International Forum for the Advancement of Diabetes Research and Care, April 29–30, 2011, Athens, Greece

Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics (Impact Factor: 2.11). 09/2011; 13(9):967-79. DOI: 10.1089/dia.2011.0179
Source: PubMed


The International Forum for the Advancement of Diabetes Research and Care brought together distinguished international experts in diabetes to discuss diverse trends and emerging issues in diabetes therapy and management. The plenary sessions on the first day focused on trends in insulin therapy, the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in diabetes treatment, the relationship between diabetes and cardiovascular risk, and the challenges associated with the development of clinically relevant treatment guidelines. Interactive breakout sessions addressed the following topics: microvascular complications of diabetes; the need for a team approach to patient education; optimal management of Asian people with diabetes; the role of continuous glucose monitoring in assessing glucose variability; and lessons learned from biosimilar drugs. The plenary sessions on the second day covered self-monitoring of blood glucose, treatment and prevention of type 1 diabetes, and future directions for diabetes therapy. The meeting represented an excellent forum for the presentation of new research and the exchange of ideas aimed at improving outcomes for people with diabetes.

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    ABSTRACT: Efforts to mimic euglycemia depend upon targets from epidemiologic studies that rely on episodic measurements reduced to statistical summaries, leaving open the question, "What is normal glycemia?" We postulated that portrayal of euglycemia was possible through application of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and a novel analytical tool, the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP). Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and with diabetes used CGM for 30 days. AGP analysis, which graphs CGM data by time without regard to date, was used to characterize glucose exposure, variability, and stability. Sixty-two subjects completed the study, employing CGM for 28 +/- 4 days averaging 99 +/- 18 (range, 33-125) readings per day. NGT subjects (n = 32) had a mean CGM of 102 +/- 7 mg/dL, ranging between 94 and 117 mg/dL and averaging 105 +/- 8 mg/dL daytime and 97 +/- 6 mg/dL overnight. Glucose variability, as expressed by the interquartile range, was 21 +/- 4 mg/dL (range, 14-29 mg/dL). Stability in glycemic control (hourly change in the median) for NGT subjects averaged 3 +/- 1 mg/dL/h. Subjects with diabetes (n = 30) were significantly higher on all glycemic characteristics with the exception of the percentage of hypoglycemic (CGM <70 mg/dL) episodes for type 2 diabetes (2.9%), compared to 2.7% for subjects with NGT. CGM technologies enabled collection of verified data under normal living conditions, providing an exceptional vantage point from which to obtain important clinical information. This will facilitate an understanding of the range of euglycemic patterns, provide a sensitive means of detecting impaired glucose tolerance, and help set realistic treatment goals for individuals with diabetes.
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    ABSTRACT: There is a growing debate in the literature on whether glucose variability contributes, as well as high HbA1c levels and longstanding diabetes, to the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetes types 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2). Few data, obtained only by self-monitoring of blood glucose, support this hypothesis. We used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to investigate the association between DR and glucose variability parameters (SD, CONGA 2, MAGE), acute hyperglycemia (HBGI) and chronic exposure to glucose (AG and AUC tot). We studied 68 patients from 19 to 69 years old, 35 with DM1 and 33 with DM2. The prevalence of retinopathy was 43 % in DM 1 patients and 39 % in DM 2 patients. The values of all indicators were obtained by CGM for 72 h. DR was diagnosed on direct or indirect ophthalmoscopic examination, after inducing mydriasis with tropicamide. HbA1c was measured at the baseline and 6 weeks after CGM to test the stability of the patients' glycemic control. Univariate analysis showed a close association between DR and duration of diabetes (OR 1.11; 1.04-1.19), intensive insulin therapy (OR 5.6, CI 1.14-27.30), SD (OR 1.03; CI 1.01-1.06) and CONGA 2 (OR 1.02; CI 1.00-1.04)-both indicators of variability and HBGI (OR 1.1, CI 1.01-1.18)-a parameter reflecting acute hyperglycemia. There was no significant correlation with HbA1c (p = 0.070). Multivariate regression analysis showed that disease duration is the parameter most significantly correlating with DR (OR 1.05; 1.01-1.15). These results reinforce the evidence that longstanding disease is the factor most closely associated with DR. Our data also suggest, however, that glucose variability-regardless of HbA1c-may also have a role as a risk factor for DR, particularly in the case of acute fluctuations (as represented by CONGA 2 and SD) and acute hyperglycemia (as represented by HBGI).
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