONZÁLEZ access to nature and increased health disparities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nature is an established social determinant of health with clear benefits to physical, mental, and socialhealth, yet it continues to be used as a setting for violence against Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC). The right to be physically active outdoors, to play, and to gather in community is essential for health and well-being, and as such, the ongoing incidents of violence outdoors have the potential to widen the health disparities gap. While the movement to bring nature and health together has gained traction, this movement cannot succeed unless violence against communities of color outdoors ends. Health professional organizations who have been vocal about the impact of racism on health need to take measures to ensure safe access for all is prioritized and achieved in the outdoors. We offer a set of recommendations for health professionals and health organizations to enact measures that that ensure our work is better justice-aligned in nature.
... Despite this wide range of benefits, there is also evidence that children are spending less time in natural environments than previous generations (Clements, 2004;Karsten, 2005), especially those living in deprived neighborhoods, belonging to low-income households and/or to racial and ethnic minorities (Strife and Downey, 2009;Gidlow and Ellis, 2011). This declining and unequal trend has been explained by different factors. ...
Article
Full-text available
A mounting body of research shows strong positive associations between urban nature and child well-being, including benefits related to mental and physical health. However, there is also evidence that children are spending less time in natural environments than previous generations, especially those living in deprived neighborhoods. To date, most studies analyzing children’s (unequal) exposure or access to urban green and blue spaces focus on residential metrics while a school-based perspective, also an essential part of children’s daily experience, is still understudied. The overall goal of this research is to assess spatially the amount and main components of green infrastructure within and around a sample of primary schools (n = 324) in the city of Barcelona, Spain, and to examine the equity implications of its distributional patterns. A multi-method approach based on GIS, correlation and cluster analyses, and an online survey, is used to identify these patterns of inequity according to three main dimensions: socio-demographic disparities across neighborhoods; school type (public, charter and private); and the frequency of outdoor educational activities organized by schools. Results show that schools located in the wealthiest neighborhoods are generally greener, but inequities are not observed for school surrounding green infrastructure indicators such as access to public green spaces or between public and charter schools. Survey results also indicate that greener schools generally organize more nature-based outdoor activities than those with less exposure to urban nature. In the light of these findings, we contend that multiple indicators of green infrastructure and different dimensions of equity should be considered to improve justice in the implementation of school-based re-naturing and outdoor educational programs.
... Children are an especially vulnerable population due to their higher ventilatory rates, level of activity, and time spent outdoors that increases their exposure to air pollution. Several studies have focused on the impact of environmental hazards on children, with specific additional emphasis on environmental justice [10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
High air pollution levels are associated with school absences. However, low level pollution impacts on individual school absences are under-studied. Understanding the variability of pollution at individual schools within an urban region could improve school recess decisions, better identify local pollution sources, and improve local economic impact assessments by providing granular information relevant to specific schools. We modelled PM2.5 and ozone concentrations at 36 schools from July 2015 to June 2018 using data from a dense, research grade regulatory sensor network. We determined exposures and daily absences at each school. We used a generalized estimating equations model to retrospectively estimate rate ratios for association between outdoor pollutant concentrations and school absences. We estimated lost school revenue, productivity, and family economic burden. PM2.5 and ozone concentrations and absence rates vary across the School District. Pollution exposure was associated with a rate ratio as high as 1.02 absences per μg m⁻³ and 1.01 per ppb increase for PM2.5 and ozone, respectively. Significantly, even PM2.5 and ozone exposure below the air quality index breakpoints for good air quality (<12.1 μg m⁻³ and <55 ppb, respectively) was associated with positive rate ratios of absences: 1.04 per μg m⁻³ and 1.01 per ppb increase, respectively. Granular local measurements enabled demonstration of air pollution impacts that varied between schools and were undetectable with averaged pollution levels. Reducing pollution by 50% would save $426 000 per year districtwide. Pollution reduction benefits would be greatest in schools located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Heterogeneity in exposure, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged schools, points to the need for fine resolution exposure estimation. The economic cost of absences associated with air pollution is substantial even excluding indirect costs such as hospital visits and medication. These findings may help elucidate the differential burden on individual schools and inform local decisions about recess and regulatory considerations for localized pollution sources.
... Doğadan uzaklaşmak çocuklarda birçok psikolojik, duygusal ve sosyal problemlere neden olabilmektedir (Chawla, 2015;Dickinson, 2013). Yapılan çalışmalar doğada gerçekleştirilen etkinliklerin çocuklarda stresi azalttığı, zihinsel ve fiziksel sağlığı desteklediği, bilişsel fonksiyonları geliştirdiği, sosyal becerilerde olumlu gelişmeler sağladığı ve ayrıca motor becerilerin gelişimi ile akademik becerilerdeki gelişimi de desteklediğini ortaya koymaktadır (Becker vd., 2017;Bento & Dias, 2017;Coon vd., 2011;Cooper, 2015;Handler & Epstein, 2010;McCurdy vd., 2010;Smeds vd., 2011;Strife & Downey, 2009). Bu nedenle erken çocukluk yıllarından itibaren doğada yapılacak etkinliklerle çocukların doğa ile iç içe olmasının sağlanmasının önemli olduğu ve bunun için çeşitli faaliyetlerin gerçekleştirilmesine ihtiyaç duyulduğu görülmektedir. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study aims to examine the activities held within the scope of ‘Outdoor Classroom Day’ in 2019 and 2020. The study group of the research consists of a total of 200 activities shared on social media (preschool education institutions and teachers' Instagram accounts) within the scope of ‘Outdoor Classroom Day’. In 2019, ‘Outdoor Classroom Day’ activities were held in open areas, and in 2020, mostly indoors due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The activities were analyzed by categories and subcategories, and also the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on ‘Outdoor Classroom Day’ activities was examined comparatively by years. This study designed in scanning model and the findings were analyzed by content analysis. According to findings, It was found that the activities in 2019 had more variety than the activities in 2020. The three most common activities in both years were art, science and play activities, with the highest number of play activities in 2019 and the most art activities in 2020. In both years, mostly physical skill activities were held. More semi-active activities were held in 2019, and more passive activities in 2020. Most of the activities in 2019 were structured, and the activities in 2020 were mostly unstructured activities. While most of the activities in 2019 were large group activities, and in 2020, all activities were individual activities due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Most of the activities in 2019 had a play feature, while most of the activities in 2020 were not play features. Keywords: Outdoor education, outdoor activities, learning outside the classroom, active learning
... Nature engagement (NE) can positively affect overall well-being by reducing stress and anxiety (Frumkin et al., 2017;Markevych et al., 2017;Bratman et al., 2019;Meredith et al., 2020), improving concentration and recall (Strife and Downey, 2009;Bratman et al., 2015), improving sleep patterns (Grigsby-Toussaint et al., 2015), and improving mood and outlook (Ulrich et al., 1991;Kaplan, 1995;Berman et al., 2008;Roe and Aspinall, 2011;Bratman et al., 2012;Brooks et al., 2017). For the purposes of this study, we define NE as interaction with the natural world and all of its elements (Zuo et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Nature engagement (NE) provides myriad psychological and physiological benefits, many of which begin in childhood and continue into adulthood. Research suggests children who have positive experiences with nature are more likely to continue engaging with nature and have more proenvironmental attitudes (PEAs) as adults. Among the benefits of NE are reduced stress, improved sleep, and improved cognitive performance, all essential criteria for healthy undergraduate life. College students in particular, because of high levels of stress, may benefit from NE, and the frequency and type of their engagement may be impacted by childhood experience. Objective: This study aimed to better understand the potential correlation between university undergraduates' past NE in their middle childhood years (MCYs) and current NE; past NE and undergraduate PEA; and undergraduate NE and stress levels. We chose to examine the middle childhood and undergraduate years because little research has been conducted on the relationship of NE between these two age groups. Methods: We used a survey of undergraduate students (n = 309) enrolled at a US university to explore the frequency and types of NE during MCYs, their family and neighborhood demographics, and current levels of NE, PEA, and stress in their undergraduate lives. Results: Although results indicated a large decrease in NE from middle childhood to undergraduate years for most participants, we found a significant positive correlation between NE during MCYs and undergraduate NE. We found a positive correlation between MCYs NE and undergraduate PEA as well as undergraduate NE and undergraduate PEA. Contrary to other studies and to our hypothesis, we did not find a correlation between undergraduate NE and reduced stress levels. Conclusion: This study looked specifically at US undergraduate students to compare their current engagement with and attitudes toward nature and the environment with their nature experiences during their formative MCYs. Our results suggest that it is important for people to have positive experiences with nature in childhood, both for continued NE and to inculcate PEAs in adulthood. These results can help in formulating approaches to improving student well-being at institutions of higher learning.
