Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

ArticleinEnvironmental Research 111(8):1243-8 · August 2011with5 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2011.08.008 · Source: PubMed
Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity.
    • "Perhaps remarkably, hair manganese levels are linked to conduct disorder in infants who were exposed to drinking water containing the element. Manganese effect on behavioral disorders may function through changing levels of dopamine and serotonin (Haynes et al., 2011). As it is mentioned before, serotonin's levels in brain are associated with aggressive and antisocial behaviors. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commitment of crime and exhibition of antisocial behavior have been considered as negative acts from early times of human civilization. Recent scientific advances have identified contributions of biological and sociological (environmental factors) factors in forming a maladaptive behavior. Generally, it is accepted by many scholars that punishing a wrongdoer, who has committed a crime owing to genetic predispositions and environmental elements, is not effective and forms of treatments should be replaced to avoid repeating a crime. Moreover, by identifying genetic deficiencies in an individual, an antisocial behavior could be potentially predicted and prevented before it comes to pass. On a whole, genetic and environmental factors, sometimes solely and some other times collaboratively, lead a person to act against society norms. In summary, this body of literature offers examples that explain factors which contribute to committing crimes and approaches which inhibit antisocial behavior. With regard to these aims, we suggest that punishment of criminals who are predisposed genetically in the same manner as other delinquencies is not justifiable and a reduction of punishment should be applied to such individuals. Moreover, by eliminating each of negative elements which contribute to antisocial behavior or crime, we can be more certain that the offender will not repeat antisocial acts after being released.
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    • "Although the direct and indirect influences of air pollution on several developmental outcomes are not fully understood, psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and allied mental health and pediatric professionals have a critical role to play in identifying the potential associations between exposure and behavioral issues. There are several emerging trends of evidence suggesting that air pollution may be associated with an array of atypical neurocognitive and behavioral changes in children and teens which are of legitimate public health concern and call for prediction and prevention of early environmental health risk factors (Borges et al., 2011; Haynes et al., 2011; Liu, 2011; Liu and Lewis, 2014). An intriguing association has been identified recently between autism spectrum disorder including attention deficit hyperactive disorders (ADHD) and particle air pollution (Larsson et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2010; Siddique et al., 2011; Becerra et al., 2013; Volk et al., 2013). "
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