Keratoconjunctivitis sicca of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infected individuals is associated with high levels of HTLV-1 proviral load

Instituto Brasileiro de Oftalmologia e Prevenção da Cegueira (IBOPC), Salvador, BA, Brazil.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology (Impact Factor: 3.02). 08/2011; 52(3):177-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2011.07.016
Source: PubMed


A high HTLV-1 proviral load is found in HTLV-1-associated diseases, mainly HAM/TSP. However, the association between proviral load and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) has not been well established.
To verify the association between KCS and HTLV-1 proviral load.
104 HTLV-1 infected patients (51 asymptomatic and 52 with HAM/TSP) from the HTLV reference center in Salvador, Brazil were followed from June 2008 to May 2010. Evaluation of tear secretion was performed by BUT (break-up time), Rose Bengal and Schirmer I tests. The diagnosis of KCS was based upon the presence of symptoms and when at least two of three tests were positive. HTLV-1 proviral load was determined using real-time PCR.
The prevalence of KCS was 44.2%. KCS was more frequent among HAM/TSP patients (p = 0.022). Patients with KCS had higher proviral load (mean 134,672 ± 150,393copies/10(6) PBMC) than patients without the disease (mean 66,880 ± 109,525copies/10(6) PBMC) (p = 0.001). HTLV-1 proviral load>100,000copies/10(6) PBMC increased significantly the risk of developing KCS (OR = 4.05 and 95% CI = 1.40-11.76). After age>45 years and HAM/TSP status were excluded in stepway reward analysis, the variables PVL>100,000 (OR = 4.77 and 95% CI = 1.83-12.44) still remained statistically significant.
HTLV-1 proviral loads are higher in patients with KCS and may represent a relevant biological marker of disease.

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Available from: Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi, Dec 19, 2014
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    • "In the last few years, numerous studies have demonstrated a clear association between high PVL and development of HAM/TSP and of other inflammatory conditions such as infective dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Patients with these conditions have a PVL consistently higher than asymptomatic carriers [22, 24, 30]. Recently, our group suggested a cutoff of 5% infected cells as best the value to differentiate HAM/TSP patients from asymptomatic individuals. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: High HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) is mainly found in infected individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However one third of asymptomatic carriers may have high PVL. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of PVL in the activation of T lymphocytes of asymptomatic individuals infected with HTLV-1. Methods: Membrane activation markers (CD25+, CD28+, CD45RO+, CD69+, CD62L+, HLA-DR+), FoxP3+ and intracellular IFN-γ expression were evaluated on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes from asymptomatic carriers with PVL ≥ and < 1% of infected cells, using flow cytometry. HTLV-1 proviral load was determined using real-time PCR. Results: Asymptomatic carriers with PVL ≥ 1% presented a higher frequency of CD4+CD25+CD45RO+ (13.2% vs. 4%, p = 0.02), CD4+HLA-DR+ (18% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.01) and CD4+IFN-γ+ (4.5%; 1%, p = 0.01) T-cells, than healthy donors. HTLV-1 PVL was directly correlated with the proportion of CD4+CD25+CD45RO+ T-cells (R = 0.7, p = 0.003). Moreover, a significant increase in the proportion of CD4 + FoxP3+ T-cells was observed in HTLV-1-infected individuals, compared to healthy donors. Conclusion: HTLV-1 PVL is associated with activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in asymptomatic individuals. Prospective studies should be conducted to evaluate whether asymptomatic individuals with higher PVL and high immune activation are more prone to developing HTLV-1-associated diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "All other DNA samples were from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. HTLV-1-associated inflammatory conditions, such as infective dermatitis [12] or keratoconjunctivitis sicca [13], display significantly higher levels of proviral load compared to asymptomatic carriers. "

    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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    ABSTRACT: A previous study found the prevalence of depression in HTLV-1-infected patients to be approximately 30%, but few studies have attempted to correlate depression with quality of life (QOL) in these patients. The present study investigates the association between depression and QOL in people living with HTLV-1. A clinical-epidemiological questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the WHOQOL-Bref were applied to 88 HTLV-1-infected patients (32 with TSP/HAM) at the HTLV Center of the Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Brazil. The prevalence of depression among people living with HTLV-1 was 34.1%. Depression was significantly associated with a poor QOL in the physical, psychological, social relationship and environment domains, when controlling for other variables, such as gender, age, time of knowledge of serological diagnosis and presence of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). Moreover, patients with TSP/HAM experienced a reduction in their QOL in the physical, psychological and environment domains. Our results showed that depression negatively affects the quality of life of people living with HTLV-1, regardless of the presence of TSP/HAM. Since it is possible to improve a patient's QOL by treating depression, psychological evaluations are strongly recommended as a measure to integrate the treatment protocols of HTLV-1 intervention programs.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Quality of Life Research
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