... Namun, menanamkan anak-anak dengan pandangan dunia lingkungan dan perasaan keterhubungan dengan alam menantang selama zaman ketika orang semakin terputus dari alam dan semakin menjalani kehidupan dalam ruangan (McCurdy, Winterbottom, Mehta, & Roberts, 2010). Pada saat yang sama, akses ke tempat-tempat alami dan teladan cinta alam tidak universal di semua kelompok orang (Strife & Downey, 2009). ...
... We did find that the association between greenness and the health burden of depressive disorders extended across various age groups and was significant particularly in those aged 5-49 years. Our findings are supported by several studies suggesting that greenness can reduce the risk of mental health burden among children and adults (80)(81)(82)(83)(84)(85)(86)(87)(88)(89)(90), even during pregnancy (91). Contrary to the previous findings on the impact of greenness on the elderly population (13, 92), we did not find significant association effects after age 49 years. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Prior studies have shown that greenness can reduce the burden of depressive disorders. However, most were focused on local-scale analyses while limited evaluated globally. We aimed to investigate the association between greenness and the burden of depressive disorders using data from 183 countries worldwide.Methods We used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate greenness. Country-level disability-adjusted life year (DALY) loss due to depressive disorders was used to represent depressive disorder burdens. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to assess the relationship between greenness and depressive disorders after controlling for covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted to determine the effects of greenness across several socio-demographic levels.ResultsThe findings showed a significant negative association between greenness and the health burden of depressive disorders with a coefficient of −0.196 (95% CI: −0.356, −0.035) in the DALY changes per interquartile unit increment of NDVI. The stratified analyses suggested beneficial effects of greenness on depressive disorders across sex, various age groups especially for those aged <49 years, with low-income and/or those living in highly urbanized countries.Conclusions Our study noted that greenness exposure was significant negative association with the burden of depressive disorders. The findings should be viewed as recommendations for relevant authorities in supporting environmental greenness enhancement to reduce the mental burdens.
... Moreover, the Accessibility-Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) classifies neighbourhood as accessible and remote communities in terms of accessibility to some services centres based on road distances (Department of Health and Aged Care, 2001) that was included in the analyses. Importantly, neighbourhood safety becomes a parental concern for children's outdoor play, which, in turn, can influence the use of green space among children (Sefcik et al., 2019;Strife and Downey, 2009). Therefore, neighbourhood safety was included in this study by asking parents to rate on a Likert-scale statement: "This is a safe neighbourhood." ...
Article
Background: Current evidence from studies on green space and child prosocial behaviour suggests a paucity of studies investigating the plausible role of green space quality in shaping the development of prosocial behaviour. This study aimed to examine longitudinal association between green space quality and prosocial behaviour among children. Methods: We analysed 10-year longitudinal data (2004-2014) from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), a nationally representative cohort study. Prosocial behaviour that covers positive behaviours (e.g. sharing, helping) was measured using a prosocial scale from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Parents' perceptions on the availability of "good" parks, playgrounds, and play space in the neighbourhood assessed green space quality. Multilevel linear regression models were used to examine potential changes in prosocial behaviour across childhood in relation to green space quality. A two-way interaction term between green space and age was fitted to assess potential differences in the effect of green space quality by age. Sensitivity analyses by child's sex and history of residential movement were also performed. Results: From the analysis of 24,418 observations nested in 4969 children, prosocial behaviour was relatively high (mean = 8.13 out of 10; SD = 1.79) and about balanced proportions between girls (48.74%) and boys (51.26%) were included. Prosocial behaviour was higher among children whose parents agreed (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.16) and strongly agreed (β = 0.20; 95%CI = 0.13, 0.27) to having quality green space in their neighbourhood. The benefit of exposure to favourable green space on prosocial behaviour was similar among both children who changed and did not change neighbourhood, but reported higher among boys than girls. Younger compared with older children or adolescents tended to benefit more by the presence of quality green space. Conclusion: Green space quality was positively associated with child prosocial behaviour. Boys and younger children tended to benefit more from quality green space. Future research might seek to identify preferred characteristics of quality green spaces, and to understand how these preferences vary by gender and age, to best support the development of prosocial behaviour across childhood and adolescence.
... The amount, quality and accessibility of urban green/ blue space has been associated with numerous physical and mental health outcomes (Egorov et al. 2016) and evidence suggests that health benefits may be greatest for those in more socio-economically deprived areas (Mitchell and Popham 2008;Wheeler et al. 2012). Access to green/blue spaces is considered to be crucial to childhood development (Strife and Downey 2009) and cultural identity (Tengberg et al. 2012;Vecco 2010) across all social classes (Scopelliti et al. 2016). ...
Chapter
This chapter outlines the lack of examination of practical attempts to implement policy rhetoric into practice. With a focus on the long-term management of urban green space, this chapter discusses the longstanding gap between what we know about green space and what we do in practice. It will look in detail at the citywide green and open space strategy and the green space regeneration funding programme as two mechanisms for implementing rhetoric. These are both commonly used in cities around the world but are rarely evaluated for their effectiveness, often because practitioners simply do not have the time. But the reasons why we don’t evaluate are wider than this, encompassing factors of understanding context, using tacit knowledge and how we deal with the concept of failure. The chapter concludes by discussing the wide range of challenges that are faced when conducting this type of post-occupancy evaluation and considers how academics and practitioners can best address these challenges.
... Children are an especially vulnerable population due to their higher ventilatory rates, level of activity, and time spent outdoors that increases their exposure to air pollution. Several studies have focused on the impact of environmental hazards on children, with specific additional emphasis on environmental justice [10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
High air pollution levels are associated with school absences. However, low level pollution impact on individual school absences are under-studied. Positive local findings could improve school recess decisions, better identify pollution sources and improve local economic effects assessments. We modelled PM2.5 and ozone concentrations at 36 schools from July 2015 to June 2018 using data from a dense, research grade regulatory sensor network. We determined exposures and daily absences at each school. We used generalized estimating equations model to retrospectively estimate rate ratios for association between outdoor pollutant concentrations and school absences. We estimated lost school revenue, productivity, and family economic burden. PM2.5 and ozone concentrations and absence rates vary across the School District. Pollution exposure were associated with as high a rate ratio of 1.02 absences per µg/m 3 and 1.01 per ppb increase for PM2.5 and ozone, respectively. Significantly, even PM2.5 and ozone exposure below regulatory standards (< 12.1 µg/m 3 and < 55 ppb) was associated with positive rate ratios of absences: 1.04 per µg/m 3 and 1.01 per ppb increase, respectively. Granular local measurements enabled demonstration of air pollution impacts that varied between schools undetectable with averaged pollution levels. Reducing pollution by 50% would save $452,000 per year districtwide. Pollution reduction benefits would be greatest in schools located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Exposures to air pollution, even at low levels, are associated with increased school absences. Heterogeneity in exposure, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged schools, points to the need for fine resolution exposure estimation. The economic cost of absences associated with air pollution is substantial even excluding indirect costs such as hospital visits and medication. These findings may help inform 3 decisions about recess during severe pollution events and regulatory considerations for localized pollution sources. Social Media Abstract PM2.5 and ozone exposure are associated with school absences, even at low levels considered safe.
... This is in line with more than thousands of young people, who associated the concept of nature with peace, recreation, forest, beauty, animals and plants [62]. Nature, in general, is often accompanied by beautiful childhood memories [63]. How can we protect the environment when some concepts are missing or misunderstood? ...
Article
Full-text available
The Global Earth Overshoot Day, the date when all annually available natural resources are consumed, is set for July this year. For densely populated European countries like Germany or Switzerland, that specific day is due even earlier (May). To overcome such an unsustainable lifestyle, immediate actions are required, which includes substantial educational efforts. As the model of "Sustainable Development" is complex, appropriate pedagogical actions need to support cognitive learning, critical thinking and behavioural actions. Knowledge about individual conceptions in relation to the Environment, Nature and Ecological Footprints contributes to pre-conditions to succeed. To what extent present teaching methods influenced individual conceptions during the first UN-decade regarding those terms is illustrated by 464 Swiss-German university freshmen who participated in our paper-pencil test, which is based on four open questions. The term of Environment was perceived as the sum of biocentric, ecocentric and anthropocentric views. The participants often equated the term to Nature and associated it with positive feelings or emotions. Therefore, calm, joy and aesthetic appreciation were predominantly named. Regardless of the concept, humans were perceived as the Greatest Environmental Threat. In contrast, recommendations to reduce Environmental Footprints regarding mobility & transport, waste avoidance and consumption differ. Following a binary logistic regression analysis, the involvement of the Inclusion of Self Scale (INS) was used as an explanatory variable to detect patterns of those conceptions. Relating sustainable concepts, natural resources were frequently named exceeding saving water and energy or other association dealt with second-hand issues or regional/ seasonal usages. Such ideas are shaped by experiences and scientific expertise.
... Children from poorer families are less likely to receive adequate stimulation. They are exposed to constant environmental and economic challenges, such as poor sanitation and hygiene, food insecurity, deficient living conditions, poor health and social deprivation [12]. In the long term, these socioeconomic differences negatively impact adult life [8,10,13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A poor start in life shapes children’s development over the life-course. Children from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are exposed to low levels of early stimulation, greater socioeconomic deprivation and persistent environmental and health challenges. Nevertheless, little is known about country-specific factors affecting early childhood development (ECD) in LMICs. Using data from 68 LMICs collected as part of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys between 2010 and 2018, along with other publicly available data sources, we employed a multivariate linear regression analysis at a national level to assess the association between the average Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) in children aged 3–5 and country-level ecological characteristics: early learning and nurturing care and socioeconomic and health indicators. Our results show that upper-middle-income country status, attendance at early childhood education (ECE) programs and the availability of books at home are positively associated with a higher ECDI. Conversely, the prevalence of low birthweight and high under-5 and maternal mortality are negatively associated with ECDI nationally. On average, LMICs with inadequate stimulation at home, higher mortality rates and without mandatory ECE programs are at greater risks of poorer ECDI. Investment in early-year interventions to improve nurturing care and ECD outcomes is essential for achieving Sustainable Development Goals.
... Regardless of the mechanisms underlying the spatial distribution of environmental preferences, there is growing evidence about inter-neighbourhood environmental inequality in the economic literature (Crowder & Downey, 2010;Downey, 2006;Heynen et al., 2006;Strife & Downey, 2009) and the hedonic literature (Bayer et al., 2009;Gamper-Rabindran & Timmins, 2013). Future DCEs using geocoded individual-specific WTP could also contribute to this body of literature. ...
Article
Full-text available
Variations of willingness to pay (WTP) in geographical space have been characterised by the presence of localised patches of higher and lower values. However, to date, spatial valuation studies have not explored whether the distribution of hot (cold) spots of WTP is particular to each environmental good or if it follows similar patterns to other, comparable, environmental goods. We address this question by contrasting the spatial patterns of hot (cold) clusters of WTP for improvements in several ecosystem services. We geocoded individual‐specific WTP estimates derived from a discrete choice experiment exploring preferences for ecosystem service improvements for three different catchment areas in Scotland comprising urban, agricultural, riverine and estuarine ecosystems. The local Moran's I statistic was used to find statistically significant local clusters and identify hot spots and cold spots. Finally, Multi‐type Ripley's K and L functions were used to contrast the spatial patterns of local clusters of WTP among ecosystem services, and across case studies. Our results show that hotspots of WTP for environmental improvements tend to occur close to each other in space, regardless of the ecosystem service or the area under consideration. Our findings suggest that households sort themselves according to their preferences for estuarine ecosystem services.
... One way to overcome this process is the defetishization and demystification of nature, understanding it as an element integrated to social life through history. In addition, it is essential to combat class, age, social and racial discriminatory access to nature in the city [99][100][101]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Through a dialectical approach, building a thesis, an antithesis and a synthesis, our goal in this article is to discuss the implementation of the Parque Augusta, in the center of São Paulo, Brazil. For years, an organized social movement struggled with the municipality and real estate developers for the protection of the park and its green area. The demanded and desired park, collectively designed and managed, physically structured on the principles of the nature-based solutions (NBS), should represent a victory. However, in a capitalist urban space, the future park has already been appropriated in the real estate market to enhance development values and to increase the density of its environs with the construction of new skyscrapers. In a city tagging its climate actions using NBS concepts, the project in implementation by the municipality has fewer NBS elements than the co-designed with citizens participation. Here we present the narratives of the park creation and some indicators about its appropriation, based on land use and real estate market prices. The theoretical critical perspective was fundamental to reveal the contradictions within the park construction, called attention to the consideration of the surrounding area in greening projects and promoted a synthesis towards the universalization of the right to nature in the city.
... Research has also shown that there are marked inequalities in relation to children's engagement with the natural environment (MENE, 2020;Roberts, 2008;Strife & Downey, 2009;Warren, Roberts, Breunig, & Alvarez, 2014). CYP from families on low income, minority ethnic backgrounds, refugee families, and children with disabilities are at particular risk of exclusion from nature-based activity (Her Majesty's Government (HMG), 2011), whether through the lack of availability of nearby nature or through cultural barriers to using it. ...
Article
Full-text available
The UK Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) commissioned research into provision of opportunities that support children and young people’s (CYP) engagement with natural environments outside school time to identify whether CYP from disadvantaged backgrounds access the opportunities available, the challenges to do so, and how provision might be optimised to improve engagement. We used mixed methods, including document review, interviews with national stakeholders, survey of local provision and local case studies with provider interviews and focus groups with CYP. We identified four categories of engagement: outdoor learning; play; improving the natural environment; sports and exercise, and three main provider types: environmental organizations; community groups; and adventure and residential education providers. Using conceptual frames of habitus and ‘nature capital’, we reflect on barriers that currently limit inclusive youth engagement with nature outside schooltime and suggest implications for the design of future opportunities.
... In a summative statement, Susan Strife and Liam Downey, both of the University of Colorado, have concluded that "increasing evidence suggests that access to nature and green space provides children with a myriad cognitive, emotional, and physical benefits" including "reduced stress and aggression levels." 42 Again, we can recognize the beneficial relationship between emotional and cognitive gains in psychological terms and the military goal of winning hearts and minds. Furthermore, just as building a school in a conflict zone implies a better future, tree planting symbolizes hope. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper documents the United States military’s use of landscape as an active warfighting tool during Operation Enduring Freedom. A selection of declassified projects that outline plans for tree plantings, which range in scale and design intensity from individual tree replacement to urban park improvements and large-scale reforestation efforts, demonstrate a consistent weaponization of the physical and mental health benefits that result from exposure to green space. Together, the examples show how landscape design tactics can subdue counterinsurgency by promoting stability through social control and improving the mental health of local civilians. Finally, the paper offers a lens to understand the associations between health and landscape as a matter of military interest and political concern and, ultimately, as subject to control and resistance.
... Four groups of societal barriers are particularly relevant to the context of business-health: individual, technological, socio-cultural, and structural barriers (George et al., 2016). Our review of the literature helps identify (i) individual barriers, such as a lack of education (Tansey & Hyman, 1995) and limited health literacy (Angeli & Jaiswal, 2016); (ii) technological barriers, such as access to clean water and basic sanitation (Pless & Appel, 2012;Shandra et al., 2011) and access to health services (Angeli & Jaiswal, 2016;Radermacher & Brinkmann, 2011;Thorgren & Omorede, 2018;Van Cranenburgh & Arenas, 2014); (iii) socio-cultural barriers, including class-and race-based inequalities (Gautier & Bricher, 1991;Strife & Downey, 2009;Tempels et al., 2020); and (iv) structural barriers including poverty (Beets, 2019;French, 2010) and weak state capacity (Jorgenson, 2009;Leisinger, 2009;Shandra et al., 2011;Van Cranenburgh & Arenas, 2014). It is worth noting that several studies treat poverty as a manifest structural barrier that hampers the access of the poor to essential healthcare services or medications (Angeli & Jaiswal, 2016;Gewertz & Amado, 2004;Leisinger, 2005Leisinger, , 2009Radermacher & Brinkmann, 2011;Thorgren & Omorede, 2018;Vakili & McGahan, 2016;Werhane & Gorman, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Considering the urgency of addressing grand challenges that affect human health and achieving the ambitious health targets set by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the role of business in improving health has become critical. Yet our systematic review of the business-health literature reveals that business research focuses primarily on occupational health and safety, healthcare organizations, and health regulations. To embrace the health externalities generated by business activities, we propose that future research should investigate the conditions under which business (i) articulates and participates in health challenges, (ii) engages in multilevel actions towards tackling health challenges, and (iii) improves health outcomes and its impact on the health of external stakeholders including customers and local communities. We also urge business scholars to engage with the public health research community to increase impact.
... Jacobs, 1961). For Jacobs, one of the main characteristics of a thriving urban centre is that people feel safe and secure in public spaces, despite being (Strife & Downey, 2009). The quality of urban life has limited children from freely playing outdoors or exploring nature, compared to older generations, and some designers are incorporating play potential in ordinary mundane spaces as shown in Figure 3 or encourage quiet play in a quaint neighborhood as illustrated by Figure 4. ...
... Biological and social environmental factors influence the development and life expectancy of the average human being [1,2]. The current investigations are centered on the impact of different environmental exposures at different stages of life, including those involved in aging and the manifestation of age-related diseases [3][4][5][6][7]. In this sense, studies have identified a crosslink between early-life adverse conditions and the reduction of life expectancy and "healthspan" [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Adverse conditions in early life, including environmental, biological and social influences, are risk factors for ill-health during aging and the onset of age-related disorders. In this context, the recent field of social epigenetics offers a valuable method for establishing the relationships among them However, current clinical studies on environmental changes and lifespan disorders are limited. In this sense, the Tlaltizapan (Mexico) cohort, who 52 years ago was exposed to infant malnutrition, low income and poor hygiene conditions, represents a vital source for exploring such factors. Therefore, in the present study, 52 years later, we aimed to explore differences in clinical/biochemical/anthropometric and epigenetic (DNA methylation) variables between individuals from such a cohort, in comparison with an urban-raised sample. Interestingly, only cholesterol levels showed significant differences between the cohorts. On the other hand, individuals from the Tlaltizapan cohort with more years of schooling had a lower epigenetic age in the Horvath (p-value = 0.0225) and PhenoAge (p-value = 0.0353) clocks, compared to those with lower-level schooling. Our analysis indicates 12 differentially methylated sites associated with the PI3-Akt signaling pathway and galactose metabolism in individuals with different durations of schooling. In conclusion, our results suggest that longer durations of schooling could promote DNA methylation changes that may reduce epigenetic age; nevertheless, further studies are needed.
... Built environments that provide access to nature and green space can have a significant impact on children's lifelong development (Strife & Downey, 2009). Such access provides children with various cognitive, emotional, and physical benefits, including (but not limited to): better educational attainment; reduced stress and aggression; and lower risk of obesity (Kellert, 2002;Louv, 2007). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This research analysis is a key component of the Tasmanian Core Story of Early Childhood Project. The project aims to increase understanding of the importance of the early years in Tasmania through consistent messaging that engages and promotes action for the time from conception until 4 years of age (B4). The project involves developing an evidence-based core story of early childhood development for the B4 Early Years Coalition (B4 Coalition), a series of plain language, accessible and inspirational key messages, and recommended communication products and channels suitable for parents, families and communities. This analysis of key research on the importance and lifelong benefits of the early years provides the rationale and evidence base for the B4 Core Story.
... Four groups of societal barriers are particularly relevant to the context of business-health: individual, technological, sociocultural, and structural barriers (George et al., 2016). Our review of the literature helps identify (a) individual barriers, such as a lack of education (Tansey & Hyman, 1995) and limited health literacy (Angeli & Jaiswal, 2016); (b) technological barriers, such as access to clean water and basic sanitation (Pless & Appel, 2012;Shandra et al., 2011) and access to health services (Angeli & Jaiswal, 2016;Radermacher & Brinkmann, 2011;Thorgren & Omorede, 2018;Van Cranenburgh & Arenas, 2014); (c) sociocultural barriers, including class-and race-based inequalities (Gautier & Bricher, 1991;Strife & Downey, 2009;Tempels et al., 2020); and (d) structural barriers, including poverty (Beets, 2019;French, 2010) and weak state capacity (Jorgenson, 2009;Leisinger, 2009;Shandra et al., 2011;Van Cranenburgh & Arenas, 2014). It is worth noting that several studies treat poverty as a manifest structural barrier that hampers the access of the poor to essential health care services or medications (Angeli & Jaiswal, 2016;Gewertz & Amado, 2004;Leisinger, 2005Leisinger, , 2009Radermacher & Brinkmann, 2011;Thorgren & Omorede, 2018;Vakili & McGahan, 2016;Werhane & Gorman, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Business and human health are intrinsically connected. From occupational health and healthcare policy to the health of consumers and the surrounding communities, business can only thrive if their stakeholders enjoy good health and well-being. Yet our literature review of the business-health crossroads reveals that scholars have mainly paid attention to internal stakeholders, such as employees, and healthcare policies as they directly affect business, while overlooking the impact of business on the health of external stakeholders such as consumers and communities. Considering the urgency required to improve health globally and the ambitious health targets set by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), we propose an overdue research agenda for the post-pandemic era. We recommend moving from a mere liability approach to a social connection approach of health responsibility that acknowledges human health as a grand challenge. This paradigm change recognizes business as a key actor to achieve the SDG health targets.
... This is in line with more than thousands of young people, who associated the concept of nature with peace, recreation, forest, beauty, animals and plants [62]. Nature, in general, is often accompanied by beautiful childhood memories [63]. How can we protect the environment when some concepts are missing or misunderstood? ...
Article
Full-text available
The Global Earth Overshoot Day, the date when all annually available natural resources are consumed, is set for July this year. For densely populated European countries like Germany or Switzerland, that specific day is due even earlier (May). To overcome such an unsustainable lifestyle, immediate actions are required, which includes substantial educational efforts. As the model of "Sustainable Development" is complex, appropriate pedagogical actions need to support cognitive learning, critical thinking and behavioural actions. Knowledge about individual conceptions in relation to the Environment, Nature and Ecological Footprints contributes to pre-conditions to succeed. To what extent present teaching methods influenced individual conceptions during the first UN-decade regarding those terms is illustrated by 464 Swiss-German university freshmen who participated in our paper-pencil test, which is based on four open questions. The term of Environment was perceived as the sum of biocentric, ecocentric and anthropocentric views. The participants often equated the term to Nature and associated it with positive feelings or emotions. Therefore, calm, joy and aesthetic appreciation were predominantly named. Regardless of the concept, humans were perceived as the Greatest Environmental Threat. In contrast, recommendations to reduce Environmental Footprints regarding mobility & transport, waste avoidance and consumption differ. Following a binary logistic regression analysis, the involvement of the Inclusion of Self Scale (INS) was used as an explanatory variable to detect patterns of those conceptions. Relating sustainable concepts, natural resources were frequently named exceeding saving water and energy or other association dealt with second-hand issues or regional/ seasonal usages. Such ideas are shaped by experiences and scientific expertise.
Book
Full-text available
It is clear that our health is also determined by our environment. This book discloses current knowledge (2020) of the main benefits of green spaces on human health. It also includes some unique initiatives that explore the binomial green and health. Finally, proposes strategies and tools to increase the "dose of nature" in health systems. A publication of DKV Seguros (Spanish health insurer) with the ISGlobal scientific review.
Article
Full-text available
Depuis plusieurs années déjà, les chercheurs s’intéressent aux bienfaits de la nature et du plein air. Ainsi, plusieurs bienfaits associés à l’activité physique en nature et au jeu dehors sont bien connus et documentés. Cet article souhaite dresser un portrait de ce que nous savons actuellement sur le sujet mais aussi de dégager quelques pistes de réflexions pour l’avenir. Pour ce faire, nous avons effectué une revue de la littérature afin de recenser les bénéfices que l’environnement naturel peut apporter aux jeunes entre autres sur les plans physique, psychologique, social et cognitif.
Article
The marine environment provides a wealth of goods and services from which people obtain value, but how young people interact with the marine environment and enjoy its services is an understudied area. This paper examines the extent to which young people (11–16 year olds) in Scotland benefit from marine ecosystem services in the form of seafood consumption and marine recreational activities. It uses data from the annual Young People in Scotland Survey 2016 and analyses inequality using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD). Results show that regular access to seafood provisioning services from the marine environment is low with only 37% of the young people having consumed seafood in the last week, and 9.3% having never tried any type of seafood. Whitefish was the most consumed species by 68% of pupils followed by salmon by 61%. Analysis of the distribution of seafood consumption by the SIMD, shows significant levels of inequalities, with young people from more deprived areas less likely to consume a range of seafood compared to those from the less deprived areas. Access to the marine environment for recreational activities is relatively high for those activities covered by the survey - 76% of the young people reported having walked or run on the beach, followed by swimming in the sea at 68%. Analysis of the distribution of coastal and marine activities by the SIMD, found no sign of inequalities for five of the seven activities. Gender difference in young people access to seafood were significant, with young females much less likely to consume, or want to try seafood compared to young males. This was not the case however for marine recreational activity. In conclusion this study provides evidence of inequalities in young people's experience of seafood provisioning but not in recreational opportunities from the marine environment. What that means for their attitudes towards the marine environment are discussed, and a number of questions are posed for further research into young people's perceptions, motivations and aspirations around these behaviours. Disclaimer All views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not reflect Government policy.
Despite the urgency of the climate crisis and mounting evidence linking climate change to child health harms, pediatricians do not routinely engage with climate change in the office. Each primary care visit offers opportunities to screen for and support children burdened with risks to health that are increasingly intense due to climate change. Routine promotion of healthy behaviors also aligns with some needed—and powerful—solutions to the climate crisis. For some patients, including those engaged in athletics, those with asthma and allergies, or those with complex healthcare needs, preparedness for environmental risks and disasters worsened by climate change is a critical component of disease prevention and management. For all patients, anticipatory guidance topics that are already mainstays of pediatric best practices are related closely to needed guidance to keep children safe and promote health in the setting of compounding risks due to climate change. By considering climate change in routine care, pediatricians will be updating practice to align with evidence-based literature and better serving patients. This article provides a framework for pediatricians to provide climate-informed primary care during the structure of pediatric well child and other visits.
Article
Spending time in nature during childhood can improve mental and physical health, support academic success, and cultivate pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. Increasing outdoor time during school can enhance the likelihood of those outcomes for all students. However, in practice incorporating outdoor time into the school day can be challenging. This study reports on barriers identified during the development phase of an action research project that aimed to increase outdoor time as a regular, repeated part of the elementary school day. Teachers (n = 22) and administrators (n = 3) in one school district in the Northeastern United States were asked to describe the barriers that limited their opportunities to take students outside. Data indicated 33 discrete barriers and 5 themes that cut across the barriers. Interactions and overlap across barriers increased the challenges encountered by teachers. A systems thinking approach is suggested to increase outdoor time in schools. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Chapter
What role might the natural environment play in resilience? Remarkably, there has been little connection between the nature-health research and resilience research and theory. In this chapter, I first suggest that nature ought to figure more centrally within human resilience literature and frameworks. This chapter aims to bridge the divide between literatures by considering the evidence that nature may be a resilience factor that can moderate the impact of risk or adversity on health and functioning. Second, I argue that due to a preoccupation with the direct effects of nature on health, the role of the natural environment as a moderator of the relation between risk factors or adversity and health outcomes is under-appreciated and under-explored. Acting as a moderator or buffer, nearby nature or green space may have the potential to attenuate the relation between risk and health, to dampen negative health outcomes among vulnerable populations and ultimately, thereby, to reduce health disparities. Four outcomes are examined: mental health, physical health, birth weight, and academic achievement. For each of these outcomes, I consider: the impact of risk and adversity, including poverty; evidence of nature’s moderating effect; and plausible explanatory pathways (i.e., mediated moderation), with a focus on executive functioning and social connection. I then briefly consider access to nature as an environmental justice issue. Is it the case that while nature may have the potential to mitigate health disparities, those most in need have the least access? I close with implications for future research.
Chapter
Researchers have extensively explored the quality and type of experiences preschoolers have in different types of out-of-home care. However, the experiences of preschoolers who are not enrolled in any type of out-of-home care but instead are cared for by their parents remain under-researched. In fact, although there is scarce literature on time-use, that is on the number of hours mothers and/or fathers may spend with their children, we know little about if this time is quality time and how it is spent. At the same time, the limited research on stay-at-home-moms (SAHMs) suggests that their experiences are also absent from the literature. Drawing on this ignorance of experiences of children and their SAHMs, who come from diverse value contexts, the present study aims at filling research gaps and at questioning dominant discourses about early childhood, parenting and parent support provision by presenting the lived experiences of this frequently underrepresented group. Specifically, by presenting the effects of a self-developed community of learners outdoors, which consisted of a group of four SAHMs who visited almost daily, for almost a year, one particular playground with their toddlers, the study highlights the need to re-conceptualize early childhood, parenting (time use) and parenting support. The results not only highlight the effects of this outdoor play experience on children and their mothers but also move away the deficit model that is frequently adopted to parenting and parenting support provision policy and practice and highlights parents’ role as advocates for their children’s well-being at the present. In addition, the study reveals that childhood is taking place during everyday relations and exchanges in the natural and social environment, rather than it is protected in a separate space which is isolated from the ecosystem that surrounds children.
Article
The term ‘built environment’ garnered a lot of attention in the last few decades for making the link between community design and health impacts. It also highlighted how access to green spaces, which has been correlated with positive public health outcomes, is disproportionately unavailable to Latinx communities. With the renaissance of the term Nature Deficit Disorder (NDD), it is fitting to examine the literature through a term that aims at identifying the etiology of this multi-faceted environmental justice issue. We conducted a review of the literature associated with NDD along with surrogate terms to understand the scope of its usage and applicability, as well as to examine NDD through an equity lens. We performed two searches, one focused on NDD and one on green spaces in Latinx communities to identify the research that has investigated green spaces through an equity perspective. We found that there is a dearth of primary research on the topic. This was best illustrated by the difficulty in finding articles on PubMed that explicitly mention NDD in Latinx communities. A strong body of research exists that indicates adequate access to greenspace is associated with many health benefits. However, future research efforts should focus on evaluating the health implications of NDD on Latinx communities so that this public health issue can be addressed head-on.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Çocukların yaşadığı sorunlar, toplumsal sistemin eşitsiz ilişkilerinden bağımsız olarak ortaya çıkmaz. Tarım ya da sanayi sektöründe çalışmak, sokakta çalışmak veya sağlık hizmetine yetersiz erişim toplumun bütün kesimlerinin çocuklarının sorunu değildir. Bir yandan "çocuk merkezli" aile modelleri yaygınlaşırken öte yandan da çocuk emeği sömürüsünün yaygınlaşması bireysel tercihlerle ya da yalnızca kültürle açıklanamaz. Toplumun çocuklarının eşitsiz koşullarda yaşamaları ve büyümeleri ailelerinin "sınıf konumunu" paylaşmaları nedeniyledir. Bu nedenle, çocukluk deneyimini ve çocuklukla ilgili sorunları toplumsal sistemin ve yaşamın bütününden ayırmak olanaklı değildir. Dolayısıyla çocuklara ilişkin sorunlar politiktir ve politik bağlamından koparılarak sadece "işin uzmanlarına" (öğretmenler, doktorlar, psikologlar, yargıçlar, polisler vb.) havale edilerek çözülemez. Sorunun kaynağında toplumsal eşitsizlikler vardır ve eşitsizlik üreten sisteme dokunmadan çözüm üretmenin yolu yoktur.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Predmet ovog istraživanja su standardna situacijska obilježja košarkaša sudionika na Olimpijskim igrama 2012. godine u Londonu. Na osnovu datog predmeta definirali smo i cilj ovog istraživanja, a to je utvrditi povezanost situacione efikasnosti u košarci sa ostvarenim plasmanom reprezentacija koje su učestvovale na olimpijskom košarkaškom turniru u Londonu 2012. godine. Uzorak varijabli u ovom istraživanju obuhvata jedanaest varijabli za procjenu situacione efikasnosti u košarci koje je utvrdila Svjetska košarkaška federacija (FIBA). Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata došli smo do zaključaka da reprezentacije učesnice koje imaju bolji procenat šuta za dva poena, više ostvarenih skokova u fazi odbrane, asistencija, napravljenih ličnih grešaka i osvojenih lopti u toku olimpijskog košarkaškog turnira imaju bolji ostvareni plasman.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Naučno istraživanje u ovom slučaju, uočava se iz definisanog tematskog pristupa koji naglašava potrebu za istraživanjem putem koncipiranog programa rada, sa pretpostavkomda je moguće u određenom vremenskom intervalu realizacijom sadržaja košarke,uticati na usavršavanje ne samo tehničkih elemenata, motoričke i situaciono-motoričkesposobnosti, već i na transformaciju i oblikovanje morfološkog statusa košarkaša studenata i učenika srednjih i osnovnih škola. Cilj ovog istraživanja, bio je da se utvrde kvalitativne i kvantitativne promjene morfološkog statusa studenata fakulteta sporta, pod uticajen dodatnog programa nastave košarke kao izbornog predmeta. Dobijeni su značajni pokazatelji transformacije morfološkog statusaistraživanog uzorka studenata, kao i značajne informacije, koje će u velikoj mjeri unaprijediti nastavni plan i program košarke na fakultetu, a samim tim pozitivno uticati na podizanje kvaliteta nastave na univerzitetu.
Chapter
This chapter argues that community volunteering initiatives in support of wetland environments within the UK generate landscape-specific forms of environmental citizenship. Utilising empirical fieldwork undertaken within two co-associated wetland nature reserves in central London prior to its opening, and within local waterscapes in three interconnected rural villages, this chapter suggests that emergent modes of citizen agency are primarily enacted through the performativity of volunteering. Members of the local community effectively curate new civic identities for themselves in response to each site. These emergent environmental citizenships are stimulated by different forces. In the urban setting the local authority has invested heavily financially to address issues of social equity and access to nature in a relatively deprived and densely populated area. Participation in the wealthier rural area has been prompted by withdrawal of local government funding in response to ‘geographies of austerity’ where citizens are burdened with tasks such as flood and land management. In both spaces the demarcation between those who manage, those who operationalise activities and those who use these sites becomes blurred. Care must be taken to promote community collaboration in support of freshwater environmental integrity without these communities bearing the disbenefits of these new modes of governmentality.
Article
We use novel information about fixture-specific water lead levels (WLLs) in Portland, Oregon schools to explore inequalities in students’ potential for exposure to lead in drinking water at school. We find that Black and Hispanic students were in classrooms with higher WLLs than white students primarily because they attended different schools. The elevated exposure of students with non-English first languages was also largely driven by sorting into different schools, although there were marginally significant differences between students within the same school. Our findings underscore the importance of broadly targeted remediation efforts like those implemented in Portland to address environmental injustices.
Article
Full-text available
Las dinámicas socioeconómicas y de mercado han llevado a muchas ciudades a extenderse, y a las personas a adquirir una vivienda en la periferia, donde los costos son más asequibles, pero con el inconveniente de que las condiciones del entorno urbano son en su mayoría deficientes incluida la dotación de sus áreas verdes. Para el presente trabajo se seleccionaron los tres asentamientos que concentran la mayor densidad de población infantil (0-14 años) de la Zona Metropolitana de Monterrey. Se obtuvo la superficie de área verde de cada zona habitacional y, se determinaron los metros cuadrados de Espacio Público Efectivo, así como la proximidad a la vivienda en un radio de 400 metros. Entre las conclusiones se estableció que estos asentamientos se ubican en la periferia del área urbana y que la cantidad de metros cuadrados de área verde por habitante es menor con respecto al promedio metropolitano.
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that the formation of neighborhood social ties (NSTs) may substantially depend on the informal social contact which occurs in neighborhood common spaces, and that in inner‐city neighborhoods where common spaces are often barren no‐man's lands, the presence of trees and grass supports common space use and informal social contact among neighbors. We found that for 145 urban public housing residents randomly assigned to 18 architecturally identical buildings, levels of vegetation in common spaces predict both use of common spaces and NSTs; further, use of common spaces mediated the relationship between vegetation and NSTS. In addition, vegetation and NSTs were significantly related to residents' senses of safety and adjustment. These findings suggest that the use and characteristics of common spaces may play a vital role in the natural growth of community, and that improving common spaces may be an especially productive focus for community organizing efforts in inner‐city neighborhoods.
Article
Full-text available
Interpreters at urban nature centers were asked to recall and list fears expressed by students on field trips to wildland areas. Forty-eight interpreters recalled 564 examples of fearful reactions. Responses were interpreted based on the literature on fear. Fears of snakes, insects, nonindigenous animals, and plants were most frequently cited. Enlightening was the high frequency of “fear of getting lost” and the emotion of disgust expressed in relation to natural objects. Results suggest the need to address not only students' fears but also their feelings of disgust. Anxiety reactions from students suggest that interpretive programs for some students may be corrective instead of formative.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines connections between childhood involvement with the natural environment and adult environmentalism from a life course perspective. Approximately 2,000 adults age 18-90 living in urban areas throughout the United States were interviewed with respect to their childhood nature experiences and their current, adult attitudes and behaviors relating to the environment. Model testing and cross-validation procedures using structural equation modeling suggest that childhood participation with nature may set an individual on a trajectory toward adult environmentalism. Specifically, childhood participation in "wild" nature such as hiking or playing in the woods, camping, and hunting or fishing, as well as participation with "domesticated" nature such as picking flowers or produce, planting trees or seeds, and caring for plants in childhood have a positive relationship to adult environmental attitudes. "Wild nature" participation is also positively associated with environmental behaviors while "domesticated nature" experiences are marginally related to environmental behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
Almost 150 years ago, nineteenth century psychologist Herbert Spencer published his book, Principals of Psychology, in which he espoused the "surplus energy theory," explaining that the main reason for children's play is to get rid of surplus energy. Although researchers and developmental theorists have rejected his theory, it has had an unfortunate and lasting influence on the design of children's outdoor play environments (Malone 2003). As a result of Spencer's theory, playgrounds are seen as areas for physical play during recess, where children 'burn off steam,' and not for the other domains of development or for learning. In child care settings, playgrounds typically have manufactured climbing equipment, and other than sometimes- manicured grass, are void of nature and vegetation. The playgrounds for multitudes of children are not green, but gray (Moore & Wong 1997), many analogous to a parking lot (Worth 2003). Early childhood learning facility designers' and directors' point-of-view that playgrounds should be designed for surveillance of children, ease of maintenance and to have a break from children, rather than stimulate the children themselves, has also contributed to the barren design of outdoor childcare environments where there is neither shade, shelter nor opportunities to interact with nature (McKendrick, Bradford & Fielder 2000, Cheskey 2001, Malone 2003). Playground design also reflects a lack of understanding of how quality outdoor play environments can provide children rich educational opportunities, particularly in the area of social skills and environmental learning (Evan 1997). Roger Hart, a noted developmental psychologist, attributes much of the problem to an underestimation of the importance of play to children; that it is considered discretionary rather than essential to child development, and that this misguided concept of play has trickled down into the play areas we create for children, resulting in lackluster environments with little value (Shell 1994).
Article
Full-text available
In this study we investigate the spatial relationship between Superfund sites and the racial, ethnic, and economic characteristics of the areas surrounding those sites in the state of Florida. Unlike many previous environmental justice studies, we examine census tracts rather than larger aggregates such as counties or zip codes. We also look at the problem of environmental injustice longitudinally by analyzing Census data from 1970, 1980, and 1990. Such an analysis not only allows us to detect potential environmental inequality, but also to postulate on the nature and origins of this injustice. Overall, our findings indicate that Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to live near Superfund hazardous waste sites, but income and poverty indicators do not predict the location of sites. The spatial association between race, ethnicity, and Superfund sites is increasing over time, leading us to conclude that the likely cause of much of the recent environmental injustice uncovered in our results stems from indirect, rather than direct, forms of discrimination.
Article
Full-text available
Coalitions between labor unions and environmental organizations often dissolve in class tensions that appear to force unions to choose between job security and occupational or environmental health. This article examines a successful blue-green coalition that worked to substitute cleaning products used in Boston public schools with safer alternatives. The coalition succeeded in part through the role of bridge builders, who unified a diverse group of stakeholders, including community and environmental health advocates, labor activists and labor unionists, and school administrators, to discuss their individual and common interests in eliminating toxic chemicals from the school environment. This article also explores the framing strategies used by the coalition partners, especially the logic of the precautionary principle in bridging the concerns of the environmental activists with the safety and health concerns of the union. This case raises questions of how coalition strategies and tactics may bear on the success of blue-green coalitions.
Article
Full-text available
Two studies with adolescent youth (N = 1,376, N = 450) help clarify the relationship between childhood play experiences in wild environments and later environmental preferences in the life domains of work, leisure, and school. Respondents reporting having played in wild environments had more positive perceptions of natural environments, outdoor recreation activities, and future indoor/outdoor occupational environments. No significant differences were found for preferences for environmental sciences activities conducted in schools. Results suggest that childhood play in wildland environments is related to environmental competencies and preferences but not necessarily an intellectual interest in environmental sciences or environmentalism.
Article
Full-text available
Attention Restoration Theory suggests that contact with nature supports attentional functioning, and a number of studies have found contact with everyday nature to be related to attention in adults. Is contact with everyday nature also related to the attentional functioning of children? This question was addressed through a study focusing on children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). This study examined the relationship between children’s nature exposure through leisure activities and their attentional functioning using both within and between-subjects comparisons. Parents were surveyed regarding their child’s attentional functioning after activities in several settings. Results indicate that children function better than usual after activities in green settings and that the “greener” a child’s play area, the less severe his or her attention deficit symptoms. Thus, contact with nature may support attentional functioning in a population of children who desperately need attentional support.
Article
Full-text available
Although vegetation has been positively linked to fear of crime and crime in a number of settings, recent findings in urban residential areas have hinted at a possible negative relationship: Residents living in "greener" surroundings report lower levels of fear, fewer incivilities, and less aggressive and violent behavior. This study used police crime reports to examine the relationship between vegetation and crime in an inner-city neighborhood. Crime rates for 98 apartment buildings with varying levels of nearby vegetation were compared. Results indicate that although residents were randomly assigned to different levels of nearby vegetation, the greener a building's surroundings were, the fewer crimes reported. Furthermore, this pattern held for both property crimes and violent crimes. The relationship of vegetation to crime held after the number of apartments per building, building height, vacancy rate, and number of occupied units per building were accounted for.
Article
Full-text available
This study examines how the availability of nature influences the use of outdoor public spaces in two Chicago public housing developments. Ninety-six observations were collected of the presence and location of trees and the presence and location of youth and adults in semiprivate spaces at one high-rise and one low-rise public housing development. Results consistentiy indicated that natural landscaping encourages greater use of outdoor areas by residents. Spaces with trees attracted larger groups of people, as well as more mixed groups of youth and adults, than did spaces devoid of nature. In addition, more dense groupings of trees and trees that are located close to public housing buildings attracted larger groups of people. These findings suggest that natural elements such as trees promote increased opportunities for social interactions, monitorng of outdoor areas, and supervision of children in impovershed urban neighborhoods.
Article
Full-text available
Children growing up in the inner city are at risk for a range of negative developmental outcomes. Do barren, inner-city neighborhood spaces compromise the everyday activities and experiences necessary for healthy development? Sixty-four urban public housing outdoor spaces (27 low vegetation, 37 high vegetation) were observed on four separate occasions. Overall, inner-city children's everyday activities and access to adults appeared remarkably healthy; of the 262 children observed, most (73%) were involved in some type of play, and most groups of children (87%) were supervised to some degree. In relatively barren spaces, however, the picture was considerably less optimistic: Levels of play and access to adults were approximately half as much as those found in spaces with more trees and grass, and the incidence of creative play was significantly lower in barren spaces than in relatively green spaces.
Article
Full-text available
How would inner-city residents respond to the incorporation of trees and grass in their neighborhoods? Law enforcement officials have argued that, in these settings, trees and other forms of vegetation increase fear. Tree density, tree placement, and levels of grass maintenance were manipulated in photo simulations of neighborhood outdoor space. One hundred residents of Chicago's Robert Taylor Homes living adjacent to the space rated the images with respect to preference and sense of safety. Although tree placement (subspaces created by trees, formality of arrangement) had little effect on sense of safety and no effect on preference, both tree density and grass maintenance had strong effects on preference and sense of safety (&eegr;2s from .49 to .89). Surprisingly, tree density and grass maintenance increased both preference and sense of safety. Results suggest that-contrary to some views-trees and grass maintenance can increase sense of safety in inner-city neighborhoods.
Article
Full-text available
Structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 30 environmentalists in Kentucky and 26 in Norway (35 men, 21 women) who represented a broad range of issues, from wilderness protection to urban planning, to determine the sources of their environmental commitment. Experiences of natural areas, family influences, organizations, negative experiences, and education were mentioned most often. People were also asked about the period in life when significant experiences occurred, and on this basis, a typical life path of predominant sources of commitment at different ages was constructed. Respondents also recommended strategies for effective environmental action.
Article
Full-text available
Identifying mechanisms that buffer children from life's stress and adversity is an important empirical and practical concern. This study focuses on nature as a buffer of life stress among rural children. To examine whether vegetation near the residential environment might buffer or moderate the impact of stressful life events on children's psychological well-being, data were collected from 337 rural children in Grades 3 through 5 (mean age=9.2 years). Dependent variables include a standard parent-reported measure of children's psychological distress and children's own ratings of global self-worth. In a rural setting, levels of nearby nature moderate the impact of stressful life events on the psychological well-being of children. Specifically, the impact of life stress was lower among children with high levels of nearby nature than among those with little nearby nature. Implications of these finding are discussed with respect to our understanding of resilience and protective mechanisms.
Article
Full-text available
Geographic information systems increasingly have been applied in the domain of environmental risk assessment. One area of research that appears to have excellent potential is in GIS as applied to the assessment of environmental equity. This paper reviews the methodologies used in recent GIS-based environmental equity studies and their results. From this review, a framework for a more comprehensive discussion of methodological issues and challenges is provided, addressing questions of data and measurement, scale and resolution, and methods of analysis. A preliminary environmental equity analysis for the Twin Cities metropolitan region illustrates the complexity of the relationship between the methodological approaches used and the resulting assessments of environmental equity and risk. This analysis is based on multiple sources of hazardous materials, uses fine-resolution census data including site-specific institutions, includes more sophisticated measures of risk than the location of hazardous sites, and investigates the potential of a neighborhood-scale analysis.
Article
Full-text available
S. Kaplan suggested that one outcome of mental fatigue may be an increased propensity for outbursts of anger and even violence. If so, contact with nature, which appears to mitigate mental fatigue, may reduce aggression and violence. This study investigated that possibility in a setting and population with relatively high rates of aggression: inner-city urban public housing residents. Levels of aggression were compared for 145 urban public housing residents randomly assigned to buildings with varying levels of nearby nature (trees and grass). Attentional functioning was assessed as an index of mental fatigue. Residents living in relatively barren buildings reported more aggression and violence than did their counterparts in greener buildings. Moreover, levels of mental fatigue were higher in barren buildings, and aggression accompanied mental fatigue. Tests for the proposed mechanism and for alternative mechanisms indicated that the relationship between nearby nature and aggression was fully mediated through attentional functioning.
Article
We know that children need nature … or do we? There are certainly many reasons to think that nature plays an important role in child development. For many of us, intuition emphatically asserts that nature is good for children. We hold intuitions such as, ‘every kid needs a dog’, ‘children need a nice yard to play in’, and ‘children need “fresh air”’. Beyond these intuitions, there are also well-reasoned theoretical arguments as to why humans in general – and therefore children – might have an inborn need for contact with nature (e.g., S. Kaplan, 1995; Wilson, 1984). And there is a growing body of qualitative research consistent with this idea (Bardill, 1997; Hart, 1979; R. Moore, 1989; R. C. Moore, 1986; Nabhan, 1994; Sebba, 1991; Sobel, 1993; Titman, 1994). But what do we really know about the value of nature in promoting child development? What systematic evidence is there for or against this possibility? Is children's need for nature established fact, yet-to-be-substantiated folk theory, or simply myth? The question of nature's role in healthy child development is increasingly urgent. A consistent concern among the researchers studying children and nature is that children's access to nature is rapidly diminishing (e.g., Kahn, 2002; Kellert, 2002; Pyle, 2002; Rivkin, 2000). Not only may there be less nature for children to access, but children's access of what remains may be increasingly sporadic.
Article
To study the morbidity of radical hysterectomy during pregnancy, the charts of all 10 women undergoing radical hysterectomy during pregnancy from September 1, 1991, through April 30, 1995, were reviewed. These were cohort matched from a group of 212 nonpregnant (NP) radical hysterectomy patients (1978-1991), yielding 45 women matched by age, weight, height, and tumor size. All patients underwent Wertheim type III radical hysterectomy with pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. Three radical hysterectomies were done in the first trimester, 6 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Time from diagnosis to treatment of the pregnant women (P) ranged from 1 to 29 (mean 12) days. The mean estimated blood loss (P, 1055 ml; NP, 858 ml) and operative time (p, 241 min; NP, 234 min) for the two groups were similar. There was no difference in the overall transfusion rate. The overall complication rate was significantly greater in the pregnant group (9 of 10 vs. 10 of 45, p = 0.00007). Two pregnant (nerve injury and cystotomy) and no nonpregnant women experienced intraoperative complications. Pregnant women had a significantly higher incidence of postoperative infection (7 of 10 vs. 9 of 45, p = 0.004). Radical hysterectomy in pregnant women is comparable to that in nonpregnant women in terms of operative time, estimated blood loss, and transfusion rate. The incidence and type of intraoperative complications require further study. There appears to be an increase in postoperative infections.
Article
The authors examined environmental attitudes among foreign-born Latino Americans and differences in these attitudes associated with acculturation. Data were collected from Spanish-speaking students (N = 153) enrolled in 3 levels of English as a second language (ESL) courses and from English-speaking students (N = 39) enrolled in a Spanish as a second language course. Measures included the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale, a 4-item acculturation scale, ESL course level, and demographics. Acculturation was negatively related to scores on the NEP scale, and Spanish-speaking students in lower level ESL courses scored higher on the NEP than students in higher level courses. These effects remained significant even when income and education were used as covariates. These findings suggest that culture is an important determinant of environmental attitudes.
Article
This article examines media characterizations of childhood lead poisoning as a window to the framing of an environmental health problem. The authors sampled newspaper coverage of childhood lead poisoning between 1991 and 1995 and used the data to describe how childhood lead poisoning is framed as a public health issue in news media, to explain how the framing has changed over time, and to discuss what is at stake in the contest to define childhood lead poisoning as a widespread public health problem. The analysis pays particular attention to the role of the environmental justice movement in this process. The authors show why an environmental injustice frame (some children are more at risk for lead poisoning than others), which is increasingly available in the culture, is unlikely to displace the dominant "silent epidemic" frame (all children are at risk) used in media coverage of childhood lead poisoning in the United States.
Article
The authors sought to identify barriers to participation for Latino people at Dodge Nature Center (DNC) in West St. Paul, MN. The authors used a multi-method approach, which included collecting demographic information, surveying the DNC staff, and interviewing Latino community leaders and parents. Results showed that unfamiliarity with DNC, cultural differences, potential for discrimination, and economic factors were major barriers identified by Latino community leaders and parents. Recommendations made to the DNC Board of Directors included increasing outreach to Latino people in the community, offering programs in Spanish, and providing financial assistance for low-income families.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to examine changes between 1981 and 1997 in how a representative sample of American children spends their time on a weekly basis, focusing on overall differences in time use. We also examine how the time of specific children varies depending on the age and gender of the child, presence of and employment status of parents, the number of children in the family, and the level of parental education. Data come from the Time Use Longitudinal Panel Study, 1975–1981 and the 1997 Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Results show a pattern of increased time in structured activities such as school, day care, sports, and art activities, and reduced time in unstructured play, television viewing, visiting, and passive leisure. While a few of these changes are related to increased maternal employment, most tend to be related to demographic characteristics such as increased education and reduced family size.
Article
Past research on “environmental justice” has often failed to systematically link hazard proximity with quantifiable health risks. The authors employ recent advances in air emissions inventories and modeling techniques to consider a broad range of outdoor air toxics in Southern California and to calculate the potential lifetime cancer risks associated with these pollutants. They find that such risks are attributable mostly to transportation and small-area sources and not the usually targeted large-facility pollution emissions. Multivariate regression suggests that race plays an explanatory role in risk distribution even after controlling for other economic, land-use, and population factors. This pattern suggests the need for innovative emissions reduction efforts as well as specific strategies to alter the spatial and racial character of the environmental “riskscape” in urban centers.
Article
The research presented here directly engages the issues of environmental inequality by testing the empirical merits of two sociological explanations of urban inequality by comparing landfill and Superfund locations in postindustrial (1970 to 1990) Detroit, Michigan. The results indicate that economic deprivation supercedes race in predicting the location of both landfill and Superfund sites; furthermore, both landfill and Superfund sites tend to be located in census tracts located near to industrial districts contiguous to navigable waterways in Detroit. Using Geographic Information Systems and logistic regression, the results indicate that the probability of living near a landfill is highest among the economically deprived and those least able to "escape" the urban center of Detroit. Substantively, the findings suggest that the process of deindustrialization is decisive in understanding environmental inequality, whereas methodologically, the results underscore the subtle nuances posed by different types of environmental threats.
Article
Different environmental educational programmes (field trips, hiking, camps, adventure activities) are, through personal experiences, aimed to develop pupils’ affective relationship to the natural environment, their environmental sensitivity and outdoor behaviour, as well as their social relationships. The present study discusses the results of experiences from outdoor activities involving 11-12-year-old pupils in Rovaniemi and Vaasa. The qualitative research methods comprise case studies involving questionnaires, individual interviews, drawings, photographs of landscapes, and participant observations during camps. Nature experiences developed the pupils’ self-confidence and feelings of safety in particular, which in turn increased their willingness to participate in future outdoor activities. In this way nature began to get new meanings for them on a personal level. Comparing pupils who were experienced in outdoor activities to pupils who were not, it was found that the former seemed to have a strong and clearly definable empathic relationship to nature. They also exhibited better social behaviour and higher moral judgements. Reasons for conflicts between environmental attitudes and action, still observable in some experienced boys of the Vaasa group, are discussed in terms of conscious versus unconscious action and applied knowledge. The role and possibilities of outdoor education in environmental education and natural studies are emphasised in schools as well as teacher education.
Article
Beginning with the study of significant life experiences initiated by Tanner, this article reviews a growing body of related research in the form of surveys, interviews, and questionnaires that explore people's accounts of the sources of their environmental interest, concern, and action. The questions, methods, and results of studies in this field are closely compared. In conclusion, the article notes that the experiences that people describe can be understood as exchanges between the ‘outer environment’ of the physical and social world and the ‘inner environment’ of people's own interests, aptitudes, and temperament, and that more attention needs to be paid to the influence of this ‘inner environment’ of individual differences.